VZM 278 HISTORY OF WESTERN MUSIC 2
RESEARCH IN FRANZ
FROM THE LATE ROMANTIC
TO THE 21ST CENTURY
LECTURER: MISS TAN JIN YIN
AUTHOR: EVELYN CHEONG XIN JIE
LEAN JIA YING
YU JING YING
SCHOOL OF THE ARTS @ USM
Semester II 2021/2022
U N F I N I S H E D S Y M P H O N Y. . . . . . . . . 4
UNIT 1 FRANZ SCHUBERT 1
Born :31st January,1797
Died :19th November, 1828
Profession: Freelance Composer
Highlight : Works :
In 1815, he wrote more
First great master of than 20,000 bars of music:
- 600 lieder
Romantic Lied, prolific in -9 church works
-a symphony work
all genres -150 songs
Son of Vienna (8 songs/day in October)
As a child studied piano,
singing, violin, organ,
counterpoint; In 1818, his first music
composition with publication; turned
Antonio Salieri entirely to composition
The Romantic Lied become one of the most important genre in
the Romantic era and Schubert is its creator.
Schubert's Lieder would come to influence the song-writing of
many later composers, including Robert Schumann, Johannes
Brahms, and Hugo Wolf.
His music neatly bridges the Classical and Romantic periods
through its use of lovely melodies and nature imagery ·wedded
to the traditional classical forms while at the same time
Although Schubert died young, his works linger on in our lives,
especially for music major scholars. People still mention him
while discussing Romantic period music nowadays.
People studied his compositions while preparing for an
orchestra concert, music examinations, and music history class.
We can even acquire a new language, such as German while
mastering his German Lied.
U N I T 2 Ave Maria 2
Composer: Franz Schubert
Year : 1825
(Latin: “Hail Mary”)
original German title Ellens Gesang
(“Ellen’s Song”) III
from a larger collection of seven pieces,
the third of three songs whose text is
derived of a section of Sir Walter Scott’s
poem, The Lady of the Lake (1810)
Ave Maria by Schubert : https://youtu.be/mhUE32H4tEY
Beyoncé Giselle Knowles
Born: 4th September 1981
Who: American singer-songwriter &
achieved fame in the late 1990s
as the lead singer of the R&B
group Destiny’s Child and then
launched a hugely successful
Ave Maria by Beyoncé : https://youtu.be/yLxK25jTzQc
Beyoncé reinterprets the classic aria in this song, which she co-
wrote with London-based songwriter Amanda Ghost.
- came from Beyoncé and Amanda Ghost's love of the Schubert
- It turned out that both of them had recently been married and
had walked down the aisle to the same music. So, she responded
by saying that rewriting Schubert Ave Maria would be fantastic.
The lyric is very much about Beyoncé. She talks about being
surrounded by friends but she's alone: 'How can the silence seem so
loud?' and then 'There's only us when the lights go down'.
As Beyoncé and Jay-Z are so real and in love and know how
difficult it must be to have that love when both of them are so
famous, Amanda Ghost believe that the lyrics is about them and
probably the most intimate on the entire album.
U N I T 3 Ständchen, D. 957 3
Ständchen or “Serenade” is a Lied that was published a few months after
Schubert’s death. This lied was written by German poet, Ludwig
Ständchen (Serenade) is the fourth song of a song cycle from
Schwanengesang D. 957 (Swan Song). The song cycle has 14 lied in
total. In this lied, the singer encourages a lover to have a tryst in the
valley's grove of trees.
One of Schubert's most recognizable melodies, this song shifts between
minor and major keys to emphasize the singer's sorrow.
This was originally Johann Kasper Mertz
written for voice and (1806-1856) published
piano. an arrangement for
But Franz Liszt(1811-1886) came guitar solo.
along and rewrote it for piano Schubert’s Lieder represent
solo and published in 1840.
