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Published by librarykkap2021, 2021-03-18 22:53:39



Goya's Monsters

W I T H CUNNING BRILLIANCE, Goya often invented his monsters out of characters seen in other
painters' works, showing us that gallery study is not just for the student and beginner. Among
his "Black Paintings" in the Prado Museum, Madrid, are two long, thin works titled The Witches'
Sabbath and The Procession of St. Isidore. They are a pair and hang opposite each other. Through
studying and drawing these great paintings I have discovered that they are based on a pair
of similarly long, thin works made by Bartolome Murillo in Seville about 120 years earlier. Here,
two of my own drawings show you how Goya's devil (below) is based on the shape of Murillo's
boy on a horse (top right). Goya's witches have been literally drawn and evolved out of the
shapes of Murillo's prophet and pilgrims. With further research, I found relationships between
all four paintings in terms of shapes, formal composition, and narrative twists.


THIS IS A SERIES OF CARTOONS I m a d e s o m e years ago,
little comments on politeness and sexual politics, drawn
rapidly and with great joy. Sometimes drawings come
out of nowhere and surprise even the artist.



Accidental drawing Random, written with a broad-nibbed pen are rolled through cold cylinders. printing press face up. D a m p paper
o r brush. In the W e s t pen calligraphy T h e blankets give the paper its is laid o n t o p , t o g e t h e r w i t h a t h i c k
chance mark-making. is u s e d t o c r e a t e f o r m a l a n d rough texture or "tooth." "Not" felt blanket The whole sandwich of
decorative texts. In the Far East pressed p a p e r is rolled a s e c o n d l a y e r s is t h e n railed t h r o u g h t h e
Acid-free paper Paper w i t h a calligraphy is a highly r e s p e c t e d a r t time without blankets through cold press t o m a k e a p r i n t D r y p o i n t is
form, practiced meditatively with a cylinders to produce a smoother a very portable and immediate
neutral p H that will not darken or brush, a n d given t h e n a m e Sho. but still slightly textured surface. method of printmaking.
deteriorate excessively with age. The name "not" simply refers to
Camera lucida A n optical device the fact that the cylinders are not Engraving 1. A general t e r m that
Aerial perspective The effect of the that projects an image of an object h o t in t e m p e r a t u r e . See also Hot- describes the various processes
o n t o a plain surface so that it can pressed papers. of cutting a design into a plate or
atmosphere over distance as it be traced. block of metal o r w o o d . 2. The
lightens tones and cools colors Composition T h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f prints t a k e n from t h e s e plates o r
progressively toward the horizon. Camera obscura A d a r k e n e d blocks. Copperplate engravings
the parts of an image t o make up were widely used t o reproduce
Air brush A mechanical, pressurized chamber into which an image of the whole. images before photography.
w h a t is o u t s i d e is received t h r o u g h
tool used for spraying fine mists a small opening o r lens and focused Conservation grade D e s c r i b e s a Erasure T h e a c t o f r e m o v i n g
o f s m o o t h c o l o r P i g m e n t is in natural color on a facing surface,
delivered by a jet of air not the such as a screen, r a t h e r t h a n range of materials that do not decay an image from a surface.
bristles of a brush. Air brushes are recorded on a film or plate. and cannot be broken down by
used in the production of comics. insects. Also called museum grade. Eye level T h e imaginary h o r i z o n t a l
Caricature A representation
Anamorphic distortion Stretching in which the subject's distinctive Contour line A line t h a t f o l l o w s plane at the same height as the
features or peculiarities are average person's eyes. Also called
an image across a picture surface deliberately exaggerated for the shape of a surface. the horizon line.
so that it can only be understood, comic or grotesque effect.
or will only appear normal, when Contre jour A F r e n c h t e r m Fauvism A n early 20th-century
viewed from a specified point, Cartoon 1. A full-size d r a w i n g painting movement characterized
usually at an acute angle t o the meaning "against day." Describes by the use of bold, often distorted
surface. U s e d as a c o r r e c t i n g made for the purpose of transferring a painting in which the light source forms and vivid colors. The
device or pictorial game. Also a design to a painting, tapestry, or is b e h i n d t h e s u b j e c t F o r e x a m p l e , movement was started by a
called accelerated perspective. other (usually large) work—see w h e n a p e r s o n is p a i n t e d standing group of French artists including
Pouncing. 2. A h u m o r o u s d r a w i n g against a w i n d o w , t h e light is Henri Matisse.
Binder A substance that holds or parody. behind him or her.
particles o f pigment together in a Ferrule T h e s h o r t m e t a l t u b e
paint formulation, and attaches t h e m Chiaroscuro A 17th-century Crosshatching Parallel lines
to the support—for example, Italian t e r m meaning "clear-obscure." that surrounds and gnps the hairs
linseed oil or egg yolk It was first given t o tonal paintings d r a w n across o n e a n o t h e r at right of a paintbrush and fixes them
m a d e in o n e c o l o r — s e e Grisaille. angles. A potentially harsh m e t h o d to the brush handle. Sometimes
Bleed T h e e f f e c t o f t w o w e t Later it came t o mean highly of producing tones in a drawing. ferrules are made o f plastic or
contrasted light effects, in which other materials.
colors running into one another parts of an image are depicted Deckle edge T h e i r r e g u l a r e d g e
or one color applied to a wet very brightly and dramatically Field In a t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l i m a g e ,
surface and allowed t o disperse. against darkness. R e m b r a n d t is of a sheet of mold-made paper,
a great master of chiaroscuro. as o p p o s e d t o t h e straight edge such as a drawing o r painting, t h e
Blending M e r g i n g t w o o r m o r e of a sheet of paper that has been field is t h e a p p a r e n t a n d b e l i e v a b l e
Collage C o l l e c t e d materials such machine-trimmed. space inside the picture. A "shallow
neighboring colors or tones d e p t h o f field" m e a n s t h e p i c t u r e
together using a tortillon, as c o l o r e d papers, photographs, Diffuse To s o f t e n o r m a k e less appears t o have only a shallow
for example. newspaper cuttings, and ready- space inside it
made objects arranged and brilliant.
Blotting T h e use o f a b s o r b e n t stuck onto a flat surface. From Fixative Liquid acrylic resin a n d
t h e French v e r b coller, m e a n i n g Dry media M e d i a t h a t are n o t
material t o lift away excess liquid. "to stick" lacquer thinner usually applied
wet or oily—for example, charcoal, as an aerosol spray mist t o t h e
Bracelet shading C u r v e d parallel Cold-pressed papers P a p e r pastel, and graphite. surface of a dry-media drawing.
Fixative lightly glues the drawing
lines that follow the contours of manufactured with a "not" or Drypoint A d r a w i n g is scratched to the surface of the paper to
form. Also called ringlet shading. " r o u g h " surface. R o u g h p a p e r is prevent smudging. It can also seal
made between t w o blankets that directly onto a metal plate with a a silver point drawing t o prevent
Body color See Gouache. m e t a l t o o l h e l d like apen.The the oxidization (browning) of the
plate is t h e n rolled w i t h ink a n d
Calligraphy Beautiful handwriting. polished with a rag, so t h a t ink
remains only in the grooves of
F r o m t h e G r e e k kallos, m e a n i n g s c r a t c h e d lines. It is p u t o n a
"beauty". Words or symbols are


