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Published by , 2017-08-02 00:09:13

8THGRADE

8THGRADE

What Are The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)?

Eighth Grade

U.S. History to 1877

SAISD Social Studies Department

406 Barrera Street • San Antonio, Texas • 78210

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 1

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What Are The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)?

What Are The TEKS?
The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (or TEKS for short) is a list of what you need to know
and what you should be able to do by the time you finish a course in any subject area. If you
went to any school in the state of Texas since Kindergarten, your teachers were provided
with the TEKS for what they were teaching.
Why Are They Important?
It is important to know what the TEKS are so you know what is expected of you during the
year. Also, since you are going to be assessed by a state exam (STAAR) this year, the TEKS let
you know what information might be on the test.
Where Can I Find Them?
The TEKS are posted on the Texas Education Agency’s website found at http://
ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter113. You can also search for them on the internet by
using “U.S. History Since 1877 TEKS” as your keywords.
How Do I Read Them?
At first glance, the TEKS for any subject look like an outline for a research paper.

(3) History. The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in the
United States from 1877 to 1898. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze political issues such as Indian policies, the growth of political
machines, civil service reform, and the beginnings of Populism;
(B) analyze economic issues such as industrialization, the growth of railroads, the
growth of labor unions, farm issues, the cattle industry boom, the rise of
entrepreneurship, free enterprise, and the pros and cons of big business;
(C) analyze social issues affecting women, minorities, children, immigrants,
urbanization, the Social Gospel, and philanthropy of industrialists; and
(D) describe the optimism of the many immigrants who sought a better life in
America.

How the TEKS look online

They appear like that because they are part of the Texas Education Code (TEC) and the
Texas Administrative Code (TAC). In other words, they are part of state law.

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What Are The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)?

What Am I Looking At?
When you look at the TEKS, they seem complicated at first. However, when you first look at
anything new, you tend to look at different pieces before understanding the big picture. For
example, when you are shown a picture, most will look at the different details before
determining whether or not you like the picture as a whole. Understanding the TEKS and what
you need to know by the end of the year is like the same thing.
What Are The Parts Of The TEKS?
Whether you are in science, social studies, math, language arts, band, or physical
education, there are TEKS that outline what is to be taught. No matter which subject area, all
TEKS have four basic parts.
Part 1: The Strand

The strand is a group of TEKS that have a common theme or concept that they share.
In social studies, there are eight different strands that the TEKS are classified by:
1. History - The people, places, and events
2. Geography - How people affect the planet, how people affect people, and how

the planet affects people
3. Economics - How people/governments create/lose wealth
4. Government - How different types of governments are created, how they operate,

and how they change over time
5. Citizenship - How people in different societies participate in government
6. Culture - How different societies live and interact with other societies
7. Science, Technology and Society - How advancements in technology, science,

and medicine affect societies
8. Social Studies Skills - How to develop research, reading, thinking, writing, and

communication skills
Part 2: The Knowledge Statement

The knowledge statement is always the sentence that follows a number in the TEKS. The
knowledge statement gives you the big idea or concept that has to be understood.
Part 3: The Student Expectation
The student expectation is the part of the TEKS that always follow a letter in the TEKS.
The student expectation tells you exactly what you need to know as it relates to the
knowledge statement.
More importantly, student expectations are not just lists of stuff you have to memorize
and repeat back. They tell you how much you have to understand something and
how you are going to show how well you know it.

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What Are The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)?

So What Do I Do?
The important thing to remember when looking at the TEKS is understanding exactly what
you need to know and how you can explain it back to someone else. Before going any
further, lets take some time to break down a few of the TEKS for U.S. History for practice.

Strand Knowledge Statement

Student (3) History. The student understands the political, economic, and
Expectations social changes in the United States from 1877 to 1898. The
student is expected to:

(A) analyze political issues such as Indian policies, the
growth of political machines, civil service reform, and the
beginnings of Populism;

(B) analyze economic issues such as industrialization, the
growth of railroads, the growth of labor unions, farm issues,
the cattle industry boom, the rise of entrepreneurship, free
enterprise, and the pros and cons of big business;

(C) analyze social issues affecting women, minorities,
children, immigrants, urbanization, the Social Gospel, and
philanthropy of industrialists; and

(D) describe the optimism of the many immigrants who
sought a better life in America.

So, in our example above, the student expectations (A-D) belong in the HISTORY strand.
Therefore, we know that the student expectations have to do with people, places, and
events from the past. Also, we read the stem and we then find out that the student
expectations (A-D) have something to do with the political, economic, and social changes
in the United States during the years 1877-1898. Finally, we read the student expectations to
find out what specific things we need to find out about and at what level do we need to
understand them.

