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Langford’s Advanced Photography 7th Edition

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Published by igodigital, 2017-05-06 23:09:16

Langford’s Advanced Photography 7th Edition

Langford’s Advanced Photography 7th Edition

Keywords: langford,advanced,photography

Langford’s
Advanced
Photography

Seventh Edition

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Langford’s
Advanced
Photography

Seventh Edition

Michael Langford FBIPP, HonFRPS

Royal College of Art, London

Efthimia Bilissi MSc PhD AIS ARPS

Senior Lecturer
University of Westminster, London

Contributors
Elizabeth Allen BSc MSc

Course Leader BSc (Hons) Photography and Digital Imaging
University of Westminster, London

Andy Golding

Head of Department of Photography and Film
University of Westminster, London

Hani Muammar BSc MSc PhD MIET

Senior Scientist
Kodak European Research

Sophie Triantaphillidou BSc PhD ASIS FRPS

Leader Imaging Technology Research Group
University of Westminster, London

AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD
PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO

Focal Press is an imprint of Elsevier

Focal Press is an imprint of Elsevier
Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK
30 Corporate drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA

First published 1969
Second edition 1972
Third edition 1974
Fourth edition 1980
Fifth edition 1989
Reprinted 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995
Sixth edition 1998
Reprinted 1999, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006
Seventh edition 2008

Copyright © 2008, Pamela Langford, Dr. Efthimia Bilissi.
Contributors: Elizabeth Allen, Dr. Sophie Triantiphilidou, Andy Golding and Dr. Hani Muammar.
Published by Elsevier Ltd. All right reserved

The right of Dr. Efthimia Bilissi, Michael Langford, Elizabeth Allen, Dr. Sophie
Triantiphilidou, Andy Golding and Dr. Hani Muammar to be identified as the authors
of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted
in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher

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email: [email protected] Alternatively you can submit your request online by
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Notice
No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or
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operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein.
Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Langford, Michael John, 1933–

Langford’s advanced photography. – 7th ed.
1. Photography
I. Title II. Bilissi, Efthimia III. Langford, Michael John,
1933–. A dvanced photography
771

Library of Congress Number: 2007938571

ISBN: 978-0-240-52038-4

For information on all Focal Press publications
visit our website at www.focalpress.com

Typeset by Charon Tec Ltd (A Macmillan Company), Chennai, India
www.charontec.com

Printed and bound in Slovenia
08 09 10 11 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contents

Picture credits xiii
Introduction xv

1 Amateur and professional photography 1

Differences in approach 1
How photographs are read 3
Markets for professional photography 5
Roles within a photographic business 11
Turning professional 13
Summary 14

2 Camera equipment 15

Camera design 15
Image format 16
Specialized accessories 24
Which one is best? 26
Avoiding camera failures 26
The digital revolution 28
Digital camera equipment 35
Comparing digital and silver halide camera equipment 38
Summary 39
Projects 41

3 Choosing lenses 42

The lens designer’s problems 42
Checking lens image quality 47
Understanding modulation transfer function 48
Buying lenses 55
Special lens types 56
Influences on image sharpness 63
Using lenses created for 35 mm systems on DSLRs 64
Summary 65
Projects 67

v

CONTENTS 68

4 Colour in photography 68
69
Light and colour 71
The human visual system 72
Light sources and their characteristics 74
Colour temperature 77
Standard illuminants 80
Classification of colour 83
How we see colour 84
Summary
Projects 85

5 Films – types and technical data 85
87
Film design 90
Choosing films 94
Understanding technical descriptions 95
Film MTF 98
Characteristic curves 99
Spectral sensitivity 101
Reciprocity failure 102
Product coding 106
Special materials 107
Summary
Projects 108

6 Image sensors 108
118
An introduction to image sensors 120
Alternative sensor technologies 126
Image artefacts associated with sensors 128
Summary
Projects

vi

7 Lighting control CONTENTS

Size of light sources 129
Direction and angle of light
Distribution of light 129
Contrast and exposure 132
Colour and colour temperature 133
Practical control of colour 134
Guidelines for lighting 137
Lighting equipment 139
Lighting principles in practice 140
Summary 142
Projects 144
154
8 Tone control 155

Practical influences 156
Tone control theory
Precision measurement of exposure 156
The zone system 159
Putting the zone system to work 163
Limitations to the zone system 165
Tone changes after film processing 171
Controls during enlarging 173
Summary 174
Projects 176
177
178

vii

CONTENTS

9 Subjects 180

Sport and action 181
Photo-journalism/documentary 183
Portraiture 184
Weddings 186
Landscapes 188
Architecture 190
Built studio sets 193
Studio still-lifes 194
Natural history 196
Aerial subjects 198
Night skies 201
Summary 203
Projects 205