metal line. Hairspray is an effective Grisaille A painting in gray or Lifting out A method of creating Monochrome Usually refers to a GLOSSARY
highlights and mid-tones in a dry- black, white, and gray drawing, or a
and inexpensive alternative. a grayish color Often made by media drawing (such as charcoal or drawing made in any single color
graphite). Dark tones are laid down
students as a tonal exercise, and first then an eraser or masking tape Monoprinting A direct method of
is used to lift away particles of the printing in which wet medium
Focus 1 .The degree to which detail by artists representing stone drawing media to reveal the (water-, oil-, or spirit-based) is
lightness of the paper beneath. applied to a surface that is then
is defined. 2. A point of interest in sculptures in a painting. Giotto's pressed onto paper and removed
Lightfast A term confirming that to leave a print. The surface can
a drawing. Virtues and Vices in the Arena pigment in the product will not be reloaded or redrawn with
fade with exposure to light. more medium, but each print will
Chapel, Padua, are painted in be unique. Alternatively, oil-based
Linear perspective A form of printing ink is rolled evenly onto
Foreshortening A method of grisaille and appear to be made a smooth metal, glass, or plastic
perspective in which parallel lines surface. Paper is laid on top and
depicting an object at an angle to of stone. Rubens used grisaille to are represented as converging, a rapid drawing is made on the
to give the illusion of depth back of it The paper lifts away to
the surface of the picture, so that paint small images for engravers. and distance. reveal the image on its other side.
This method incorporates the
(using vanishing point perspective) Grisaille is occasionally seen in Lithography A method of excitement of accidental and
printmaking in which a drawing unpredicted marks.
the object appears to change church stained-glass windows, and or painting is made directly onto
a smooth slab of particular lime- Negative space The space
shape and become narrower or it has a history in enamel work. stone or a metal plate using an oil-
based crayon or ink. After several between things. This may be
smaller as it recedes. This effect intervening processes, the surface disregarded in real life, but in
of the stone is made wet before picture-making it is as important
emulates what we see in real life. Ground A wet solution usually of being rolled with a thin film of oil- as the objects/subjects themselves.
based printing ink. The ink attaches
gouache or gesso (chalk and animal to the oil-based image and is Objective drawing Refers to
repelled by the wet stone. Paper
Form The outer surface of a glue) brushed onto paper board, is then pressed against the stone the concept of objectivity. Usually
to take a print. an academic drawing observed
three-dimensional object. or canvas and allowed to dry from life, aiming to represent facts
Masking fluid Clear or opaque rather than an interpretation of
before an image is drawn or the subject.
latex fluid developed for watercolor
Format The size, shape, and painted.Theground provides painting. It can be used with any Optical blending See Pointillism.
wet media to isolate or protect
orientation of the image. A small a particular color or texture parts of an image from further Papercut A type of collage in
work. Artists can paint freely over which flat sheets of paper are
image might be described as small beneath the image. dry masking fluid, with the area cut into an image.
beneath remaining unaffected. It
format Horizontal images are often is then peeled away. Picture plane In the imaginary space

said to be "landscape format" G u m arabic The natural Masking tape Invaluable, multi- of a picture, it is the plane occupied
by the physical surface of the work
(abbreviated to"landscape"),wsheilceretion of the acacia tree, purpose, sticky paper tape, used
for fixing paper to walls and boards, Pigment Any substance used as
upright images are called "portrait which is used as a binding lifting out charcoal and other dry a coloring agent—for example,
media, and masking off areas of a the finely ground particles of plant,
format" (abbreviated to "portrait"). agent in many liquid media. It drawing that the artist wishes to rock, mineral, or synthetic material
keep untouched by media applied that are suspended in a medium to
improves the bonding properties above or beside the tape. constitute paint.

Frottage A French term meaning of the ingredients in inks and Medium A generic term for art Plumb line A line from which a
materials that produce marks on weight is suspended in order to
"rubbing." A piece of paper is watercolors, enabling them a surface, or can be otherwise used determine verticality or depth.
to create an image—for example,
placed on top of an object or to stick to paper It also helps graphite, ink, pastel, or even a Pointillism A technique of using
beam of light. Also refers to points or dots of pure color in
rough surface, then rubbed over to maintain a stable dispersion an additive used to control the such a way that when the picture is
application properties of a color viewed from a distance they react
carefully but vigorously with a of pigment particles in water

crayon.The paper then bears a as the film of a wash dries. It

crayon impression or copy of the is a strong adhesive, and is also

surface that was underneath it A used as a size.

number of Surrealists, including Max

Ernst used frottage in their work. Hatching (cross-) See Crosshatching.

Fugitive A term given to a pigment Hot-pressed papers (HP)
that it is not stable, and that will
"escape" or change over time. Paper made using hot cylinders,
which give it a smooth surface (as
Gamut A complete range or extent opposed to cold-pressed paper,
which has a rough surface).