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 4

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What Are The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)?

(3) History. The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in the
United States from 1877 to 1898. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze political issues such as Indian policies, the growth of political
machines, civil service reform, and the beginnings of Populism;
(B) analyze economic issues such as industrialization, the growth of railroads, the
growth of labor unions, farm issues, the cattle industry boom, the rise of
entrepreneurship, free enterprise, and the pros and cons of big business;
(C) analyze social issues affecting women, minorities, children, immigrants,
urbanization, the Social Gospel, and philanthropy of industrialists; and
(D) describe the optimism of the many immigrants who sought a better life in
America.

To take a deeper look, let’s take one student expectation and make a sentence out of it:
(3) (A) The student is expected to analyze political issues such as
Indian policies, the growth of political machines, civil service
reform, and the beginnings of Populism.

Now, break down the sentence into pieces:
• Students are expected to analyze the political issue of Indian Policies.
• Students are expected to analyze the political issue of the growth of political
machines.
• Students are expected to analyze the political issue of civil service reform.
• Students are expected to analyze the political issue of the beginnings of Populism.

Keep in mind that the four items listed above are things that were going on from 1877-1898.
(We know this from the Stem portion)
Notice that the word analyze is underlined in each of the sentences above. Another
important feature of the student expectations is the verb. All student expectations have
verbs and the state uses different verbs throughout the TEKS. The verbs are clues to how
much you know about a certain topic.
Sometimes, the state expects you to identify (recall) something. Other times, the state wants
you to analyze (examine what something means and understand why something is
important) people, places, and events. Therefore, it is important to look at the entire
sentence to find out not only the what you need to know but also the skills you need to show.

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 5

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What Are The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)?

Returning to Breaking It Down
Now we have examined one single student expectation, lets go back to it one more time to
string together what we need to do.

The student is expected to analyze political issues such as Indian
policies, the growth of political machines, civil service reform,
and the beginnings of Populism.
Now that we have defined what we have to know, we have to investigate political issues
during the years between 1877 and 1898 and:
• Define political machines, Indian policies, growth of political machines, civil service
reform, and the beginnings of Populism.
• Explain how political machines, Indian policies, growth of political machines, civil
service reform, and the beginnings of Populism were political issues during 1877
through 1898.
• Analyze how political machines, Indian policies, growth of political machines, civil
service reform, and the beginnings of Populism affected people and events politically
during 1877 through 1898.
We have just examined one student expectation out of the 130 student expectations in U.S.
History Since 1877.

Putting All The Pieces Together:
If you examine the chart on Page 10, you will see the people, places, events and concepts
that are covered in your TEKS. It seems overwhelming in the beginning to look at all of the
student expectations and trying to figure out how all of this information will stay in your
memory. However, when examining the student expectations, you will begin to notice
patterns of how things are connected together!

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 6

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What Are The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)?

The TEKS is not only about people, places, and events from the past. The TEKS are also about
developing your skills to think as a historian, economist, geographer, and political scientist.
The Social Studies Skills are a series of student expectations that are listed at the end of every
subject and grade level since Kindergarten. The reason they exist is because we want you to
develop and use your critical- thinking skills. You should also be able to use a variety of
primary and secondary source material to explain and apply different methods that
historians use to understand and interpret the past, including multiple points of view and
historical context.

Basically, the state and your teachers want you to become a researcher and reporter of the
past and present. The way to accomplish this is to use a variety of rich primary and
secondary source material such as biographies, autobiographies, landmark cases of the U.S.
Supreme Court, novels, speeches, letters, diaries, poetry, songs, and artworks during the year.

When it comes to assessing your skills on STAAR, in the 8th and 11th grades, it is expected
that you can analyze a visual and draw a historical conclusion based on that visual. Look at
the examples below to find out how visuals can make a question more difficult:

Example 1

President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s goal concerning the Supreme Court was to

A) increase ethnic and racial diversity

B) insure support for New Deal legislation

C) appoint justices who would use a strict interpretation of the Constitution

D) strengthen judicial independence

Example 2 Base your answer to question 32 on the cartoon Base your answer to question 34 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies. below and on your knowledge of social studies.

QUALIFYING TEST FOR AccordSintregtchteod AtrhouendothpeiWnoiorldn of the cartoonist -
SUPREME COURT JOBS

A) President Roosevelt was looking to

increase his power over the Supreme

Court.

B) the Supreme Court at that time needed

to go along with the New Deal policies.

C) the Supreme Court was not following the

Constitution.

D) President Roosevelt was agreeing with

the justices of the Supreme Court.