Following Schubert's vocal part, comprehension of the classical
Liszt retains both the vocal guitar, adapting for the guitar
melody and the piano both Schubert’s originality
accompaniment in their original
range. Liszt adds a third pitch to and Liszt’s aesthetic approach
each of the accompanying figures,
making them entire triads. to paraphrasing and
Two substantial alterations are
made by Liszt to the original. In arrangement.
the beginning of second stanza, Mertz’s transcription contains
the melody is transposed down an many elements derived from
octave, into what would be the
tenor vocal range. Liszt appears to both Schubert’s original and
be depicting two vocalists, one
female and one male, a narrative Liszt’s transcriptions. Mertz’s
edition contains parallel
borrowed from Liszt’s
transcriptions, such as tremolo
or comparable re-spacing of
chords compared to
change from Schubert's one Schubert’s original.
figure; this concept is central to
the rest of Liszt's adaptation
(Kezia. J. 2014).
In the 21st century, a Baritone of Theater Dortmund Opera
Chorus, Ian Sidden had rearrange Schubert's Serenade for vocal
and guitar by discover J.K. Mertz guitar solo transcription.
An Ukrainian-born singer, Solomia had a project in year 2019
that rearrange this piece to a jazz style with electric guitar,
keyboards, and synthesizer.
UNIT 4 4
HUAWEI PRESENTS ‘UNFINISHED SYMPHONY’
Because it is known as The first two movements are
‘Unfinished Symphony’, complete, but there are only
music experts debate to this fragments of the final two
day as to why Schubert never movements.
completed it. It may be due to To demonstrate the
factors like ill health. technology in their
By completing one of the smartphones, Huawei set
most iconic unfinished themselves the challenge of
symphonies of all times, finishing one of the most
famous incomplete works in
Huawei has set out to honour musical history.
Schubert’s legacy. Lucas Cantor, composer -
Huawei Mate 20 Pro “The result proves that
smartphone to compose the technology offers incredible
3rd and 4th movements of possibilities and has a
this work, with the help of significant and positive
composer Lucas Cantor. impact on modern culture.”
Influences: YOUTUBE LINKS
More than 500 people
travelled to London from Finalized by artificial intelligence
all over Europe to attend https://youtu.be/_6OUGRsslJY
live performance in Live Performance at Cadogan Hall,
London. London (Finale part only)
In conclusion, we think that this topic is very
interesting and it is relevant to our modern life. By
doing the research, we are able to learn and
understand more about the relationship between
Schubert and the development in many aspects. As
we learn more about this topic, we can observe that
the primary changes relate to genre, instruments, and
DEVELOPMENT IN GENRE
Ave Maria was one of many well-known pieces composed by Franz
Schubert. The genre of this work had made changes in the 21st century,
as Beyoncé and Amanda Ghost collaborated on the Ave Maria in 2018.
So, Schubert's Ave Maria inspired the pop/R&B composer to co-write a
song based on it. As a result, it has deeply inspired people further into
the 21st century.
DEVELOPMENT IN INSTRUMENTS
We can witness the evolution of musical instruments as time passes.
Multiple writers were influenced by Schubert, as is shown by the many
variants of the German lied Standchen, which began with vocals and
piano before moving on to piano and guitar solo, guitar accompaniment
and jazz version. We can see that his music has inspired others all the
way up to the twenty-first century.
DEVELOPMENT IN TECHNOLOGY
When technology was not developed, people could only rely on talented
composers like Franz Schubert to compose music. But what we did not
expect is that in the 21st century, it can be done by using technology
devices to complete music works. For example, Huawei Mate 20 Pro
smartphone successfully composed the 3rd and 4th movements of
Schubert’s Unfinished Symphony No. 8.
Aside from these major domains, we can commemorate Franz Schubert
in a variety of ways such as the visual arts, opera, and even his chamber
works in the Schubert Club.
SCULPTOR & STATUE SCHUBERT CLUB
By Henry Baerer A non-profit arts organization that
Located at at the promotes the art of music,
West Fairmount particularly recital music.