Glassine A type of thin, glossy, Hue A term for a color, or a
and translucent paper—a delicate family of colors. Also used by
material used in collage, or for artists' materials manufacturers
wrapping and protecting a finished to indicate the use of a substitute
piece of work. pigment—for example, cadmium
yellow hue.
Golden Section A proportion in
Impressing Stamping or printing.
which a straight line or rectangle
is divided into two unequal parts Key A painting is said to be
in such a way that the ratio of the "high key" when the colors
smaller part to the greater part and tones are bright and "low
is the same as that of the greater key" when they are dark or
part to the whole. somber The term is also used
to describe a surface to which
Gouache Opaque watercolor paint will adhere readily.
Also called body color.


GLOSSARY together optically, creating more Shade A that is color mixed Stylus A sharp, pointed instrument Viewpoint The position from

vibrant effects than if the same (or toned) with black used for marking or engraving. which something is observed

colors were physically mixed or considered.

together with a brush. Shading A lay term for adding Subjective drawing A drawing Volume The amount of space
tone to a drawing. that expresses the personal view occupied by an object or an area
Pouncing If a large drawing or and interpretation of the artist An of space in itself.
design (called a cartoon) is to be Shadow Darkness cast by the invented image.
transferred to a surface such as a obscuring of light.

wall or tapestry, a sheet of paper Support The structure on which Wash A technique using ink,
an image is made—for example, watercolor; or gouache, usually
is placed beneath and pinpricks are Silhouette A flat, cut-out profile paper or canvas. diluted with water and applied
with a brush. Although drawings
made along every outline of the usually made in black paper

image.Thedrawing is remoavnedd,sometimes drawn from a
leaving only the pricked sheet of
shadow cast on a wall. Named Technical drawing A universal can be made with wash alone,

paper in place. Pounce (a fine for an unpopular 18th-century language of lines and measurements it is often used in conjunction

powder of charcoal or similar French politician, Etienne de that is used to make diagrammatic with line drawings in pen and

material) dabbed through the Silhouette (1709-67), whose images.Technicaldrawing hainskb—eefonr example, to model areas

pinpricks creates a "connect-the- personal pastime was making evolved by engineers and architects of light and shade.

dots" replica of the image on the cut-out portraits. for the purpose of conveying
accurate structural information.
plaster or cloth surface beneath. W a t e r c o l o r A painting
compound of water-soluble
Single-point perspective The most
Printmaking The act of making a basic form of linear perspective in Tint A color mixed with white. pigment. The translucent
picture, design, or mark using an inked which there is only one vanishing nature of watercolor allows
or pigment-covered surface, such point, or point on which parallel
as an inscribed sheet of metal, or lines converge to give the impression Tonal scale A scale of gradations the white surface of the paper to
wood, or any physical object that of receding space. in tone running from black to shine through, giving it a brilliance.
can be stamped or pressed onto a
surface to leave an impression. Artists' Size A weak glue used for filling white or vice versa.
prints are normally made in multiple, the porous surface of wood or
which are then called editions. canvas in order to seal it. W e t media Any liquid media—

Tone A degree of lightness or for example, ink, acrylic, or
darkness. watercolor paint.

Props An abbreviation of the word Sketch A quick or rough drawing. Tortillon A short, tight, pointed Zen A school of Mahayana
properties. A term borrowed from roll of white paper that is used to Buddhism that asserts that
the theater; meaning objects used in Spattering A mottled texture blend dry media. Alternatively, a enlightenment can come
setting up a life model or still life. produced by drawing your fingers tightly folded piece of cotton batting through meditation and
can be used for the same effect. intuition rather than faith.

Recto The front or top side of a across the bristles of a stiff brush Turpentine A colorless solvent Zen brushwork This is an
piece of paper, or the right-hand loaded with pigment, in order distilled from the resinous sap of oriental meditative art form
page in a book. to flick the pigment onto the pine trees. The crude material is originating in China and practised
image surface. called oleoresin. "Spirits" or "oil" for many centuries in Japan.
Scale Describes the size of one of turpentine refer to the volatile Zen brushwork encompasses
element in relation to another Squaring up A method of enlarging portion used by artists to thin calligraphy and painting. Zen
and transferring an image from one or dilute oil-based paint. paintings usually depict scenes
Sepia A brown pigment taken surface to another, by imposing of nature and plants such as
from the sun-dried ink sacs of a grid that is then scaled up to Underdrawing A pale preliminary bamboo, orchids, plum blossom,
cuttlefish and used to make ink a larger size. drawing made prior to adding and chrysanthemum—which in
or watercolor The term is now layers of another medium such Chinese tradition are called "The
often incorrectly used to refer Squeegee A rubber-trimmed as oil paint or watercolor Four Gentlemen." Materials for
to brown colors. scraper used in the screen- Zen brushwork include round
printing process for dragging Value The extent to which a brushes of varied size, carbon
Serigraphy Silk-screen printing. ink across a surface. color reflects or transmits light ink, an ink stone usually cut
from slate, fine paper, and

Sfumato An Italian term meaning Still life A picture composed of This is the equivalent of tone in paperweights.
"smoky." Applied to the blurring inanimate objects such as bowls, a black and white image.
or softening of sharp outlines by glasses, fruit, and flowers.
the subtle and gradual blending of Vanishing point In linear
one tone into another Stippling Applying color or tone in perspective, a point at which
areas of fine dots or flecks, using a receding parallel lines meet

Sgraffito A technique of scratching brush, pencil, or pen.

or cutting through a surface of Strip Core of a pencil, commonly Verso The back or underside of
paint, plaster; or ceramic glazing to referred to as the lead. a piece of paper; or the left-hand
reveal a different color beneath. page in a book.