Source: Edward S. Brown, New York Herald Tribune, Source: Fred O. Seibel, Richmond Times Dispatch,
February 12, 1937 (adapted) October 29, 1942 (adapted)

During your sstouyd3o2ieuBRwsaao,sscoestydeoavoeonlnut’setghwoixsaliplclcaolrbantoceoiennrn, siwnPhgreohtshidwaeeSntnut ptFrhherameonekywlCinomutDrot.eaann34abWm(l1yya)hizinAcuehlildiseesidtvanatgoiesgofmauthlesyiansitno1lms9Wu4,oo2srstclpdsaarkcWtecoiuaolelrrnsa?It!cIelwyhileelxapsfrf,eescasteesnvtehdrey other types of
documents
nation.
®SAISD Social Studies Department (1) increase ethnic and racial diversity (2) The Atlantic Charter will help only Europe Page 7
(2) insure support for New Deal legislation
(3) appoint justices who would use a strict and Asia.
interpretation of the Constitution (3) The United States intends to rule the entire
(4) strengthen juRdeicpiarol dinudcetiopnenrdigehntscegranted only if
world.
copyrig(h4t)inAfomrmeraictiaonn sretrmataeignys iwntiallcbt.e to win the war in
the Pacific first.

33 What was the major purpose of the Lend-Lease

What Are The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)?

The chart below and on the next page show you the verbs used in the TEKS for social studies.
When you are looking at a student expectation and are not sure how much of something
you need to know, refer to this list.

Word Dictionary Definition(s)

Acquire to gain for oneself through one's actions or efforts: to acquire learning.

Analyze to examine carefully and in detail so as to identify causes, key factors, possible results,
etc.

Aspect part or a piece

Bias prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another,
usually in a way considered to be unfair.

Categorizing to arrange in categories or classes; classify

Cause and to understand why events happen and what happens because of events
Effect

Comparing and to examine (two or more objects, ideas, people, etc.) in order to note similarities and
Contrasting differences

Consequences a result or effect of an action or condition

Corroboration evidence that confirms or supports a statement, theory, or finding; confirmation

Decision-Making the process of examining a situation, weighing the options, and making a choice

Drawing to frame or formulate a conclusion based on information presented
Conclusions to examine the evidence and come to a final idea/picture

Drawing to examine evidence carefully and then judge or draw a conclusion based on the
Inferences evidence

Frame of making judgements in relation to personal ideals or values
Reference

Geographic how things are distributed over space (especially over the surface of the Earth)
Distributions

Geographic a repetition in distributions over space (especially over the surface of the Earth)
Patterns

Historical the political, social, cultural, and economic environment related to historical moments,
Context events, and trends

Historiography the study of historical writing

Identify to recognize or establish as being a particular person or thing

Implement to put into action or to include as part of an action

Inquiry the act of asking for information

Interpret explain the meaning of

Main Idea what something is about

Making to make broad statements based on either facts or presented evidence
Generalizations

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 8

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What Are The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)?

Word Dictionary Definition(s)
Point of View a particular attitude or way of considering a matter

Predict to make statements about future events based on patterns or presented evidence

Primary Source an artifact, a document, a recording, or other source of information that was created
at the time under study. It serves as an original source of information about the topic.

Problem-Solving the process of finding solutions to difficult or complex issues

Secondary any source about an event, period, or issue in history that was produced after that
Source event, period or issue has passed.
to place things in chronological order
Sequencing

Statistical practice of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities

Summarizing give a brief statement of the main points

Terminology the body of words used with a particular subject of study (language of the profession)

Thematic Map type of map or chart especially designed to show a particular theme connected with
Validity a specific geographic area
to be factually sound