10 Digital imaging systems 206

The computer workstation 206
Inputs 208
Types of scanners 209
Scanner characteristics 212
Setting up the scanner 214
Image outputting – Displays 217
Characteristics of display systems 219
Image outputting – Digital printers 222
Printer characteristics 225
Summary 227
Projects 228

viii

CONTENTS

11 Digital image manipulation 229

What is workflow? 229
General considerations in determining workflow 229
Capture workflow 233
Digital image files 237
Choosing file format 240
Image compression 241
Properties of common image file formats 246
Image processing 247
Image processing workflow 249
Digital colour 256
Summary 264
Projects 266

12 Film processing management and colour printing 267

The processes themselves 267
Points to watch 272
Equipment 275
Making a choice 279
Process control 280
Silver recovery 284
Colour printing equipment 285
Print materials 288
Negative/positive colour printing 289
Positive/positive colour printing 292
Shading and printing-in 293
Making a ring-around 293
Additional points to watch 295
Colour/exposure analysing aids 296
Other colour lab procedures 298
Summary 299
Projects 301

ix

CONTENTS 302

13 Extending photography 302
311
Photographing the invisible 315
Underwater photography 319
Panoramic photography 323
Stereo photography 326
‘Hand-made’ image processes 327
Summary
Projects 328

14 Reproduction and archiving 328
333
Reproduction of the printed page 335
Supplying photographs for reproduction 336
Picture libraries 339
Images on the World Wide Web 340
Multimedia 346
Permanence, storage and archiving 347
Summary
Projects 348

15 Business practice 348
349
Starting out 350
Working as an assistant 353
Becoming a photographer 353
Running a business 356
Book-keeping 358
Charging for jobs 364
Commissioned work 365
Copyright 369
Marketing your business
Summary

x

Appendices CONTENTS

Appendix A: Optical calculations 370
Appendix B: Gamma and average gradient 370
Appendix C: Chemical formulae: Health and safety 372
Appendix D: Lighting and safety 372
Appendix E: Batteries 377
Appendix F: Colour conversion filter chart 377
Appendix G: Ring around chart 378
379
Glossary
Index 380
407

xi

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Picture credits

Cover photograph: Bernardo Medina [foureyes] [email protected]
Picture research: Efthimia Bilissi and Leah Bartczak

Figure 1.2 Bert Hardy/Hulton Getty Picture Library. 1.3 Dr Jeremy Burgess/Science Photo Library.
1.4, 1.7, 1.8, 2.27, 5.3, 5.7, 5.30, 7.4, 8.10, 8.13, 8.14, 8.16, 8.18, 12.30, 13.19, 14.5, 14.7, 14.8 Michael
Langford. 1.5 John Downing/Daily Express. 1.6 Annie Morris, London. 2.1 (a) Photo courtesy of
iStockphoto, KjellBrynildsen, image# 3070189, (b) Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, LongHa2006,
image, image# 2157020, (c) Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, ZoneCreative, image# 3568468, (d)
Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, hartcreations, image# 1873049, (e) Photo courtesy of iStockphoto,
fabphoto, image# 2958829. 2.4 Canon (UK) Ltd. 2.15, 11.2, 11.5, 11.12, 11.14, 11.16, 11.25 Elizabeth
Allen 2.17 (a) Phase One Inc. (b) Better Light Inc. 3.14 Carl Zeiss, West Germany. 3.18 Rodenstock.
3.21 The terms and definitions taken from ISO 12233:2000 Photography – Electronic still-picture
cameras – Resolution measurements, Figure 1, are reproduced with permission of the International
Organisation for Standardization, ISO. This standard can be obtained from any ISO member and
from the Web site of ISO Central Secretariat at the following address: www.iso.org. Copyright
remains with ISO. 3.26 From: http://www.flickr.com/photos/robsinclair/515407474/ Image by
Rob Sinclair, made available under the terms of the Creative Commons, Attribution 2.0 license.
3.27 Ilkay Mehmet/Daily Telegraph. 3.28 From: http://www.flickr.com/photos/geishaboy500/
469965020/ Image by Thor, made available under the terms of the Creative Commons, Attribution
2.0 license. 4.2 (image of spectrum) The Colour Group (GB) 4.12 Gossen Foto-und Lichtmesstechnik
GmbH. 4.17 (a) and (b) The Colour Group (Great Britain). 5.2 Kodak Ltd. 5.8 Dick Swayne,
Godalming. 5.10 Sophie Triantaphillidou. 5.11 (top left and right) Reprinted with permission from
Eastman Kodak Company, (bottom left and right) Reprinted with permission from Fujifilm UK Ltd.
5.14 (a) and (b) Reprinted with permission from Ilford Photo/Harman technology Limited, (c) and (d)
Reprinted with permission from Eastman Kodak Company. 5.15 Reprinted with permission from
Fujifilm UK Ltd. 5.20, 5.26, 6.7 Reprinted with permission from Eastman Kodak Company.
6.10, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17 Hani Muammar. 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.5, 7.7, 7.19, 7.21 Andy Golding. 7.8 Photo
courtesy of iStockphoto, jimbycat, image# 3628315. 8.11, 12.24 (photograph), 12.26 Andrew
Schonfelder. 9.1 Patrick Eagar, London. 9.2 Monique Cabral, London.9.3 Sue Packer, Tintern,
Gwent. 9.4 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, LyleGregg, image# 3322295. 9.5 Photo courtesy of
iStockphoto, Xaviarnau, image# 3938699. 9.6 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, antb, image# 2438549.
9.7 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, alaincouillaud, image# 3240665. 9.8 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto,
compassandcamera, image# 2336293. 9.10 Philip Fraser-Betts, Centremark Design and Photography,
Chelmsford. 9.11 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, PaulTessier, image# 3438963. 9.12 Photo courtesy of
iStockphoto, rpbirdman, image# 3725313. 9.15 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, texasmary, image#
4310461. 9.17 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, freezingtime, image# 2043824. 9.18 Photo courtesy of
iStockphoto, kickstand, image# 93704. 10.5 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, Hofpils, image# 1889049.

