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Published by aliffaiman97, 2019-12-04 13:21:52

IMR652 - BusinessRecord

Dean’s Message

The Faculty of Information Management has been preparing stu-
dents for exciting and challenging careers in the fields of informa-
tion and library since the mid of 1960s. Our faculty is a vibrant
and friendly home of faculty members and students who promote
all aspects of information management in support of communities,
individuals, governments and the private sector. We produce infor-
mation professionals who have specific knowledge on information
literacy, information handling, resource and information manage-
ment and able to use ICT as a tool to manage information. Specific
skills that we offer to students are managing library, records and
resource center, as well as developing applications and web con-
tents. Students from this faculty will be equipped to work in the
library and resource center environment, and in any organizations
in the need for information and knowledge workers. Many of our
alumni now occupy senior positions in business, government and
academia. We invite you to explore the Faculty website to find out
more about our teaching and research activities and events open to
both students and public throughout the year. Please do not hesitate
to contact us if you would like more information.

Thank you.

Prof. Dr. Sohaimi Zakaria
Dean, Faculty of Information Management



To be a world class center of excellence for education and research in

the fields of Information Management, Knowledge Management,
Library Management and Record Management.


Provide education for information professionals to enable a well-

balanced, knowledgeable, competitive, and ethical workforce for the
development of Malaysia as a knowledge society.

Provide continuous education program at various levels to fulfill the

needs of working information personnel to enhance knowledge, skill

and competency in line with the national policy on capacity building
and lifelong learning.

Provide leadership in consultancy and research for individuals and
organizations interested in research and development in the areas en-

compassing information, knowledge, library, archive & record man-



The faculty believes in educating information professionals, enabling
them to become the catalyst for the knowledge-based society,

transforming Malaysia into a developed country.



To fulfill the manpower needs for professionally qualified

information personnel for the development of the nation to-

wards vision 2020.

To provide academic and professional programs of high

quality, innovative and up-to-date.

To provide quality teaching with the support of practical

training, research, publishing, and consultancy work.

To increase the quality, effectiveness and the variety of train-

ing programs in line with industry needs and technological


To produce graduates capable of playing a key role in the

promotion of reading habits and information-rich society.



The ever growing nature of ITM in the past, i.e. expanding existing programmes and introducing
new ones to fulfill the national development agenda, has been affecting the physical set-up and
the branding of many schools in the ITM system. As part of the ITM population, the School of Li-
brary Science, as this faculty was known before, was no different. During its formative years, the
School of Library Science conducted a full time program to prepare post-high school students
for the professional qualification - Associate of Library Science (ALA-UK). The school later de-
signed its own Malaysian curriculum, launched in 1972 - Diploma in Library Science for holders
of Higher School Certificates, and Postgraduate Diploma in Library Science for university grad-
uates. In keeping up with national and international developments, the School has been conduct-
ing regular curriculum reviews resulting in the integration of information science components
into the curriculum. Hence, the change of the school name to "School of Library and Information
Science" in 1979. With the addition of Archival and Records Management under the big um-
brella of ”Information", the school name was changed again to "Faculty of Information Studies"
in 1997. The current name, "Faculty of Information Management" has been in use since 2005 as
a result of UiTM's regrouping of various academic programmes and disciplines campus-wide.

The Faculty of Information Management has moved premise seven times over a period of
36 years of its existence. The longest that the Faculty had stayed in one premise was about
fourteen years, in the Jalan Othman Campus. At the Shah Alam main campus during 1996
– 2003, the faculty operated from two premises, the Menara SAAS and the new UMNO
building in section 11, Shah Alam. The shortest period of stay was just nine months at the
Academic 3 Complex from October 2003 to May 2004, before the move to Puncak Per-
dana Campus in June 2004. Throughout these seven major physical relocations, the School
had always maintained the necessary teaching and learning facilities which are unique to li-
brary and information science education, namely, Cataloging and Classification Lab, Audio
Visual Lab, Archival and Preservation Lab, Computer Lab, in addition to classrooms, semi-
nar rooms, administrative office, faculty and staff workplace. At the present Puncak Perdana
campus, the faculty has become the pioneer for UiTM once more in establishing the mod-
ern and conductive facilities for teaching, learning and research in the four main fields of
study. The branch library for Puncak Perdana Campus serves not only the students and staff
in the Faculty of Information Management but also those of the Faculty of Performing Arts.

Bachelor of Information Science (Hons)

Information Systems Management - IM245

This programme recognises information as a strategic resourse. It is de-
signed to educate and train students with knowledge and skills in managing in-
formation. It involves analysing, designing, developing, and managing various
types of information systems for identifying, acquiring, organizing, storing, and
retrieving as well as disseminating information for users' strategic and competitive purposes.












Review by :
Nurul Wahida Ahmad


Nowadays, organizations are increasingly un- The author also mentioned about the study that
der increased pressure to achieve cohesive record had been presented developed out of their interest
management practices on three fronts which is the in studying these graduates and integrating their
issuing of regulations such as the US Presidential feedback into curricular decision-making.
Directive on the Management of Government Re-
cords, which required federal agencies to have "in- Their survey research is the product of a larger
formation management training for suitable staff project to study the changing nature of the work of
in place" by the end of 2014 (US National Archives, information professionals financed by the Institute
2012b), the launch of the Open Data Project and of Museums and Library Services Laura Bush 21st
related efforts in the private sector are compelling Century Library Programme. The project focuses
organizations to broaden public access to records. on the study of data work, including technology,
organizations and the development of knowledge
Eventually, companies of all sizes must formulate in the workplace. The survey design course offered
solutions to handling the increasing volume of to doctoral students in information applied this
physical and digital documents generated in the focus to the study of information workers, such as
course of business. Record managers are no longer record managers, data analysts and social media
on the periphery of companies as a mere "adminis- workers. The author concentrate on the informa-
trative necessity," but are now at the core of an en- tion from record managers in this article and they
terprise far larger than ever before, with the power did not collect the geographical location of the re-
and ability to control the overall activities and stra- spondents, but the survey was conducted from the
tegic planning of the organization (Lamont, 2014). USA.