Information adapted from: http://dictionary.reference.com/ and en.wiktionary.org

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“Big Picture”- Eighth Grade

People Events Documents Concepts Vocabulary

Abigail Adams Virginia House of Magna Carta Absolute Chronology Parliament
John Adams Burgesses English Bill of Rights Relative Chronology Grievance
Wentworth French and Indian War Mayflower Compact Economic Systems Plantation System
Cheswell First Great Awakening Fundamental Orders of Modify Environment Protective Tariffs
Samuel Adams Battles of Lexington, Connecticut Physical and Human Taxation
Mercy Otis Warren Concord, Saratoga, and Proclamation of 1763 Characteristics Mercantilism
James Armistead Yorktown Treaty of Paris 1783 Physical Geographic Suffrage
Benjamin Franklin Judiciary Act of 1802 Intolerable Acts Factors Sectionalism
Bernardo de Galvez Boston Tea Party Stamp Act Human Geographic Transatlantic Slave
John Paul Jones Valley Forge Articles of Confederation Factors Trade/Barter
Crispus Attucks Philadelphia Convention Northwest Ordinance Immigrate/Migrate/ Unalienable Rights
King George III Great Compromise U.S. Constitution Emigrate Political Parties
Haym Salomon 3/5 Compromise Bill of Rights Exploration Interchangeable Parts
Marquis de Shays’ Rebellion Washington’s Farewell Representative Cotton Gin
Lafayette Whiskey Rebellion Address Government Steamboat
Thomas Paine War of 1812 Kentucky and Virginia Economy Executive Branch
George Washington Trail of Tears Resolution Era/Historical Context Legislative Branch
John Quincy Adams Nullification Crisis Alien and Sedition Act Self-government Judicial Branch
John C. Calhoun Seneca Falls Convention Monroe Doctrine Nullification/Nullify Education Reform
Henry Clay U.S.-Mexican War Indian Removal Act Unconstitutional Temperance
Daniel Webster Louisiana Purchase Force Bill Conflict/Compromise Secession/Secede
Jefferson Davis Gadsden Purchase Emancipation Manifest Destiny Emancipation
Ulysses S. Grant Mexican Cession Proclamation Sectionalism Union
Robert E. Lee Bleeding Kansas Missouri Compromise Expansionism Republicanism, Limited
Abraham Lincoln Election of 1860 1820 and 1850 Nationalism Government, Checks
Alexander Hamilton Fort Sumter Kansas Nebraska Act Foreign Policy and Balances,
Patrick Henry Battle of Antietam Fugitive Slave Act Domestic Policy Federalism,
James Madison Battle of Gettysburg Lincoln First/Second Industrialization Separation of Powers,
James Monroe Battle of Vicksburg Inaugural Address Urbanization Popular sovereignty,
George Mason Lee’s Surrender at Gettysburg Address Principles and Individual Rights
Thomas Hooker Appomattox Courthouse Jefferson Davis Amendment Process Ratification
Charles de Assassination of Lincoln Inaugural Address States’ Rights Monarchy
Montesquieu Nullification Crisis Federalist Papers Constitutional Republic National Security
John Locke Radical Reconstruction Anti-Federalist Papers Democracy Isolationalism
William Blackstone “Indian Wars” 13th, 14th, and 15th Abolitionist Neutrality
William Penn Transcontinental Amendments Reform Movements Naturalization
John Marshall Railroad Homestead Act Immigration Elastic Clause
Frederick Douglass Dawes Act Religious Freedom “Necessary and Proper
John Paul Jones DDaatteess Morrill Act Transcendentalism
James Monroe 11660077 Adam-Onis Treaty Civil Disobedience Clause”
Stonewall Jackson 11662200 Treaty of Guadalupe Judicial Review Prohibition
Henry David 11777766 Hidalgo Free Enterprise system Cottage/Factory System
Thoreau 11778877 Battle Hymn of the Civic Virtue Manufacturing
Susan B. Anthony 11880033 Republic Liberty Annexation
Elizabeth Cady 11886611--11886655 Innovation Assembly
Stanton Skills Civil Rights/Equal Rights Petition/Protest
John James Cases Point of view/Bias/ Interstate/Intrastate Impressment
Audubon Marbury v. Madison Frame of Founding Father
Hudson River School McCulloch v. Maryland Reference Eras Delegated Powers
Artists Gibbons v. Ogden Sequence of Events Colonization Reserved Powers
Daniel Webster Worcester v. Georgia Compare and Contrast Revolution & Concurrent Powers
Hiram Rhodes Dred Scott v. Sandford Identify Cause and Declaration of Enumerated Powers
Revels Effect Independence Strict/Loose
William Carney Finding the main idea Creating and Ratifying
Philip Bazaar Summarize, generalize, the Constitution Constructionist
predict Religious Revivals
Draw inferences and Early Republic
conclusions Age of Jackson,
Organize and interpret Westward Expansion
information Reform Movements
Sectionalism
Civil War
Reconstruction

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Eighth Grade Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills

(1) In Grade 8, students study the history of the United States from the early colonial period through
Reconstruction. The knowledge and skills in subsection (b) of this section comprise the first part of a two-
year study of U.S. history. The second part, comprising U.S. history from Reconstruction to the present, is
provided in §113.41 of this title (relating to United States History Studies Since 1877 (One Credit),
Beginning with School Year 2011-2012). The content in Grade 8 builds upon that from Grade 5 but provides
more depth and breadth. Historical content focuses on the political, economic, religious, and social
events and issues related to the colonial and revolutionary eras, the creation and ratification of the U.S.
Constitution, challenges of the early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, sectionalism, Civil
War, and Reconstruction. Students describe the physical characteristics of the United States and their
impact on population distribution and settlement patterns in the past and present. Students analyze the
various economic factors that influenced the development of colonial America and the early years of the
republic and identify the origins of the free enterprise system. Students examine the American beliefs and
principles, including limited government, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, and
individual rights, reflected in the U.S. Constitution and other historical documents. Students evaluate the
impact of Supreme Court cases and major reform movements of the 19th century and examine the rights
and responsibilities of citizens of the United States as well as the importance of effective leadership in a
constitutional republic. Students evaluate the impact of scientific discoveries and technological
innovations on the development of the United States. Students use critical-thinking skills, including the
identification of bias in written, oral, and visual material.

(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and
secondary source material such as the complete text of the U.S. Constitution and the Declaration of
Independence, landmark cases of the U.S. Supreme Court, biographies, autobiographies, novels, speeches,
letters, diaries, poetry, songs, and artworks is encouraged. Motivating resources are available from
museums, historical sites, presidential libraries, and local and state preservation societies.

Introduction (3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated
for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the social studies skills strand in subsection (b) of this section
should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater
depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies
content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together. Statements that
contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase
"such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(4) Students identify the role of the U.S. free enterprise system within the parameters of this course and
understand that this system may also be referenced as capitalism or the free market system.

(5) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography;
economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills.
The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance
of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our
state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(h).

(6) Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose
representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure,
and are sworn to uphold the constitution.

(7) State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate
Freedom Week.

(A) Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under the TEC,
§29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school
district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of
Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The
study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas
expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to
the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of
the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation
and the women's suffrage movement.

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 11

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Eighth Grade Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills

Introduction (B) Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of
instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and
recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life,
Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among
Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."

(8) Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal
governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

HISTORY TEKS Description
8.1a
The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is
8.1b expected to identify the major eras and events in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution,
8.1c drafting of the Declaration of Independence, creation and ratification of the Constitution, religious revivals such as
8.2a the Second Great Awakening, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements,
8.2b sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects.
8.3a The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is
8.3b expected to apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and
8.3c time periods
8.4a The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is
expected to explain the significance of the following dates: 1607, founding of Jamestown; 1620, arrival of the
8.4b Pilgrims and signing of the Mayflower Compact; 1776, adoption of the Declaration of Independence; 1787, writing of
the U.S. Constitution; 1803, Louisiana Purchase; and 1861-1865, Civil War.
8.4c The student understands the causes of exploration and colonization eras. The student is expected to identify reasons
8.4d for European exploration and colonization of North America.
8.4e The student understands the causes of exploration and colonization eras. The student is expected to compare
8.5a political, economic, religious, and social reasons for the establishment of the 13 English colonies.
The student understands the foundations of representative government in the United States. The student is expected
8.5b to explain the reasons for the growth of representative government and institutions during the colonial period.
8.5c The student understands the foundations of representative government in the United States. The student is expected
8.5d to analyze the importance of the Mayflower Compact, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and the Virginia House
of Burgesses to the growth of representative government.
The student understands the foundations of representative government in the United States. The student is expected
to describe how religion and virtue contributed to the growth of representative government in the American colonies.
The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era. The student is expected to
analyze causes of the American Revolution, including the Proclamation of 1763, the Intolerable Acts, the Stamp Act,
mercantilism, lack of representation in Parliament, and British economic policies following the French and Indian War.
The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era. The student is expected to
explain the roles played by significant individuals during the American Revolution, including Abigail Adams, John
Adams, Wentworth Cheswell, Samuel Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, James Armistead, Benjamin Franklin, Bernardo de
Gálvez, Crispus Attucks, King George III, Haym Salomon, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, the Marquis de Lafayette,
Thomas Paine, and George Washington.
The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era. The student is expected to
explain the issues surrounding important events of the American Revolution, including declaring independence;
writing the Articles of Confederation; fighting the battles of Lexington, Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown; enduring
the winter at Valley Forge; and signing the Treaty of Paris of 1783.
The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era. The student is expected to
analyze the issues of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, including the Great Compromise and the Three-Fifths
Compromise.
The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era. The student is expected to
analyze the arguments for and against ratification.
The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the
republic and the Age of Jackson. The student is expected to describe major domestic problems faced by the leaders
of the new republic such as maintaining national security, building a military, creating a stable economic system,
setting up the court system, and defining the authority of the central government.
The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the
republic and the Age of Jackson. The student is expected to summarize arguments regarding protective tariffs,
taxation, and the banking system.
The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the
republic and the Age of Jackson. The student is expected to explain the origin and development of American political
parties.
The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the
republic and the Age of Jackson. The student is expected to explain the causes, important events, and effects of the
War of 1812.