Index 259


Page numbers in italics refer Babur Supervising Out of the Garden bread (as eraser) 205, 242 children's art 9, 9, 74, 75, 75
to captions and illustrations of Fidelity (Bishndas and Brunelleschi, Filippo 67, 74 Circle of the Lustful (Blake)
Nanha) 50,50, 71 brush (es) 246-247
A 180, 180
Bacchante (Bakst) 155 Japanese 248 Circular Score for "Due Voce"
Abe. Mamaru 104, 220, 230 background: color 91 for laying a wash 140
The Physical Space 220 marks 248-249 (Bussotti) 223
textured 240 to hold 23 circus scenes 192-195
abstract drawing 219, 222, Baker Matthew: Fragments of brush drawings 14-15 City (Bryan) 202, 203
226-227 Bryan, Clare 203 Claude Lorrain 202
Ancient English Shipwrightry 32 City 202, 203
Acanthus spinosus 65 Bakst, Leon: Bacchante 155 Landline 202, 203 Views from Velletri 202, 202
accelerated perspective 22, 98. balance, center of 118 Buffalo Hunt (Shoshone) 178, 179 cloth, to depict 156-157
ballpoint 182, 182, 189, 193 Bussotti, Sylvano 222, 223 Cloudburst of Material Possessions
116,117 Circular Score for "Due Voce" 223
Achilles Chases Hector (Thomas) in lifting out 204, 205 (Leonardo) 200, 201
Baltard, Victor: West Facade of the c collage 111,226, 230-231
240, 241
action, to express 39,184,186 Church of St. Augustin 67 calligraphy, Zen 232-233 Cubist 90, 90
Basquiat, Jean Michel 138 to hold brush for 23 colored materials 162-163
see also movement colored pencils 162, 163,169
Adoration of the Magi perspective Self-Portrait 138 caricature 159,184, 190 colors: airbrushed 161
Bateau-Vision, Le (Hugo) 200, 200 Caricature of a Woman (Daumier)
study (Leonardo) 74, 74, 78 Bauer; Franz 48 background 91
aerial perspective 206 198, 198 blended 133,163
airbrushing 160, 161 Protea nitida 48 cartoon (preparatory drawing) 137 graded 227
Akhlaq-I Rasul Allah manuscript Bellini, Giovanni 137 composition 56-57, 71
(satirical) 159,198, 198, conte 112,162
51,51 Head and Shoulders of a Man 247-248 Conte, Nicolas-Jacques 54
All and Nothing (Taylor) 114,115 136, 137 contours 146, 165, 244
anatomical drawing 134-135 carving see lines, cut head and neck 144
anatomical theaters 82-83 Besler; Basilius 47 Catling, Brian 226 phrased 124-125
anatomical waxes 128 Beuys, Joseph 113 contrast: brightness 99
ancient carvings 221, 221 Untitled 2001 226 of media 30
animals, to draw 25, 38-39, The Secret Block for a Secret "Cave of the Hands" tonal 96, 134
Person in Ireland 112, 113 costume(s) 155
40-41 (Cueva de las Manas) 8, 8 character 158-159
Durer's rhinoceros 26, 26 bird bones 12,13,44-45 cave paintings 8, 9 structure of 166-167
geese 38-39 bird studies 12, 13,44-45, 250 Chair (Van Gogh) 94, 95 Cottage Among Trees (Rembrandt)
Gericault's cats 28, 29 Bishndas and Nanha: Babur Chair Cut Out (Woodfine) 94, 94 52, 52
Hugo's octopus 28, 28 chalk(s) 53,89,133, 135, 244 cotton swabs 205
Klee's horses 30,31 Supervising Out of the Garden of Coup de Vent a Asajigabare
Picasso's horse and bird 30, 30 Fidelity 50, 50, 71 and graphite 178 (Hokusai) 198, 199
sleeping dog 38-39 layers 53 Courtesan Koimurasaki ofTama-ya
Stubbs's horse skeleton Blake, William: The Circle of the chalk pastels 162, 162 (Eisen) 156, 157
Lustful 180, 180 character: to capture 38-39, 41 cropping 56-57, 133, 158, 160
26,27 principal 186, 186 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up Object
turtles 42-43 blending: color 133,163 charcoal 114, 204-205, 206, 242 (Moore) 178, 178
aquatint 240 dry media 205 to blend 205 Cubism 67, 90, 90,100
Archimedes' Screws and Water compressed 122, 128, 204,212 curves, to draw 80, 81
Wheels (Leonardo) 12, 13 Blue Nude (Matisse) 110, 111,163 to erase 205 cut-out model plan 94, 94
architectural drawing 67-71 body, to model 110-111 to hold 23 cylindrical objects, to draw 100
Arctic Flowers (Libeskind) border 51 pencils 204 Cypripedium calceolus L.
70, 70 Bosch, Hieronymus 243 willow 114, 206 (Ross-Craig) 49
Art Nouveau motifs 91 checkered floor 80, 81
Autoportrait (Ray) 138, 139 Two Monsters 242, 243
botanical drawing 48-49
Boullee, Etienne-Louis 72