xiii

PICTURE CREDITS

10.8 Efthimia Bilissi. 10.9 Photo in the diagram courtesy of iStockphoto, eyedias, image# 290020.
10.13 ColorVision by Datacolor AG. 10.15 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, gmnicholas, image#
2206249. 10.17 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, BirdofPrey, image# 1412955. 11.7 (a) Photo courtesy
of iStockphoto, Casarsa, image# 1057009, (b) Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, duncan1890, image#
1881060, (c) Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, naphtalina, image# 2145930, (d) Photo courtesy of
iStockphoto, Ladida, image# 2748092, (e) Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, philipdyer, image#
3254640, (f) Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, BirdofPrey, image# 981783. Photo courtesy of iStockphoto,
cworthy, image# 3201816, 11.9 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, photomorphic, image# 2694933.
11.10 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, shoobydoooo, image# 2467700. 11.17 Photo courtesy of
iStockphoto, photomorphic, image# 2663993. 11.23 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, ferrantraite,
image# 2601236. 12.25 Tim Stephens/Faber and Faber. 12.27 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, wolv,
image# 133276. 13.1 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, Saturated, image# 379721. Fig 13.5 Photo
courtesy of iStockphoto, Skyak, image# 3532524. 13.6 (a) Schneider Kreuznach (b) Image from
“Sam's Laser FAQ”, © Samuel M. Goldwasser, www.repairfaq.org. 13.7 Bjørn Rørslett / NN / Samfoto.
13.9 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, rsallen, image# 1301295 13.10 Chris Smith/Sunday Times.
13.11 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, Tammy616, image# 4371980. 13.14 Ken MacLennan-Brown.
13.15 Muna Muammar 13.16 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, kickstand, image# 139527. 13.18
Roundshot/Seitz Phototechnik AG. 13.20 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, kickstand, image#
93626. 13.22 Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, timstarkey, image# 3790960. 13.24 Ledametrix.com.
13.26 Aran Kessler. 13.30, 13.31 Alastair Laidlaw and Christine Marsden. 14.11 Ulrike Leyens 15.1,
15.7 James Boardman Press Photography (www.boardmanpix.com). 15.2, 15.3 © Association of
Photographers. Forms reproduced courtesy of the AOP (UK), from Beyond the Lens, 3rd edition,
www.the-aop.org). 15.4, 15.6 Ulrike Leyens (www.leyens.com) 15.5 Ulrike Leyens (www.leyens.com)
and Andre Pinkowski (www.onimage.co.uk). Chapter 5 title image: Photo courtesy of iStockphoto,
April 30, image# 709674. Chapter 7 title image: Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, rion819, image#
185287. Chapter 15 title image: Photo courtesy of iStockphoto, kwanisik, image# 4271172.

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