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 12

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HISTORY TEKS Description
8.5e
GEOGRAPHY 8.5f The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the
republic and the Age of Jackson. The student is expected to identify the foreign policies of presidents Washington
8.5g through Monroe and explain the impact of Washington's Farewell Address and the Monroe Doctrine.
The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the
8.6a republic and the Age of Jackson. The student is expected to explain the impact of the election of Andrew Jackson,
8.6b including expanded suffrage.
8.6c The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the
8.6d republic and the Age of Jackson. The student is expected to analyze the reasons for the removal and resettlement of
8.6e Cherokee Indians during the Jacksonian era, including the Indian Removal Act, Worcester v. Georgia, and the Trail of
8.7a Tears.
8.7b The student understands westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and social development of the
8.7c nation. The student is expected to explain how the Northwest Ordinance established principles and procedures for
8.7d orderly expansion of the United States.
The student understands westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and social development of the
8.8a nation. The student is expected to explain the political, economic, and social roots of Manifest Destiny.
The student understands westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and social development of the
8.8b nation. The student is expected to analyze the relationship between the concept of Manifest Destiny and the
westward growth of the nation.
8.8c The student understands westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and social development of the
8.9a nation. The student is expected to explain the causes and effects of the U.S.-Mexican War and their impact on the
8.9b United States.
8.9c The student understands westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and social development of the
8.9d nation. The student is expected to identify areas that were acquired to form the United States, including the
8.10a Louisiana Purchase.
8.10b The student understands how political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of sectionalism and the Civil
8.10c War. The student is expected to analyze the impact of tariff policies on sections of the United States before the Civil
War.
The student understands how political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of sectionalism and the Civil
War. The student is expected to compare the effects of political, economic, and social factors on slaves and free
blacks.
The student understands how political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of sectionalism and the Civil
War. The student is expected to analyze the impact of slavery on different sections of the United States.
The student understands how political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of sectionalism and the Civil
War. The student is expected to identify the provisions and compare the effects of congressional conflicts and
compromises prior to the Civil War, including the roles of John Quincy Adams, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel
Webster.
The student understands individuals, issues, and events of the Civil War. The student is expected to explain the roles
played by significant individuals during the Civil War, including Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and
Abraham Lincoln, and heroes such as congressional Medal of Honor recipients William Carney and Philip Bazaar.
The student understands individuals, issues, and events of the Civil War. The student is expected to explain the causes
of the Civil War, including sectionalism, states' rights, and slavery, and significant events of the Civil War, including the
firing on Fort Sumter; the battles of Antietam, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg; the announcement of the Emancipation
Proclamation; Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House; and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
The student understands individuals, issues, and events of the Civil War. The student is expected to analyze Abraham
Lincoln's ideas about liberty, equality, union, and government as contained in his first and second inaugural addresses
and the Gettysburg Address and contrast them with the ideas contained in Jefferson Davis's inaugural address.
The student understands the effects of Reconstruction on the political, economic, and social life of the nation. The
student is expected to evaluate legislative reform programs of the Radical Reconstruction Congress and reconstructed
state governments.
The student understands the effects of Reconstruction on the political, economic, and social life of the nation. The
student is expected to evaluate the impact of the election of Hiram Rhodes Revels.
The student understands the effects of Reconstruction on the political, economic, and social life of the nation. The
student is expected to explain the economic, political, and social problems during Reconstruction and evaluate their
impact on different groups.
The student understands the effects of Reconstruction on the political, economic, and social life of the nation. The
student is expected to identify the effects of legislative acts such as the Homestead Act, the Dawes Act, and the
Morrill Act.
The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and present.
The student is expected to locate places and regions of importance in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and
19th centuries.
The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and present.
The student is expected to compare places and regions of the United States in terms of physical and human
characteristics.
The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and present.
The student is expected to analyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors on major historical and
contemporary events in the United States.