In this article, the author state that they have
planned a study to gather feedback directly from
the record managers at work. Their research leads
to the analysis of the most valuable roles and com-
petencies in record management work and issues
to be addressed in graduate record management



The author mentioned in this article that they used which is survey
development, sample development and survey administration.

Survey Development

To answer the research questions, the author developed and adminis-
tered a survey in the spring of 2014. The survey questions were based
on two sources of information on the work of record managers and on
education. First, is a study of the relevant literature resulted in the dis-
covery of a number of topics, including the use of digital record tech-
nologies, skills and procedures of record managers and the professional
development of record managers. Next, they used data from on - the-
job observation and semi-structured interviews with record managers;
data were collected as part of a related research study conducted in the
spring of 2013.

The author examined qualitative data to help them refine the themes of
literature or to present additional themes not included in the literature.
The survey instrument was developed iteratively, including numerous
peer reviews and piloting with target audience participants. Next, eight
persons taking part in a graduate course in survey research methods
reviewed the questions of survey, flow and design. After revision, the
author conducted a survey with two record managers to ensure that
the constructs the author asked about and the words used to present
them were relevant and understood as the author intended. The result-
ing instrument included 20 specific questions for record management
(33 total), although in many cases fewer questions were answered by
respondents, depending on the branching options used, given their re-
sponses. The survey took the respondents approximately 20 minutes to

Sample Development
Three methods were used to create the sample. The first one is collected
a list of contact information for 2,260 graduates of the Graduate Mas-
ter's Program in Information Studies (1951-2013), an estimated pro-
portion of whom served as record managers. Second, via internet post-
ing and social media, the author directly contacted the record industry
groups, concentrating in particular on members of ARMA Internation-
al (Pemberton, 1984). The author mentioned that they received permis-
sion from the U.S. branch of ARMA International in Austin, Texas, to
distribute a survey connection via their web page. Eventually, the au-
thor used a snowball approach to maximize sample size and diversity.
Within the survey itself, respondents were asked to pick which of the
multiple data functions they wanted to answer questions about. In oth-
er words, they did not need to be 100 per cent of their time working as
records or digital asset managers, but rather to tell the author what they
did when they took on that job.


Survey Admiration

The author state that they have obtained approval from the IRB to distribute our survey as the key quan-
titative component of a study entitled “Research on the Work of Information Professionals in the 21st
Century.” The survey was developed and administered using the online SurveyMonkey software. The
unique link for each email address has been send in invitation email to alumni and non-unique link and
used Twitter to publish the survey link were send emails to more than 20 chapters of record managers and
special sections with the survey opened on 26 March 2014. The author sent two updates to the non-re-
spondents of the Alumni List within 10 days of the original invitation.



Many organizations have an in-house training system for personnel with record management duties, many
of which are generally generic and not unique to particular organizational needs. In fact, about half of the
organizations provide such training to senior officials, while the other half provides only some or no train-
ing at all. In-house or on - the-job training, however, is only one of three ways in which new record manag-
ers learn the practice of record management; other avenues are through formal education and professional
development by external providers or self-guidance.

While the author recognized the guidelines for RIM programs to train government employees and to en-
courage compliance with record regulations, the development of this study was much less evident in the
specific work place activities (and their frequency) on which these directives and programs were focused
– activities for which the individuals responsible for delivering this training should prepare their students.

Based on the author survey results, the author endorses the incorporation of practical experience into ex-
isting syllabi courses wherever possible and conclude that teaching students ' tactics and ways of thinking
rather than mechanics would help both their long-term career paths and their current employer. Finally, as
record managers and supervisors’ value soft skills and direct experience with specific tools and technolo-
gies, we would encourage doctoral research on these aspects.


In order to achieve these complexities, the author used basic statistical tests to expose the relationships
present on response results, which would otherwise not have been apparent. The author hopes that by
demonstrating their usefulness here, they will encourage further quantitative research on these issues. One
surprising result was that there was no correlation between the topics that respondents reported learning
about in detail in formal education (i.e. degree) programs and the reported frequency at which they per-
formed regular tasks. Respondents were presented with a brief statement on compliance with records man-
agement and then asked to share approaches and guidelines for "dealing with record creators who may not
obey record management policies and procedures, knowingly or unknowingly, in the course of their work."


Review by :
Hassan Ali Bin Mustamum

Good customer service is about returning customers. And happy to send them away. Happy enough
to pass positive feedback on your business to others, who can then try out for themselves the product or
service you offer and become repeat customers in turn. You can sell anything to anyone once if you're a
good salesperson. But it will be your customer service approach that will determine if you will ever be
able to sell anything else to that person. The essence of good customer service is creating a customer re-
lationship. A friendship that the client thinks he wants to pursue.

The sustainability of your company will always be unpredictable without customer loyalty. Organiza-
tions need to tailor a successful company's designs sensitively to the specific challenges of understanding,
attracting and maintaining valuable customers. I agree that this customer concept is the focus of any
business. Providing quality customer service is more important than ever for maintaining and growing
a company.

This article is about a study to explore the relationship between customer service and product quality
with customer satisfaction and loyalty in the context of the Indian automotive industry. Customer service
can be viewed as an intrinsic component of industrial products.

In this article, the author describes that there is relation between four concepts of product and service
quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty in Indian automotive industry. There are two main categories
which are the effect of customer service quality and product quality on customer satisfaction and the
relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Customer service quality, product qual-
ity, customer satisfaction and loyalty can be measured at different stages. Thus, this study was set out to
investigate the relationship and it show that there is high positive correlation between the constructs of
customer service and product quality with customer satisfaction and loyalty. The hypotheses of the study
were analyzed using regression and ANOVA.