Park, US. It cultivates a passion for music and
fosters an engaged community of
The Schubert music enthusiasts through concerts,
Monument music education and museum
Located at the exhibits.
Stadtpark in One of their important event is
Vienna, Academy of St. Martin in the Fields
Austria Chamber Ensemble.
Also, music education like master
Thanks to those artists who took the time classes and coaching session.
to complete the engravings, which can let
future generations know the existence of
this person and commemorate him.
Schubert's sculptor is in the US and
another statue is in Vienna, this could let
more and more people to be able to visit
JAPANESE DOLL BALLET OPERA
According to the article by Janet In October 12th 2021, The Opéra
Wasserman, the researcher found national du Rhin, France had host
that there is a Japanese-produced a ballet opera themed Dancing
Schubert doll in his Biedermeier Schubert in 21st century.
The OnR Ballet choreographers
attire, complete with curly hair and produce a musical drama focusing
on Schubert the man and his
spectacles but no facial features. work, as performed by pianist
The iconography serves as both a Bruno Anguera Garcia, against a
valuable research and reference backdrop created by painter
tool for people looking for artists Silvère Jarrosson.
who have created works that This new Schubert cycle, which
represent "Franz Schubert" and a also features numerous young
historical record of the scope of singers from the Opéra Studio,
artistic endeavors based around an consists of fifteen very personal
enduring cultural figure. and unique pieces.
It can be used as a model to show
how social, cultural, and musical
influences have changed art
creation over the time of 180 years
and to show how this development
has been reflected in both fine and
popular arts at all levels in society.
*Iconology: pictorial motifs within
cultural and historical context
Beggerow, A. (2022, June 8). Schubert - Schwanengesang D.957. Blogspot.
Buja, M. (2016, October 28). Composers and Their Poets: Schubert III. Interlude.
Elizabeth Davis. Schubert's 'Unfinished' Symphony completed by artificial intelligence. Classic FM.
Franz Schubert - Association for Public Art. Association for Public Art. Museum Without Walls Audio.
Franz Schubert | LCIT | SIU. (n.d.). Southern Illinois University.
Huawei. Huawei presents ‘Unfinished Symphony’. Consumer.huawei.com.
Jang, Y. I. (2021). Analyzing Johann Kaspar Mertz’s Guitaristic Idioms in Sechs Schubert’sche Lieder,
with an Arrangement for the Modern Classical Guitar. Pro Quest.
Kezia J. Schrag. (2014). From Voice to Piano: Liszt’s transcriptions of Ständchen and Widmung. KU
Schubert Club. https://schubert.org/
Southern Illinois University. Franz Schubert. Cola.siu.edu.
Stefanie Waldek. Samsung's End-of-Cycle Laundry Machine Song Has a Surprising Backstory. Hunker.
The Schubert statue in Vienna. Visitingvienna.com https://www.visitingvienna.com/sights/schubert-statue/
V.M.A.L. (n.d.). LISZT, F.: Schubert Song Transcriptions, Vol. 1 (Liszt Complete Piano Music, Vol. 5)
(Yablonskaya). Naxos Record. https://www.naxos.com/mainsite/blurbs_reviews.asp?
Ave Maria!. Betsy Schwarm. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ave-Maria-song-by-Schubert
Beyoncé. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica https://www.britannica.com/biography/Beyonce
Wasserman, J. I. (2003). A Schubert Iconography: Painters, Sculptors, Lithographers, Illustrators,
Silhouettists, Engravers, and Others Known or Said to Have Produced a Likeness of Franz Schubert.
Music in Art, 28(1/2), 199–241. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41818466
SCHUBERT PRODUCED MASTERFUL WORKS
WITH RICH HARMONIES AND LEGENDARY
MELODIES FOR A VARIETY OF GENRES,
AND HIS INFLUENCE PROVED
CONSIDERABLE WITH LATER COMPOSERS
LIKE ROBERT SCHUMANN, JOHANNES
BRAHMS AND HUGO WOLF.
SCHOOL OF THE ARTS@ USM
Semester II 2021/2022