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 13

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GEOGRAPHY TEKS Description
8.11a
ECONOMICS The student understands the physical characteristics of North America and how humans adapted to and modified the
8.11b environment through the mid-19th century. The student is expected to analyze how physical characteristics of the
GOVERNMENT 8.11c environment influenced population distribution, settlement patterns, and economic activities in the United States
8.12a during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.
8.12b The student understands the physical characteristics of North America and how humans adapted to and modified the
8.12c environment through the mid-19th century. The student is expected to describe the positive and negative
8.12d consequences of human modification of the physical environment of the United States.
8.13a The student understands the physical characteristics of North America and how humans adapted to and modified the
8.13b environment through the mid-19th century. The student is expected to describe how different immigrant groups
8.14a interacted with the environment in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.
8.14b The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity.
The student is expected to identify economic differences among different regions of the United States.
8.15a The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity.
The student is expected to explain reasons for the development of the plantation system, the transatlantic slave
8.15b trade, and the spread of slavery
The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity.
8.15c The student is expected to explain the reasons for the increase in factories and urbanization.
The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity.
8.15d The student is expected to analyze the causes and effects of economic differences among different regions of the
8.16a United States at selected times in U.S. history.
8.16b The student understands how various economic forces resulted in the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The
8.17a student is expected to analyze the War of 1812 as a cause of economic changes in the nation
8.17b The student understands how various economic forces resulted in the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The
8.18a student is expected to identify the economic factors that brought about rapid industrialization and urbanization.
8.18b The student understands the origins and development of the free enterprise system in the United States. The student
8.18c is expected to explain why a free enterprise system of economics developed in the new nation, including minimal
government intrusion, taxation, and property rights.
The student understands the origins and development of the free enterprise system in the United States. The student
is expected to describe the characteristics and the benefits of the U.S. free enterprise system during the 18th and
19th centuries.
The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S.
Constitution, and other important historic documents. The student is expected to identify the influence of ideas from
historic documents, including the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Mayflower Compact, the Federalist
Papers, and selected Anti-Federalist writings, on the U.S. system of government.
The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S.
Constitution, and other important historic documents. The student is expected to summarize the strengths and
weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S.
Constitution, and other important historic documents. The student is expected to identify colonial grievances listed in
the Declaration of Independence and explain how those grievances were addressed in the U.S. Constitution and the
Bill of Rights.
The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S.
Constitution, and other important historic documents. The student is expected to analyze how the U.S. Constitution
reflects the principles of limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers,
popular sovereignty, and individual rights.
The student understands the process of changing the U.S. Constitution and the impact of amendments on American
society. The student is expected to summarize the purposes for and process of amending the U.S. Constitution.
The student understands the process of changing the U.S. Constitution and the impact of amendments on American
society. The student is expected to describe the impact of 19th-century amendments, including the 13th, 14th, and
15th amendments, on life in the United States.
The student understands the dynamic nature of the powers of the national government and state governments in a
federal system. The student is expected to analyze the arguments of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, including
those of Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry, James Madison, and George Mason.
The student understands the dynamic nature of the powers of the national government and state governments in a
federal system. The student is expected to explain constitutional issues arising over the issue of states' rights,
including the Nullification Crisis and the Civil War.
The student understands the impact of landmark Supreme Court cases. The student is expected to identify the origin
of judicial review and analyze examples of congressional and presidential responses.
The student understands the impact of landmark Supreme Court cases. The student is expected to summarize the
issues, decisions, and significance of landmark Supreme Court cases, including Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v.
Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden.
The student understands the impact of landmark Supreme Court cases. The student is expected to evaluate the
impact of selected landmark Supreme Court decisions, including Dred Scott v. Sandford, on life in the United States.