A description of



In this article, the author came up with the objective to clarify the re-
lationship between four variables of customer service quality, prod-
uct quality, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty. The author
also came out with few questions that focused to be discussing in
this article. The questions are:

• Is there a relationship between customer service and product
quality with customer satisfaction and loyalty in the context of the
Indian automotive industry?

• If yes, how is the relationship between these four variables
(customer service quality, product quality, customer satisfaction, and
customer loyalty)?

To conduct research in this study, the design of the questionnaire
with 53 questions was primarily based on multiple-item measure-
ment scales taken from previous researches. 24 questions are de-
signed to evaluate customer service quality and product quality; 13
questions are designed to evaluate customer loyalty and 11 questions
are designed to evaluate customer satisfaction. Satisfaction was mea-
sured by a seven-point Likert scale, Extremely, Very, Fairly satisfied,
neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, Fairly, Very and extremely dissatis-
fied. 5 questions are related to personal information of the respon-
dents. Each of the question sections have their own significant that
can be analyze to bring some result to support the hypothesis.

After discussion conducted, analysis and results have been made
to answer the questions that have been raised before. For the first
question, the author found that according to statistical analysis in
this section the results indicates that customer service and product
quality has been influential on customer satisfaction and also there is
a positive relationship between customer service and product quality
with customer satisfaction and loyalty in the context of the Indian
automotive industry. For the second research question, the author
found that according to the study by Bowen, and Chen (2001) study
verified the nonlinear and asymmetric relationship between custom-
er satisfaction and customer loyalty. When satisfaction increased
above a threshold, purchase loyalty went up rapidly and when satis-
faction dropped below a threshold level, purchase loyalty decreased
equally rapidly



The author has adequately established the significance of the research questions. Based on studies that
have been conducted, the authors have discussed and make some analysis and also explanation of the
study. Most have been discussed in this study, have met the requirement of the research questions. From
this article, the author already stated that there is high positive correlation between the constructs of
customer service and product quality with customer satisfaction and loyalty and this is the discussions
that have been made and one of the significances of the research questions. The methods of the data
collection and analysis appropriate to the research questions. This is because the approach that has been
use in this study be categorized as descriptive research based on the method of obtaining the considered
data and is of correlative type. To get the data collection, this research did a survey based on the basis of
cross-sectional method. For analyzing data derived from questionnaire regression and ANOVA test has
been used and the software which have been used for analyzing the data is SPSS 16. The study did not
find any significant methodological weakness in the study to find the answer. In my opinion, this study
has been done in a small scale and this is exploratory study. Further research required that is sampled in
such a way as to ensure that the findings can be generalized to all automotive industry in the world.

Discussion of implications

According to the author, an interesting finding arising from the analysis is that the importance of quality
of products and services on customer satisfaction and found out that loyal customers mostly lie in catego-
ry of customers who have used higher quality products. This implies that better quality of products tends
to increase customers’ loyalty. Performance of customer service is one of the key factors in recognizing
new customer needs and, as we all know, presenting consumers with their undiscovered needs is the se-
cret to customer satisfaction and loyalty.

In my opinion, Customers are the lifeline of any company, the customer service team is often the face of
your company, and the expertise and reliability of the help they provide will determine the interactions
of customers. Hence, the key element needed for a successful business is the performance of custom-
er service. Quality customer service includes delivering reliable, effective and friendly service, building
strong customer relationships, addressing grievances quickly and responding on time to customer issues.
The best way to keep customers coming back is to provide quality customer service, ensuring long-term




Factors that could lead to improve customer service in business organization

Hassan Ali Mustamum
[email protected]

Faculty of Information Management

Customer service is important because customer service offers more than just a means of driving sales.
It is also said that this raises the bar for competitiveness when businesses are dedicated to a customer
service. This method will help the customer to feel welcome and relaxed. Good customer service will
make the customer and you feel more comfortable with each other. Today's companies, when it comes
to their business success, fail to realize the value of their clients. The sustainability of your company will
always be unpredictable without customer loyalty. Organizations need to adapt a good company's proj-
ects sensitively to the specific challenges of recognizing, retaining and keeping loyal customers. Thus,
customer services must be improved by every organization. To achieve this, this review briefly discusses
the factors that could lead to enhance the customer service in business organization. The results of this
study were that the literature findings that customer satisfaction, quality of service, confidence, perceived
value, perceived pleasure, and technology had a more important and positive impact on customer loyalty.
Therefore, this paper will allow managers of service organizations to consider the factors that influence
customer loyalty.

Keywords- Customer service, loyalty, business, perceived pleasure, strategy



Businesses are a significant part of the economy of a country. They help people live their lives and pro-
mote prosperity which leads to huge profits and rising incomes. A country's economy is a cornerstone
of its life. Modern economic growth is a key component of global development. The customer service
has been on a continuous progress in making a business running and remain sustain for years. The goal
of excellent customer service is to make customers contended, in order for them to come back and to
bring more customers. For instance, numerous empirical studies and other literature have highlighted
that it is more profitable compared to retain customers than to acquire new ones (Qais Ahmed Al-
Maamari, Mohammed Abdulrab,2017). But According to McFarlane and Britt (2007), the marketing
environment of today has changed dramatically, and companies must effectively devise strategies for
responding to, and dealing with this change, while ensuring maximum customer value and satisfac-
tion. So how are we want and going to improve the customer service? there can only be customer
satisfaction if their expectations are met. So, according to Hassan Mansoor (2018) these are the factors
that could help to improve the customer service:

a. Respond Quickly to your customer
b. Provide Educational and Appropriate Knowledge to your customer
c. Take the Time to Train Your Front-Line Staff
d. Create Referrals Through an Incentive
e. Take Advantage of Negative Feedback

Customers are the most important element for all businesses and they need to be looked after for busi-
ness success and without customer a business will not exist in the first place. Having excellent customer
service is of utmost importance to a company in that it creates loyal customers, which can only be cre-
ated through customer satisfaction. So, company should focus on improve their customer service so
they can maintain their customer. Bad Customer service is disastrous to a company. When faced with
poor customer service, customers will not only take their business to a company’s competitors, they
will equally share their bad experience with others. Many consumers will instantly quit doing business
with a company because of a bad customer experience.