Newton's Cenotaph 72, 72
bracelet shading 122
Braque, Georges 67, 90

La Guitare, Statue d'Epouvante 90


INDEX D Durelli, Antonio 135 Flying Fish (White) 25, 25 Grandville 243
Muscles of the Head and Neck focus 65, 113, 124, 125, 161 A Volvox Epidemic Strikes the
Dada 139 134, 135 Near-Microscopic World
Daumien Honore 198 changing 216 of Scale Insects 242, 243
Duren Albrecht 26,109 Focusing on the Negative (Walter) 16
Caricature of a Woman Rhinoceros 26, 26 foliage 52, 52 graphic score 222, 223, 223
198,198 foreground 208, 216 graphite 54, 73, 134, 241
E foreshortening 110,116,117
Degas, Edgar 162 fountain pens 34, 37 to blend 205
depth, to suggest 177 easel, position of 22 Fragments of Ancient English and chalk 178
Eisen, Keisai 157 and ink 28, 222
see also perspective Shipwrightry (Baker) 32, 32 Grimes, Oona 245
diagonals 57,207,216 The Courtesan Koimurasaki framing 139 How Clever of God #84
diffuser 55 ofTama-ya 156,157 Franfoise au Bandeau (Picasso)
dip pens 34,37, 40, 122,216, 234 244, 245
disposable pens 182-183 ellipses 100,101 132, 132 Gruau, Rene 160
dissections: botanical 48 engraving 243 Frenz, Ron 161
erasers/erasing 55, 55, 205 Illustration for Jacques Fath
of horse 27 Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through
distance: illusion of see perspective drawing with 103, 112, 115 City 161 160, 160
Escher, M. C . 99
linear 97 etching, drypoint 181 Guell Crypt at the Time of its
tonal 97 exaggeration 184 Construction (Gaudi) 68, 69
Documents Decoratifs, Study for expressionism 198
Plate 59 (Mucha) 90, 91 Eye and Head of a Drone Fly Guitare, Statue d'Epouvante, La
Dragon (Michelangelo) 36,244,244 (Braque) 90, 90
drawing(s): abstract 219, 222, (Hooke) 92, 93
eye level 80 G H
226-227 Eye Like a Strange Balloon Mounts
anatomical 134-135 Gaudi, Antonio 68, 69,104, 230 hands, to draw 78, 120, 122
architectural 67-71 Toward Infinity, The 242, 242 Guell Crypt at the Time of its Hawksmoor, Nicholas 68
botanical 48-49 eyes, position of 143, 144 Construction 68, 69
brush 14-15 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt St Paul's Baptistry 68
dark to light 102,103 F 68,69 head and neck to draw 142-145
with eraser 103,112,115 Head and Shoulders of a Man
exploratory 17 fabric, to draw 168-169 Gerard, Jean Ignace Isidore see
fantasy 72-73,160, 161 in Goya's artworks 170-173 Grandville (Bellini) 136, 137
fashion 160, 160 heads, to draw 134-137
hitsuzendo 233 face, proportions of 143 Gericault,Theodore 29 Helleborus corsicus 55
light to dark 102,103,146 fantasy drawings 72-73,160, 161 Sketches of a Wild Striped Cat highlights 91, 134, 163, 765
from masterworks 126-127, fashion drawings 160, 160 28, 29 hitsuzendo drawings 233
Faune, Cheval et Oiseau (Picasso) Hokusai, Katsushika 199
170-173,252-253 Gestalt 222
from memory 183,189, 190 30, 30 Giacometti, Alberto 136 Coup de Vent a Asajigahare
Middle Eastern 50-51, 71 Fauves/fauvism 90,111 198, 799
minimal line 99 feet, to draw 120,121 Portrait of Marie-Laure de
and music 70-71 felt-tip pens 162, 163, 165,166 Noailles 136, 136 Holbein, Hans 133
quick 38-39, 41 fiber-tip pen 182,184 The Ambassadors 116
in the round 208-209 five Ships in a Port with Lighthouse Golden Section 67 Portrait of Dorothea
with scalpel 202, 203 Gombrich, Sir Ernst 12, 90 Kannengiesser 132, 7 33
semi-abstract 234-237 (Wallis) 11,12 gouache 30,91, 134, 160
three-dimensional 68, 69, fixative 54, 55, 55, 162 Hooke, Robert 93
Flaxman.John 157 as ground for metal point Eye and Head of a Drone Fly
104-105,230 140,141,144 92, 93
three-tone 140,141, 141 Man Lying Down in a Cloak
tonal 96,97,102-103 156, 157 and ink 30, 245 horizon 52, 79, 202, 203
drawing board 20 layers 30 Hotel de la Suzonnieres (Satie)
drawing books 20-21 Goya, Francisco de 131, 240
drawing paper 144, 220 70, 77
dry brush 234 Black Paintings 152, 240, 252 How Clever of God #84
depiction of fabric 170-173
244, 245
monsters 252-253 Hugo, Victor 200, 222
Self Portrait in a Cocked Hat
Le Bateau-Vision 200, 200
130, 131
Tambien ay Mascaras de
Borricos 240, 240


Pieuvre (Octopus) 28, 28 Kinecar,The (Robinson) 108, 181 lighting 2 7, 72,96,102,104,120,167 Study ofThree Male Figures INDEX
Two Impressions from a Klee, Paul 227 line(s) 132, 220,227 110, 110

Cut-out Paper Disk 222 Polyphonic Setting for White to "bend" straight 97 Sistine Chapel ceiling 116
Huyler Stephen R 225 226, 227 compositional 228-229 Middle Eastern drawing 50-51, 77
cut 202, 203, 220, 221 Miller; Rose: Tantalus or the Future
I Scene of Comical Riders 30, 31 endless 31
Klimt, Gustav 49 free 113, 114 of Man 20
illumination see lighting Knopf, Johan 32,33 hatched 244 minimal line drawing 99
Illustration forJacques Fath layered 118 mirror use of 120
Mysterious Affairs of the pace of 65 mixed media 28, 226
(Gruau) 160, 160 Murderous Attacks 33 pale 40 Modernism 67, 219
In the Duchess's Kitchen (Rackham) rapid 49,124, 166, 183 Mondrian, Piet 52, 53
Kollwitz, Kathe 181 vertical 156
176, 177 Losbrunch (The Outbreak) 180,181 linear distance 97 Tree II 52, 53
influences, artistic 240-241, 252 linear perspective 69, 74-77, 78 monoprint 787,182
ink 16, 34-35 L lithograph 198 Moore, Henry 178
Losbruch (Kollwitz) 180, 181
acrylic 35 Landline (Bryan) 202, 203 luminosity 115 Crowd Looking at Tied-Up
bistre 35,243 landscape 206-208 Lynch, David 78 Object 178, 178
carbon 35
Chinese 30, 34, 35, 248, 249 brushed 14 M motifs: A r t Nouveau 9 7
and gouache 30 Landscape in Hoboku Style stylized 51
Indian 35,276, 234 Mackintosh, Charles Rennie 48, 49
iron-gall 35, 36, 159 (Sesshu) 14 Rose 49 mountains 216-217
Japanese 35 layers 146 movement: of animals 30-31
to make 36 Maelbeke Madonna (Van Eyck)
sepia 35 chalk 53 156, 156 of humans 7 79, 184, 185
walnut 36, 83 gouache 30 Mucha, Alphonse 90,91
white 122 ink 28, 37 magnification 93
ink impressions 222 lines 118 Man in Armor (Van Dyck) Study for Plate 59 of
ink spatters 234 pastel 162 Documents Decoratifs 90,
installations 176, 176, 220, pencil 31, 54 158, 158 97
220. 230 silver point 156 Man Lying Down in a Cloak
invented creatures 250-251 leg sections 158 Murillo, Bartolome: Moses Striking
invented objects 89, 99, length, apparent 97 (Flaxman) 156, 757 the Rock ofHoreb 252, 252
106-107 Leonardo da Vinci 74,109, 201 mandalas 219, 225
Archimedes' Screws and Water masking tape 204, 205 Muscles of the Head and Neck
J masterworks, drawing from (Durelli) 134, 135
Wheels 12, 13
justness 228-229 Cloudburst of Material 126-127, 170-173, 252-253 museums 44,166
Matisse, Henri 111 La Specola, Florence 128
K Possessions 200, 201 lighting in 167
head and neck sections of Blue Nude 1110, 111, 163 Pitt Rivers, Oxford 106
Kettlehut, Erich 73 pens 36 Prado, Madrid 171
design for Metropolis 72, 73 female mold for Sforza measuring 116 University Museum of Natural
Horse 89 memory, drawing from 183, History, Oxford 250
Kigell, Phyll: hands 18 Madonna of the Rocks 244 789, 190
perspective study for Adoration metal pens see dip pens music 70-71
metal point 25,141, 756 Mysterious Affairs of the Murderous
of the Magi 74, 76 priming for 140,141
Libeskind, Daniel 70 Metropolis (film) 72, 73 Attacks (Knopf) 32, 33
Michelangelo Buonarroti
Arctic Flowers 70 N
Lieb, Marie 244 98,109, 244
Dragon 36, 244, 244 naive art 74
cloth drawing 244, 244 ink 36 negative space 53, 58-59, 60,
lifting out 204, 205, 242
light 96 63, 103
Neolithic chalk tablet 220, 227
to depict 48,112,115 Newsome, Victor 134
drawing with 1 76
painting with 176 Profile Head 134,134