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 14

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CITIZENSHIP TEKS Description
8.19a
CULTURE 8.19b The student understands the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States. The student is expected to
8.19c define and give examples of unalienable rights.
The student understands the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States. The student is expected to
8.19d summarize rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights.
8.19e The student understands the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States. The student is expected to
8.19f explain the importance of personal responsibilities, including accepting responsibility for one's behavior and
8.20a supporting one's family.
8.20b The student understands the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States. The student is expected to
8.20c identify examples of responsible citizenship, including obeying rules and laws, staying informed on public issues,
voting, and serving on juries.
8.21a The student understands the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States. The student is expected to
8.21b summarize the criteria and explain the process for becoming a naturalized citizen of the United States.
8.21c The student understands the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States. The student is expected to
8.22a explain how the rights and responsibilities of U.S. citizens reflect our national identity.
The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The student
8.22b is expected to explain the role of significant individuals such as Thomas Hooker, Charles de Montesquieu, John Locke,
William Blackstone, and William Penn in the development of self-government in colonial America.
8.23a The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The student
is expected to evaluate the contributions of the Founding Fathers as models of civic virtue.
8.23b The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The student
is expected to analyze reasons for and the impact of selected examples of civil disobedience in U.S. history such as
8.23c the Boston Tea Party and Henry David Thoreau's refusal to pay a tax.
The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The
8.23d student is expected to identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical
and contemporary issues.
8.23e The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The
8.24a student is expected to describe the importance of free speech and press in a constitutional republic.
8.24b The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The
8.25a student is expected to summarize a historical event in which compromise resulted in a peaceful resolution.
8.25b The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected
8.25c to analyze the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of the United States such as George Washington,
John Marshall, and Abraham Lincoln.
8.26a The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected
to describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States such as Frederick
Douglass, John Paul Jones, James Monroe, Stonewall Jackson, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic,
and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to identify selected racial,
ethnic, and religious groups that settled in the United States and explain their reasons for immigration.
The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic,
and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to explain the relationship
between urbanization and conflicts resulting from differences in religion, social class, and political beliefs.
The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic,
and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to identify ways conflicts
between people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups were resolved.
The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic,
and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to analyze the contributions
of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to our national identity.
The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic,
and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to identify the political,
social, and economic contributions of women to American society.
The student understands the major reform movements of the 19th century. The student is expected to describe the
historical development of the abolitionist movement.
The student understands the major reform movements of the 19th century. The student is expected to evaluate the
impact of reform movements, including educational reform, temperance, the women's rights movement, prison
reform, abolition, the labor reform movement, and care of the disabled.
The student understands the impact of religion on the American way of life. The student is expected to trace the
development of religious freedom in the United States.
The student understands the impact of religion on the American way of life. The student is expected to describe
religious motivation for immigration and influence on social movements, including the impact of the first and second
Great Awakenings.
The student understands the impact of religion on the American way of life. The student is expected to analyze the
impact of the First Amendment guarantees of religious freedom on the American way of life.
The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student
is expected to describe developments in art, music, and literature that are unique to American culture such as the
Hudson River School artists, John James Audubon, "Battle Hymn of the Republic," transcendentalism, and other
cultural activities in the history of the United States.

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 15

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S-T-S TEKS Description
8.26b
SKILLS 8.26c The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student
8.27a is expected to identify examples of American art, music, and literature that reflect society in different eras.
8.27b The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student
8.27c is expected to analyze the relationship between fine arts and continuity and change in the American way of life.
8.27d The student understands the impact of science and technology on the economic development of the United States.
8.28a The student is expected to explain the effects of technological and scientific innovations such as the steamboat, the
8.28b cotton gin, and interchangeable parts.
8.29a The student understands the impact of science and technology on the economic development of the United States.
The student is expected to analyze the impact of transportation and communication systems on the growth,
8.29b development, and urbanization of the United States.
The student understands the impact of science and technology on the economic development of the United States.
8.29c The student is expected to analyze how technological innovations changed the way goods were manufactured and
marketed, nationally and internationally.
8.29d The student understands the impact of science and technology on the economic development of the United States.
The student is expected to explain how technological innovations brought about economic growth such as how the
8.29e factory system contributed to rapid industrialization and the Transcontinental Railroad led to the opening of the west.
8.29f The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on daily life in the United
8.29g States. The student is expected to compare the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations that
8.29h have influenced daily life in different periods in U.S. history.
8.29i The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on daily life in the United
8.29j States. The student is expected to identify examples of how industrialization changed life in the United States.
8.30a The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research
8.30b methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to
8.30c differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software, databases,
8.30d media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States.
The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research
methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to analyze
information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding
the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research
methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to organize
and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and
maps.
The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research
methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to identify
points of view from the historical context surrounding an event and the frame of reference which influenced the
participants.
The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research
methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to support a
point of view on a social studies issue or event.
The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research
methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to identify
bias in written, oral, and visual material
The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research
methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to evaluate
the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author
The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research
methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to use
appropriate mathematical skills to interpret social studies information such as maps and graphs.
The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research
methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to create
thematic maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases representing various aspects of the United States.
The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research
methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to pose and
answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, models, and databases.
The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to use social studies
terminology correctly.
The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to use standard grammar,
spelling, sentence structure, punctuation, and proper citation of sources.
The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to transfer information from
one medium to another, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using computer software as
appropriate.
The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to create written, oral, and
visual presentations of social studies information.

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 16

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SKILLS TEKS Description
8.31a
8.31b The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of
settings. The student is expected to use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and
consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the
effectiveness of the solution.
The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of
settings. The student is expected to use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision,
gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 17

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Materials Organized and Provided By:

The Social Studies Department

“At Your Service”

406 Barrera St.
San Antonio, TX 78210
Phone: 210•554•2630

Fax: 210•224•6448

Content ®SAISD Social Studies Department Except Where Noted

®SAISD Social Studies Department Page 18

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