Respond Quickly to

Your Customer

Companies with high quality ser- Fast respond to customer will al-
vice deliver their products or ser- lows brands to quickly connect
vice on time; which is one of the with their consumers via any of
highest expectations of customers. their platforms. Consumers are
With more and more consumers now also turning to Twitter or
turning to social media as a source Facebook to voice their experi-
of customer service, and positive ences online (Mansoor, 2018).
social media customer service ex- Our time is precious, and so is
periences proving to increase sales your customers’ time (Press-en-
and brand recommendations, it terprise, 2010). Therefore, a com-
has never been more important for pany should respond to their cus-
your business to be readily avail- tomer as fast as they can because a
able online to meet the needs of customer will get frustrated when
its customers (Marban,2014). Ac- they have to wait for too long. Cli-
cording to CONVINCE&CON- ent will go to a company that are
VERT, “42% of customers com- easy to contact because they will
plaining in social media expect a save a lot of their time.
60-minute response time.”.

Provide Educational and Appropriate
Knowledge to Your Customer

Consumer awareness is something that companies will benefit from. A
company should truly empower their customers with knowledge and
insights that help them understand their products and how it can be of
value to the customer. The first thing to you need to understand is that
customer education is not the same as marketing (Okeke, 2017). Con-
sumer education refers to the collection of activities or processes that a
company has set up to provide consumers with the knowledge and skills
they need to make the most of their products or services. Customer
service should not only be about being responsive, but you should also
be offering customers with knowledge related to your brand (Mansoor,
2018). By educating the customer it can builds customer trust toward
your company and brand. When a company gets customer trust, it will
help to boost their sale as they already have a regular customer and these
customers will spread the trust through mouth to mouth. Not just that,
by educating the customer also we can reduce customer complaints.
When customers know and understand a product, it’s features, capabili-
ties and limitations, it gives them realistic


Take the Time to Train Your

Front-Line Staff

The center of your customer service is the frontline employees. They represent your customers goods,
products, and brand and it will eventually affect the satisfaction of customers. Positive personal expe-
riences make most customers buy and they will tell their friends about the purchase and buy it again.
Therefore, companies who pay attention to their human capital and have a customer-centric approach
will be the most successful in the near future. Training is a process that opens the door to improved
performance, career growth and happy customers for businesses. These employees are the face of your
business and if trained well, it gives your business the opportunity to define how your customers per-
ceive your company’s products and services (Mansoor, 2018). You want to make sure these employees
are skills at conflict resolution, are empowered to exceed your customer’s expectations and have the kind
of winning personalities that your business’s patrons are unlikely to forget (Mansoor, 2018).

Create Referrals Through an


Referral is known to be one of the best and most trusted approaches applied by both small and large
businesses globally (Kang, 2019). This type of approach aims at encouraging and increasing the num-
ber of new clients through word of mouth referrals (Kang, 2019). And is usually done by offering
incentives, rewards and encouraging customers to recommend the business’ products and services
to other people (Kang, 2019). Customer love incentives, so the perfect way to gain referrals is to have
your customers refer your business to their friends and family and in return receive an incentive
(Mansoor, 2018). A study who analyzed a bank referral reward program showed that new customers
who were referred to the bank by existing ones were 18 percent more likely to stay with the bank and
generated 16 percent more in profits (Mansoor, 2018).

Take Advantage of Negative


According to research by Reevoo, 95% of customers suspect that reviews are censored or fake if they
don’t see any negative ones, and 65% trust reviews more when there are both negative and positive
ones (LifeLearn, 2019). Negative feedback is inevitable. Businesses get all types of feedback from their
customers. Getting a negative review or a complaint from a customer isn’t big deal but how you react
to negative feedback is important (Javed, 2018). The first thing you have to do is understand the issue.
So, that you will know how to react and reply to the customer. No one is perfect, According to Jay Baer,
author of Hug Your Haters, you should embrace negative comments. They’re valuable and give you a
chance to salvage a situation (LifeLearn, 2019). Negative reviews offer an opportunity to save relation-
ships and give you a chance to look good by responding to complaints. Responding to complaints in-
creases customer advocacy. Ignoring complaints decreases customer advocacy (LifeLearn, 2019). What
counts is that these people see that you are open to your concerns, that you treat people with respect,
and that you try to resolve questions and grievances.



Customer service determines how a company is perceived by its customers. The success and downfall of
a company depends on the experience they are given. If they are offered a wonderful customer service
experience, the success of a company can be assured. However, if customers receive poor service, they
will leave the company. Companies should prioritize the needs of its customers and customer satisfac-
tion should be the goal of every company Therefore, it is very important to the organization to under-
stand what exactly the customers need and how to gain loyalty for the successful business. poor custom-
er service can lead to the decline and possibly downfall of a company. Poor customer service may arise
if an employee fails to acknowledge a client when he/she enters the company. None acknowledgement of
customers will make them to feel not welcomed and this may prevent them from going to that company
in the future. Skilled employees are assets of the company and it is equally important to satisfy employ-
ees along with customers.

Feedback from the consumer is an insight into what goes well with your product or service and what
needs to be done to enhance your experience. You may have the best experience in the field in which
your business operates, but your technical knowledge will never be more useful than consumer feedback
for business performance. If you want to stay on top of things you should put your customers in a center
of your business and treat their feedback as the most valuable source for information in your company.
Thus, your customer service must be very good so that your company will remain sustain in the indus-


Nurul Wahida Ahmad
[email protected]

Faculty of Information Management


This paper highlight about the role of business analyst that in organization and roles of types of infor-
mation system in business organization. These included key business analysis activities and the skills
required by business analysts to carry out these activities. The organizational attitude was also identi-
fied as a key factor in enabling the use and contribution of business analysis.