INDEX262 to make 36 age and youth 148-149 Renaissance 109
metal see dip sleeping subjects 150-151 Rhinoceros (Durer) 26, 26
Newton, Isaac 92 quill 34, 36,36, 38,759, pose(s): balanced 146 Riley, Bridget 98
Telescope 92 quick 118-119 Robinson, Heath 181
243, 244 positive form 103
Newton's Cenotaph (Boullee) reed 34, 36, 36 posture: of artist 22 The Kinecar 180. 181
72, 72 pen and brush 83 of subject 38,124 Rodin, Auguste 114
pen and ink 70, 34-35, priming for metal point 140,141
Noble, Paul 73 40-41,52 prints/printing: aquatint 240 Two Women Embracing
Nobson Central 72, 73 pen and wash 158, 181 dry-point etching 181 114, 114
pencil(s) 54 engraving 243
Noble,Tim, and Webster; Sue charcoal 204 monoprint 181, 782 rollerball 182
104,176 colored 762, 163,169 relief 757 Rorschach blot 99
to hold 22-23 silk-screen 739 Rose (Mackintosh) 48, 49
Real Life Is Rubbish 176, J 76 layers 31,54 woodblock 157,199 Rose of Mohammed 50, 57
nudes 114-115 pastel 162 Profile Head (Newsome) Ross-Craig, Stella 48
perspective 100,116 134, 734
0 accelerated 22,98,116,117 Protea nitida (Bauer) 48, 4 8 Cypripedium calceolus L 49
aerial 206 putty eraser 55, 205 rotated view 7 65
oil pastels 162, 162 linear 69, 74-77, 78 Rubens, Peter Paul 126-127
Op Art 98 single-point 74, 74, 76-79,
optical illusions 96-99 Q s
outline 33, 160, 161, 164, 165 97, 7 77
three-point 80, 81 quill pens 34, 36, 36, 38, 159, Saint-Mary-Castle-Giant-Grape
figure 118 two-point 74, 75 243, 244 (Wolfli) 2 79
filled 37 Petroglyph Figure in the Wind River
pencil 48, 91 Range 241 R St.Paul'sBaptistry (Hawksmoor)
outsider artists 33, 219, 224 petroglyphs 221,240, 241 68. 68
Physical Space, The (Abe) 220 Rackham, Arthur 177 Satie, Erik 70,71
P Picasso, Pablo 6 7 , 9 0 , 1 3 2 In the Duchess's Kitchen 176,7 77 Hotel de la Suzonnieres 70, 71
Faune, Cheval et Oiseau 30, 30 Satire of the Queen's Dress
Page, Russell 228, 230 Fran<;oise au Bandeau rapidograph 70 (Wodall) 158, 759
paper(s) 21 Raphael 110, 7 70
132, 732 Ray, Man 131,139 scalpel 54
colored 162 influence of 240
drawing 144, 212 painting with light 78,104 Autoportrait 138, 139 drawing with 202, 203
Japanese 21,220 Pieuvre (Hugo) 28, 28 Real Life is Rubbish (Noble and Scene of Comical Riders (Klee)
for oil pastels 162 pigment 162
stained 230 bright 50 Webster) 176, 7 76 30,37
to stretch 140-141 Caput Mortuum 7 4 7 receding space 206 scientific instruments 92-93
tissue 21,226, 230 for three-tone drawing Redon, Odilon 242 Schongauer, Martin 238, 239
parallel planes 79
Parisian street 86-87 141, 141 The Eye Like a Strange Balloon Saint Anthony Tormented by
pastels 162 Piranesi, Giovanni Battista 74, 75 Mounts Toward Infinity Demons 238, 239
to blend 205 242, 242
to hold 23 Two Courtyards 75, 76 Seated Boy with a Straw Hat
layers 162 plastic eraser 55, 103, 205 reed pens 34, 36, 36 (Seurat) 112, 7 72
pencils 162 pointillism 112 relief printing 757
pen(s): dip 34 ,37,37, 38,40, 122, polyphonic painting 227 Rembrandt van Rijn 52,131 Secret Block for a Secret Person in
Polyphonic Setting for White (Klee) Ireland,The (Beuys) 112, 7 73
216, 234 Cottage Among Trees 52, 52
disposable 182-183 226, 227 pens 36 self-portraits: Basquiat 138, 7 38
felt-tip 162, 163, 165, 166 portfolios 20 Ray 138, 739
fiber-tip 782,184 Portrait of Dorothea Kannengiesser
fountain 34, 37 semi-abstract drawings 234-237
(Holbein) 132, 733 Sesshu,Toyo: Landscape in Hoboku
Portrait de Marie-Laure de Noailles
Style 14
(Giacometti) 136, 736 Seurat, Georges 112
portraits, to draw 146-147
Seated Boy with a Straw Hat
112, 772