Keywords- Business analysis, Business analyst, role business analyst


A literature review was undertaken in order to analyze the available research on the role of business
analysis work in facilitating the achievement of business objectives through the implementation of
information systems. Information system, an interconnected array of components for the collection,
storage and processing of data and the delivery of information, knowledge and digital products. Busi-
ness companies and other entities rely on information systems to carry out and maintain their activi-
ties, communicate with their customers and suppliers and compete on the marketplace.


There are several types of information system that have been introduced in today's business world,
such as business operations or business operations support. One of the roles of types of information
system in business organization is Transaction Processing System (TPS). TPS is computerized system
that performs and records the daily routine transactions necessary to the conduct of the business.
(Yaser Hasan Al- Mamary, 2014). In today's complex business environment, the adaptability, agility
and ability of an organization to manage constant change through innovation can be key to success.
Traditional methods may no longer lead to targets when economic conditions are unfavorable. This is
where the business analysis comes in. Corporations achieve goals through initiatives that convert cus-
tomer needs into new products, services and profits. Business analysts can make things happen more
efficiently and effectively. (Villanovou,2019)



Business analysts (BAs) are responsible for bridging the gap between IT
and business using data analytics to analyze processes, define needs, and
provide data-driven feedback and reports to executives and stakeholders.
BAs encourages business leaders and consumers to understand how da-
ta-driven system, product, service, software and hardware improvements
can improve efficiency and add value. They must articulate these ideas, but
they must also align them with what is technically feasible and economical-
ly and technologically realistic. (Mary K. Pratt and Sarah K. White, 2019).
Recent researcher has discussed about the definition of requirements that
has been identified as core aspects of business analysis work but the defini-
tion does not specify the nature of the system.



Time, cost and quality
To measure the success of these different information system, organiza-
tions are moving beyond traditional financial measures, such as return on
investment. Previous researcher stressed the limitation of time, cost and
quality. According to Stacie Petter perceived ease of use is the most
common indicator of device performance due to a large amount of re-
search related to TAM. Nonetheless, perceived ease of use does not capture
the system quality build as a whole, as developed and tested, an instrument
consisting of 40 items measuring eight system quality factors, consistency,
portability, user friendliness, comprehensibility, efficiency, sustainability,
economy and verifiability. (Debra, 2015) In the light of these factors, the
research was designed using a framework that required a broader perspec-
tive of situational aspects and position across a variety of business analysis

Aligning the strategies plan
The business analyst plays a role in aligning the strategies planned and
implemented with the needs of stakeholders, as stated in A Guide to the
Business Analysis Body of Knowledge which is the tasks carried out by
business analysts (Muhammad syah, 2017) The role of the business analyst
is more than just specifications, it is much broader and far more inclusive
across the company. The business analyst therefore plays a critical role in
the success of the execution of the plan.

According to (Lessing, E. 2017) the role of the Business Analyst is that of
a person acting as a bridge or link to interpret, analyze and translate be-
tween what is commonly referred to as the Business side which is a group
experiencing a business need or a problem in an organization and the
Technology Teams which is people offering a solution to a problem or a
need. The role of the Business Analyst is therefore not only to identify and
understand the business needs or issues, but also to translate those needs
into a language that can be interpreted and understood by the Technology
or Solution Teams. It includes a number of unique and advanced business
analysis skills and techniques that make up the business analysis field.



The business analyst has an important role to play in the execution

of the project. Within the agile framework, a new way of working

needs to be adopted and different deliverables need to be worked on
by the business analyst to enhance the ability to deliver smaller parts

of the solution to the market more quickly and efficiently. The key

elements that the business analyst has to incorporate are the descrip-
tion of criteria using Use Cases, as well as the active participation in

retros and showcases. The soft skills that were previously required of

a business analyst still prevail, as they form the foundation on which

a good business analyst, regardless of the project delivery framework,
can play a competent role.


Aisyah Norbahiah Ruslan
[email protected]

Faculty of Information Management


Purpose - The Business Continuity Plan is a tool to help plan for "disasters" that could leave assets such as
personnel, records data, housing and physical facilities inaccessible for either short term or longer periods
of time. Use this guide to learn about the problems involved in planning the organization and its opera-
tions for survival, as a checklist of activities in readiness, training staff, and recovery from a disaster.
Design/Methodology/Approach – Using one articles that have be chosen and review with additional of
others related article. All the articles than analyzed in order to examine and collect more information re-
garding to the purpose of this literature review.
Originality/value – This paper highlighted the value of adopting business continuity planning
Keywords - Business continuity planning, risk management, contingency approach, Records management
Paper type – Literature review


Business continuity planning is about defining the critical functions and services that your business pro-
vides and how to sustain or restore them in any adverse event or emergency, such as a power outage, ex-
plosion, flood or earthquake. After all, if you can’t deliver your critical functions and services like clients,
staff and vendors may be adversely affected, consumers may look elsewhere and turn to their rivals, you
may fail to meet contractual or legal obligations, financial consequences may occur and the credibility of
your company may be adversely affected. The term “e-Business” has a very broad application and means
different things to different people. Furthermore, its relation with e-commerce is at the source of many
disagreements. (Melão, 2008) Some authors view e-Business as the evolution of e- commerce from the
buying and selling over the Internet.


Literature Review

Many IT practitioners are involved in business continuity (BC). It is a
very big topic with many research on various aspects (Wing S. Chow,
2000). It is a very broad topic. In some research, the high level planning
and management side contributed to the introduction of processes
within companies such as management of business continuity (BCM)
and planning for business continuity (BCP). Business Continuity Plan-
ning (BCP) lifecycle is an iterative continuous process that involves
business risk and impact analysis, preparation of required emergency
procedures, testing and auditing recovery procedures, staff training and
awareness of recovery procedures, and maintenance of the business
continuity plan (Mick Savage, 2002). The BCP's objective is to keep the
company running. This is achieved by developing a plan to deal with
how key business operations can be restored in the event of an accident
or a catastrophe.

A business continuity plan outlines a strategic response to potential dis-
ruptions covering all company operations: infrastructure, organisation,
people and buildings, as well as its core services. Effective security man-
agement is based, first and foremost, on thorough and ongoing risk as-
sessment and management. Business continuity, however, works from
the inside out by understanding the impact, and assessing what needs
to be protected, before looking at the possible cause of any disruption.
This is because the causes of disruption to or loss of key corporate ac-
tivities or assets are just too wide and too unpredictable.

Although some companies face very obvious sources of risk, the list
of potential threats can include natural disaster, malicious attack, user
error, power failure, industrial espionage and geopolitical issues.

Vital Record

Vital records are records in any format containing information that is
important to an organization's existence or continuity. In the phase of
business continuity planning for records, vital records must be identi-
fied. An agency’s Records Management Program should identify, eval-
uate, protect and allocate responsibilities for vital records. Vital records
are records that need to be recreated if destroyed in order to schedule
essential business operations. Vital records provide recent proof of the
assets, services, transactions and actions of an agency. If a vital record
is lost, damaged, destroyed or otherwise unavailable, the loss is a disas-
ter, affecting critical operations. According to Nor Azilah Husin (2018)
The conditions for an on-site fire, for example, are the presence of fuel
and a fire or spark. Vital records tend to be active, documenting con-
tinued, current, and relationship status. Vital records are rapidly being
produced and accessed digitally. In some instances, preserving the in-
formation that formed the basis of the vital record can have some level
of security.


Risk Management

Recent research found that risk management is an important element which influences business conti-
nuity planning Ruzic-Dimitrijevic, L., & Dakic, J. (2014). Recognition, assessment and monitoring of all
forms of risks. When you identify risks and take mitigating action, your business continuity plan can fo-
cus on any threats that remain outside of your control. Risk management involves taking steps to change
the environment so that the incident becomes less likely and the effects are minimized so that the event
causes less harm.

All types of risks have to be recognised, assessed and controlled. Based on Association of Insurance and
Risk Managers (2010) classified the external factors of risk are social, cultural, political, legal, economical,
technological, natural, and competitive surroundings. Whereas, the internal factors are organizational
structure, policies, culture, information system, data flow and process of decision making, standards,
regulations adopted in the organization, form and level of communication, and, goals and strategy.

According to Berg, H. P (2010) Clarifies that risk management helps the company to consider the amount
and interdependence of the risks involved. Successful risk management gives you the chance to work fast-
er and more efficiently. Risk management becomes an important factor in environmental management.
The ISO 31000:2009 norm formulates risk management principles and guidelines. Risk management
helps businesses to accomplish their goals. Risk management enables organizations to achieve their ob-
jectives. Wu, M. C., Nurhadi, D., & Zahro, S. (2016) by introducing risk management as a new concept to
identifying and managing the risks associated with these activities and creating new opportunities.


Based on Amazon (2015) customers should be able to view and add items to their shopping cart even
if disks are failing, network routes are flapping, or data centres are being destroyed by tornados. Con-
tingency approach is important for business continuity planning. Contingency planning is a process
through which businesses develop a strategy to deal with unanticipated events that would impede daily
activities or normal operations (Cynthia A Scarinci, 2015). Contingency planning integrates the busi-
ness impact analysis results and acts on them. The outcome of this process is an ongoing business plan
consisting of a set of contingency plans Assume that individuals responsible for the various activities of
business continuity and contingency planning are accountable for the successful completion of indi-
vidual tasks, and that the core business process owners are responsible for meeting the milestones for
developing and testing contingency plans for their core business processes.
Pelletier, S. (2012) proved that by developing a holistic strategy for risk management and contingency
approach and evolved into an institutional culture that is attuned to risk-related. Assess existing busi-
ness continuity, contingency, and disaster recovery plans for their applicability. Identify weaknesses and
strengths of existing plans. Use the quality assurance office staff, for instance, to ensure that the business
continuity team reviews existing contingency plans and updates and incorporates existing contingency
and disaster recovery plans into the business continuity plan. Contingency planning is key to business



Continuity of business obviously has a wide range of responsibilities, and senior support is needed.
Fortunately, it also provides the means to secure that support when properly approached. Like an
insurance policy, you can only find out if it is worth dedicating resources to the management of busi-
ness continuity in the unfortunate event of using it. Continuity of business is, and has always been,
a guarantee of good business practice. Its goals and focus on risk and governance assure customers,
partners, shareholders, employees, and the market.
This ensures that business is carried out for the benefit of all shareholders, including investors and
consumers which need to know that they will be sufficiently secured by managing risks to accept-
able levels. A McKinsey survey, reported in Business Continuity Online, found that “over 80% of
investors would pay 18% more for shares in a well governed company.” Business continuity is a very
powerful tool to have in your toolbox. Phrasing it in these terms to senior level executives is a sure
fire way to get their attention, and their support. Many businesses operate in unsafe buildings and do
not have any business continuity plan or practice in place. Businesses were generally not prepared for
unexpected situations and natural hazards. Finally, this paper shows that business continuity plan in
developing the risk management, vital records and contingency approach that is the process of cre-
ating systems of prevention and recovery to deal with potential threats to a company. In addition to
prevention, the goal is to enable ongoing operations before and during execution of disaster recovery




By Aisyah Norbahiah

Information is an important resource in the day-to-day operations of

individuals, organizations and society. The world has evolved to an age
where information technology and information explosion abound,

there is a need for qualified information professionals with relevant

knowledge and skills to manage, organize, repackage and disseminate
the multitude of information resources in all formats. recognizes in-

formation as strategic resources. It is designed to educate and train

students with knowledge and skills in managing information using in-
formation systems. It involves analysing, designing, developing, and

managing various types of information systems for identifying, ac-

quiring, organizing, storing, and retrieving as well as disseminating

information for users’ strategic and competitive purpose. As individ-
ual user and organization generated lots of information that comes in

many forms and format. The information needs proper management

in terms of storage, retrieval in the future. Thus in every organization,
there are a lot of information systems and that these systems need pro-

fessionals to manage them so that the systems able to function effi-

ciently and meet the expectation of the user.