u 263

Sforza Horse, h e a d a n d n e c k Taylor Anita 115 Untitled ( T w o m b l y ) 2 2 0 , 2 2 7 White, John 25 INDEX
sections of female mold for All and Nothing 1 1 4 , 7 75 Untitled 2001 ( C a t l i n g ) Flying Fish 25
(Leonardo) 89
Telescope ( N e w t o n ) 9 2 , 9 2 226, 226 Wild Striped Cat Sketches of
shading 29 Tesshu.Yamaoka 233 (Gericault) 28, 29
s h a d o w s 28, 49, 57, 96,120, 125, t e x t u r e 2 2 2 , 249 V
wind, to draw 198-199
2 3 4 , 2 4 4 , 245 to describe 39,41, 725 V a n D y c k , A n t h o n y 1 5 2 , 152,158 wire, drawing with 104-105
sharpener 54 fabric 168 Man in Armor 1 5 8 , 158 Wire Sculpture of Guell Crypt
Ship in a Storm ( T u r n e r ) 1 9 8 , 199 Thomas, Paul 241
shoes 164-165 Achilles Chases Hector 2 4 0 , 2 4 7 Van Eyck, Jan 156 (Gaudi) 68, 69
shorthand diagram 142 three-dimensional drawing 68, 69, Maelbeke Madonna 1 5 6 , 156 Wodall, William 159
Shoshone buffalo hide painting 104-105, 230
three-tone drawing 140, Van Gogh, Vincent 95 Satire of the Queen's Dress
178, 7 79 1 4 1 , 141 Chair 94, 9 5 158, 159
Shoshone petroglyph 240, Three Male Figures, Study of pens 36
(Michelangelo) 110, 7 70 W o l f l i , A d o l f : Saint-Mary-Castle
241,241 T i b e r 214-215 vanishing point 74, 74, 75, 76, 77, Giant-Grape 219
s i l k - s c r e e n p r i n t i n g 139 tissue paper 21, 226, 230 79, 161, 1 7 7
silver p o i n t 1 4 0 - 1 4 1 , 1 4 4 - 1 4 5 , 156 tonal contrast 96 Woman at Her Toilet ( T o u l o u s e
tonal distance 97 free 80 Lautrec) 74
layers 756 tonal drawing 96, 97, V e n i c e , v i e w s o f 85, 182, 1 8 4 , 1 6 ,
priming for 140,141 102-103 w o o d b l o c k p r i n t 157,199
Simblet, Sarah: child's map 75, 75 tonal marks, phrased 146 186, 790 Woodfine, Sarah 94
Skeleton of the Horse ( S t u b b s ) tonal modeling 161 vessels, t o draw 101
26,27 tonal range 169 viewfinder 57 Chair Cut Out 94, 9 4
skull 747, 743 tonal surfaces 227 Views from Velletri ( C l a u d e L o r r a i n )
Spider-Girl Free-Falling Through tonal width 97 z
City ( F r e n z ) 1 6 0 , 7 6 1 t o n e ( s ) 33, 115,125 202, 202
spots, b l o w n 248 contrast 96 Z e n calligraphy 232-233
steel pens see dip pens to grade 163 violin, three-dimensional 104-105
still life 89, 9 0 - 9 1 ink 37 vision 96
storms, to draw 200-201,212-213 pencil 54 Volvox Epidemic Strikes the Near-
Stubbs, George 27 t o r t i l l o n 205
Skeleton of the Horse 26, 2 7 Toulouse Lautrec, Henri de: Microscopic World ofScale
studies: birds 72,13, 44 Insects (Grandville) 242,243
boat 209 Woman at Her Toilet 14
botanical 49 transparent view 92, 164, 166 w
Gericault's cats 29 trapezius muscle 142, 145
f r o m G o y a 170-173 travel journal 20,184-185 Wallis, Alfred 11,12
Leonardo's machines 12,13 Tree II ( M o n d r i a n ) 52, 53 Five Ships in Port with Lighthouse
Michelangelo's male figures trees, to draw 52-53 71,12

110, 170 in l a n d s c a p e 2 0 6 , 206-207 W a l t e r ; John: Focusing on the
shoes 164 Turner,J. M.W. 199, 200 Negative 14
stylized m o t i f 51
Summer Flowers 63, 65 Ship in a Storm 1 9 8 , 1 9 9 wash, t o lay 140,141
symbols 138, 242 Two Courtyards (Piranesi) 75, 7 6 watercolor 25, 69, 714,140, 7 77,
Two Impressions from a Cut-Out
T 199,216
Paper Disk ( H u g o ) 2 2 2 Webster; Sue see Noble,Tim
Tambien ay Mascaras de Borricos Two Monsters ( B o s c h ) W e s t Fagade of the Church of
( G o y a ) 2 4 0 , 240
2 4 2 , 243 St. Augustin ( B a l t a r d ) 6 7
Two Women Embracing ( R o d i n ) wet and dry brush-strokes 249