A university campus student's life revolves around studying in class, studying in the library, taking part in co-curricu-
lum activities made compulsory by the university. The knowledge and skills that I already learned from being student of
information systems are in order to identify, acquire, organize, store and retrieve information and disseminate, learned
language of PHP, MySQL, html, C++, and learn how to use SPSS, the analysis, design, development, and management of
different types of information systems. I have built in myself many skills, such as time management, teamwork, research
evaluation and communication, independent, budgeting and money management. I have also learned how and what it
requires to conduct research and analysis. Communication is the key thing to be mastered. I was trained to communicate
with many people while I was at university and learn how to handle people.

I gained a lot of experience during my university studies. I have been Deputy Director of the Public Relation Event as to
enhance my leadership skills, where my task is to prepare a project proposal and to make sure our event runs smoothly
by keeping track progress of all our bureau and committee member doing their tasks well. Other than that I also been lo-
gistic Bureau during my diploma time in September 2016 where this event is involve the whole of my batch that include
class A, B, C and D. As logistic bureau, my task is to Provides tools and assists the competition, inspect the equipment
and make sure it meets the specifications, provides a field, hall, or court for event/competition venue, book a venue,
provides all technical related requirements to facilitate program implementation, update tools and control movement
of tools and be the responsible for equipment used during an activity or project. And in for this semester, I’ve been as-
sistant secretary for subject Marketing. As my task is to provide official correspondence and to record every activity or
meeting that takes place on a weekly basis, to be entered in the minutes of meeting, as well as preparing a report. What
I can conclude based on my experience is I learn on how to dealing with friends, lecturer and many others as it such a
challenging in treating everyone equally and as to hoping there’s no issue, also experience in dealing and communicate
with people outside of the campus where to find a company to interview for a case study assignment/project. I am also
experience in making and create finding aids for subject archival, making handbook for subject business record, develop
system and web for subject system analysis, learning about data centre, experience to do a database, experience learning
many coding languages such as PHP, MySQL, CSS and Html. I am so glad that I have experienced and a quality skill
during in the university. So that in future I may have high confidence and fluently in dealing with more people and also
want to contribute the knowledge that has been learned during my studies.


By Hassan Ali

A record is a transaction between individuals or institutions that is first

documented and then stored on a specific repository for a given, or in

some cases an unspecified amount of time. Records vary in their contexts
they can range from court records to state information that a country holds

about its citizens i.e. birth and death certificates. Records in the current

day and age are usually stored electronically on databases. Records pro-
vide an organization or government institutions with the necessary proof

of the interaction with its partners, in the case of organizations, or citizens

in the case of the state. By learning on how to manage records, I realized
on the importance of taking care of records which can cause a disaster if

we did not take care of it. Business records are one of the most important

type of record that we have to put our eyes on. If the records of the orga-

nizations are not be kept in a good manner, it can cause the company to
lost its business and close forever. Therefore, it is important to know what

records should be keep and what should be remove.



A Student 's life on University campus revolves around going to classes, studying in the library or in their own room,
getting involved in co-curricular activities made compulsory by the university and sometimes hanging out with their
friends to have fun after an exam. Since I entered UiTM, there are a lot of skills that I have developed in myself such
as time management, research, analysis and communication and budgeting and money management. I have learnt in
managing my time, know what is necessary and what is not. Also, I also learnt on how a research and analysis was been
conducted and what is the requirement to do it. Communication is the crucial thing that every one need to mastered.
While in university, I have been trained to communicate with many people and learn on how to handle people. Lastly,
I learnt on managing my money. I have to plan my expenses so that I will not have financial problem as I will need a lot
money when it comes to the end of the semester.


Many experience that I have gained during my time in university. I have joined many innovation and creative compe-
tition to enhance my skills. The experience of joining many competitions and win some of the competition was really a
great opportunity. I also joined an ideas competition which required me to write an essay and also present my ideas in
Surabaya, Indonesia. The experience of getting new knowledge, connection was totally great and the exchange of culture
is really open my eyes that how amazing my and other people culture. Also, university itself gave me so many experienc-
es that I cannot buy with money. Dealing with friends, lecturer and many others was such a challenge and I am glad that
I have experienced it during in the university.


By Nurul Wahida

Records management is "responsible for the efficient and systematic con-
trol of the creation, receipt, maintenance, use and disposal of records,

including the capture and maintenance of evidence and information on

business activities and transactions in the form of records." Before this re-
cord have been keep only in printed but there are a lot of lack when keep it

records in printed. Nowadays, many organization or government change

their records keeping by keep it in electronic which can save space and

prevent it from cause of disaster. By learning this subject, I gain knowl-
edge about the important of records, types of records and the retention

period of the records usually used in the organization and can apply it to

manage the records of my online business.


A university campus student's life revolves around studying in class, studying in the library, taking part in co-curricu-
lum activities made compulsory by the university. The knowledge and skills that I already learned from being student
of library science management are how to do cataloguing process manually, how to do DDC and LCC number, Index
and Abstract and Marc 21 and many more. I have built in myself many skills, such as time management, teamwork,
research evaluation and communication, independent, budgeting and money management. I have also learned how
to conduct research and analysis. Communication skills is the most important things that need to master it because
I was very shy to speak before this but in university I was trained to communicate with many people while I was at
university and learn how to handle people. Lastly, I learn on managing gain money while studying so that I will not
have financial problem in every semester.

I gained a lot of experience during my university studies. I have join PUSTAKAWAN MUDA and I’m a part of the
group member of circulation department. I manage to do policy, rules and regulations and contribute ideas to do
activities in Wakaf Children Library that are now used in the library. Moreover, in university I participate a lot of
library programme which is in Persidangan Tahunan Perpustakaan Malaysia, Bengkel Asas Biblioterapi and I also
join to setup the library in Perpustakaan Kuala Lumpur, TTDI. I also participate as an usher in IM 50th Dinner,
SACC last year. This semester, I have been treasurer for subject Marketing. My task is planning budget in event to
buy any equipment that use during the event. Based on that experience, I manage to control the money that come
and out during event. I also learn how to develop a system in library by using Greenstone software on subject Digital
Library. As a system developer in my team, I manage to share what I do in the system to the other team member so
that they also know how to do it by their own during practical training soon if the organization ask them to develop
the system in the library. I also experience to do abstract about the old materials in National Library during subject
Manuscript. It was the new knowledge because I learn to handle and get some knowledge about the old materials that
are in National Library For subject Planning and Design Library, my task in the group is to do organizational chart
and department. It was not easy task to get an idea alone because the expectation of my lecturer want is higher than
our expectation but I manage to solve it. It was the new knowledge because I am so glad that I have experienced and
a quality skill during in the university so that in the future I may contribute the knowledge that I have learn in the
other organization.


By Ahmad Muhaimin

Records are documents that memorializes and provides objective evidence of activities performed, events
occurred, results achieved, or statements made. Records are created/received by an organization in routine
transaction of its business or in pursuance of its legal obligations. A record may consist of two or more
documents. All documented information, regardless of its characteristics, media, physical form, and the
manner it is recorded or stored. Records include accounts, agreements, books, drawings, letters, magnetic/
optical disks, memos, micrographics, etc. For business record, a business record is a document that records
a business dealing. Business records include meeting minutes, memoranda, employment contracts, and
accounting source documents. It must be retrievable later so that the business dealings can be accurately
reviewed as required. Since business is dependent upon confidence and trust, not only must the record be
accurate and easily retrieved, the processes surrounding its creation and retrieval must be perceived by
customers and the business community to consistently deliver a full and accurate record with no gaps or
additions. Most business records have specified retention periods based on legal requirements or internal
company policies. This is important because in many countries’ documents are required by law be dis-
closed to government regulatory agencies or to the general public. Likewise, they may be discoverable if
the business is sued. Under the business records exception in the Federal Rules of Evidence, certain types of
business records, particularly those made and kept with regularity, may be considered admissible in court
despite containing hearsay.



As we know, student’s life in university full of challenges that must faced by students to get what they
want. Same with me, I already face many things since I continue my diploma till now. A lot of skills were
developed for me such as become a leader to organize events, skill in time management, research, analy-
sis and communication skill.

Many experience that I have gained during my time in university. I have joined many event and pro-
grams that provided from my own faculty and another different faculty. While I was in my diploma
study, I was selected to join leadership camp that provided by UiTM. Many activities provided in that
camp to improve my leadership skill. While I as a president, a lot of programs and activities that I had
organize and provide to students. So base on my experiences, I become more confident and can adapt
with any situation whether in university or outside.


By Aliff Aiman

Toward my Study in Information Management and Information System
Management, I’ve learn a lot of thing from it. This is include the basic record
management knowledge that I have learn on my studies in Information Man-

agement. Overall I can conclude on how important the record towards the
organization and also the people. For example, the transaction from buyer to

seller can be include as record or also known as evidence toward the transac-
tion action that has been done.

Furthermore, I have also gained some knowledge on system management
based on my studies in Information System Management that has been going

right now. System is commonly used widely by the organization to help them
toward the management of the record, registration purpose and more regard-
ing the IT related. Nowadays, System field are commonly demanded by in-

dustry where most of the working equipment are using the system to operate
it. This is shown that system are highly needed by the organization to enhance

the working performance and less use of paper that usually been use in man-
ual operation purpose.


Every person has different skills and personalities. The skill for a person wont develop easily and it takes
a lot of practice and time to actually mastering it. For the skill that I have gained during my University
day are the most important thing in every person which is communication. Communication is high-
ly important not just for basic conversation that has been done but also important in the future when
working in the organization. Communication is a key for success which is why it become the most
important element to get yourself the job that you has been dreaming for. Moreover, I also gained the
self-confidence when doing something that require me to have a critical thinking in making the decision.
What have I learn that, when you are able to gained self-confidence, you can do everything that you want
to be and nothing can stop you from achieving the things that you want.

My overall experience during my time in University until now was wonderful and also challenging. But
the most memorable moment was on UiTM Kedah where that was the first time that I have to stay far
away from my family. In that moment, I learn how to survive independently and know how challenging
the University life really are. I also joined the faculty’s club as the platform for me to polish my soft skill
and also know how to work likely in an organization. In that organization, I’ve been assigned on the
Multimedia team. It was interesting because, it was a dream of mine to work on that particular depart-
ment. I’ve been exposed with multimedia development since I was in secondary school and that was my
greatest skill that I have which leading me towards that particular team that I love to work with. More-
over, I’ve also joined some art and cultural club where it was the most active club that organize many
interesting event from the past few semester. From that, we’ve achieve a lot of experience and met many
people with different culture. Furthermore on the curriculum side, I’ve joined basketball club and that
has become my favorite sports next to football and e-sports.




Policy of Collection

Audiovisual Material




Policy of Assessment And

Procument Public Record






Policy of Government Record












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