114, 174
T w o m b l y , C y 138, 2 2 0

influence of 240

Untitled 220, 221



Author's Acknowledgments: Berlin, Orientabteilung/Ruth Schacht; 52: The Metropolitan
Museum of Art/Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929 (29.100.939);
The author wishes to thank the following people for their 53: Collection of the Gemeentemuseum Den Haag/Mondrian
enormous help, support, and encouragement in making this book: Trust; 66:, Paris, France;
68: Library, Corporation of London, U K ;
Mamoru Abe, Rocio Arnaez, Carole Ash, Diana Bell, Roddy 69: Institut Amatller d'Art Hispanic (tl), Productions Clovis Prevost
Bell, Clare Bryan, Len, Flossie, Finn, Jack and Brian Catling, (c); 70: Studio Daniel Libeskind; 71: IMEC/Archives Erik Satie;
Andy Crawford, Antonia Cunliffe Davis, Christopher Davis, 72: akg-images; 73: Berlin Film Museum (t), Maureen Paley Interim Art
Sammy De Grave, Jackie Douglas, Sarah Duncan, Mandy Earey, (b); 74: Corbis; 75: © The British Museum (b); 88:
Sir Brinsley Ford, Natalie Godwin, Oona Grimes, Tony Grisoni, /Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid; 90: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux
Dawn Henderson, Phyll Kiggell, Bemd Kunzig, Sophie Laurimore, Agence Photographique/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2005;
Simon Lewis, Peter Luff, Heather McCarry, George McGavin, 91: Trust; 92: Science Photo Library;
Julie Oughton, Ruth Parkinson, Angela Palmer, Anna Plucinska, 93: The Wellcome Institute Library, London; 94: Sarah Woodfine;
Paula Regan, John Roberts, Jon Roome, Gina Rowland, Jean 95: Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam; 108: Arts Council Collection,
Pierre Roy, Rosemary Scoular, Helen Shuttleworth, Roy and Hayward Gallery; 110: Collection;
Dianne Simblet, Kevin and Rebecca Slingsby, Patty Stansfield, 111: Fondation Beyeler/Riehen (Bale)/© Succession H Matisse/DACS
Anita Taylor, Paul Thomas, Agnieszka Mlicka, Kirsten Norrie, 2005; 112: Yale University Art Gallery/Everett V Meeks, B.A. 1901,
John Walter, Angela Wilkes, Kathryn Wilkinson, Sarah Woodfine, Fund; 113: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett.
and Tamsin Woodward Smith. Staatliche Museen z u Berlin/Jorg P. Anders/ © D A C S 2 0 0 5 ;
114: Musee Rodin, Paris; 115: Anita Taylor; 130: The Metropolitan
Also, The Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art, Wolfson Museum of Art/Robert Lehman Collection, 1975 (1975.1.976);
College, and Departments of Entomology and Zoology at the 132: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee
University of Oxford. Picasso, Paris; 133: Artothek/Kupferstichkabinett, Kunstmuseum,
Basel; 134: © The British Museum; 135: The Wellcome Institute
Publisher's Acknowledgments Library, London; 136: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence
Photographique/Centre Pompidou-MNAM-CCI, Paris; 137: © The
Dorling Kindersley would like to thank Caroline Hunt for editorial British Museum; 138: © Christie's Images Ltd/©A D AGP, Paris and
contribution, Pamela Ellis for compiling the index, Carlo Ortu for DACS, London 2005; 139: Galerie Marion Meyer/© Man Ray Trust /
picture research support, Andy Crawford for photography and ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2005; 154: akg-images/Musee
L. Cornelison & Son, London, for supplying the drawing books, National d'Art Moderne; 156: Graphische Sammlung Albertina;
papers, and brushes on pp.20-21 and 246-47. 157: U C L Art Collections - Strang Print Room (b), Courtesy of the
Trustees of the V & A (t); 158: Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon,
Picture Credits Portugal; 159: Bodleian Library, University of Oxford; 160: Rene
GRUAU s.a.r.l./Galerie Sylvie Nissen; 161: D C Comics Inc.;
8: Corbis/Hubert Stadler; 11:'s Yard, 174: Artothek/Munich, Graphische Sammlung; 176: Modem Art,
University of Cambridge, U K ; 13: London/courtesy of Stuart Shave; 177: Mary Evans Picture Library;
Collection; 15: National Museum, 178: © The British Museum/Henry Moore Foundation;
Japan; 16: des Augustins, Toulouse, 179: Collection; 180:
France; 17: John Walter; 19: Getty Images/© Succession Picasso / /© Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery; 181: Bildarchiv Preufiischer
DACS 2005; 24: © The British Museum; 26: Kulturbesitz, Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin,
Museum; 27: Royal Academy of Arts, London/Bequeathed by Charles B e r l i n , Germany/Joerg P. Anders./© D A C S 2 0 0 5 ( t ) , Illustrated
Landseer, R.A., 1879; 28: Bibliotheque Nationale De France, Paris; London News Picture Library/The Bystander (b); 196: Museum of
29: Fogg A n Museum/Collections Baron de Vita: Grenville L. Winthrop; the History of Science; 198: Dover Publications; 199: Reunion Des
30: Reunion Des Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee Musees Nationaux Agence Photographique/Musee des arts asiatiques-
Picasso, Paris/ © Succession Picasso / D A C S 2005; 3 1 : Tom Powel Guimet,Paris (b), © Tate, London (t); 200: Bibliotheque Nationale
Imaging. Inc./Private Collection/© DACS 2005; 32: Pepys Library, De France, Paris; 201: The Royal Collection © 2002 Her Majesty
Magdalene College Cambridge; 33: Prinzhom Collection, Psychiatric Queen Elizabeth II; 202: © The British Museum; 203: Clare Bryan
Institute of the University of Heidelberg, Germany; 46: British (t); 218: Adolf-Wdlfli-Stiftung, Kunstmuseum Bern; 220: Mamaru
Library, London; 48: The Natural History Museum, London; Abe; 221: Gagosian Gallery/Private Collection (b), Salisbury & South
49: Hunterian Museum (t), Copyright Trustees of the Royal Botanic Wiltshire Museum (t); 222: Pierre Georgel/Private Collection;
Gardens, K e w ft)); 5 0 : Courtesy of the Trustees of the V & A (1), (r); 223: Lebrecht Music and Arts Photo Library/Ricordi, BMG, Italy,
51: Bildarchiv Preufiischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin/Staatsbibliothek zu 224: Prinzhom Collection, Psychiatric Institute of the University
of Heidelberg, Germany; 225: Stephen P Huyler; 226: Brian Catling;
227: Paul Klee Stiftung, Kunstmuseum Bern/© DACS 2005;
238: akg-images; 2 4 0 : Loan to the
Hamburg Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Germany; 241: Corbis/David
Muench (b), Paul Thomas (t); 242: Photo Scala, Florence/MoMA,
NY; 243: Bildarchiv PreuSischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin/Kupferstichkabinett,
Berlin (b), Dover Publications/ISBN: 0486229912 (t); 244: Ashmolean
Museum, Oxford; 245: Oona Grimes.

All other images © Sarah Simblet


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