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Published by BBYRA, 2017-06-19 23:15:44

#141

S&S Issue 141

SPEED&smartsDavid Dellenbaugh’s ™

The newsletter of how-to tips for racing sailors Mar/Apr 2017

The new racing rules are here!

The new racing rules are I t’s that time of the quadrennium still looks almost exactly the same now as
available as a free online once again. It’s the year after the it has for the past four years! Most of the
download from World summer Olympics and now we have a rules in the new book retain exactly the
Sailing at this link. new rulebook for the next four years! same wording as before, so there aren’t
You can also get a rule- many ‘game changes.’
book from your national The Racing Rules of Sailing are
sailing authority. The new constantly under review, as sailors and The goal of this issue is to explain
blue US rulebook (above) rulemakers try to make the rules easier what’s different between the new (2017-
is free for all members of to understand while keeping the ‘game’ 2020) rules and the old (2013-2016) ones.
US Sailing at this link. of sailing essentially the same. That is There isn’t room to cover every change
what they’ve done with the new 2017- or explain each rule in great detail, so I
2020 rulebook, which includes all the have tried to include the most significant
changes that have been discussed and changes that sailors should know. I will
approved during the past four years. be taking a much more in-depth look at
individual rules in future issues.
The 2013 rulebook included mostly
fine-tuning to the major rule changes While you are reading this newsletter,
introduced in 2009. The new rulebook I highly recommend keeping a copy of the
continues the same trend. There is a rules handy. That way you’ll have the full
significant rework of rule 18.3 (Tacking text of every rule discussed here. Note
in the Zone), several new rules that deal that the new rulebook has vertical lines in
with the role of support people, quite the margins to mark all the places where
a few changes to the rulebook’s Part 5 the text of a rule has been changed, added
(Protests, Redress, Hearings . . .) and or deleted. Also, the next issue of Speed &
a number of less significant tweaks. Smarts will have a quiz covering all that
we discuss in this issue. Good luck! •
But don’t worry – sailboat racing

ISSUE #141

The 2017-2020 Rules!

THEME The new rulebook.......................1
DEFINITION Support person .................2
RULE 18.3 Tacking in the zone ...............4
RULE 18.2d When mark-room turns off ...6
NEW RULES When not racing ................8
NEW RULES Penalties and hearings ......10
NEW RULES Protests and redress ...........12
MORE CHANGES ................................14
RULE 20 Hailing for room to tack...........16

Questions about the new rules? JH Peterson photo
If this issue doesn’t answer all your questions
about the new rules, feel free to send us an www.SpeedandSmarts.com 1
eSmmaarilt,soFraacsekbyoooukrpqaugeesthioenreo.n the Speed &

Speed & Smarts #141

The 2017-2020 Racing Rules

A rule about support people A new Definition and Fundamental Rule

T he past decade or so has seen a huge increase in In order to implement a new set of rules to govern
the number of sailors using coaches and other the actions of support people, the rulemakers started
people to help them at regattas. This includes all the with two things. First, they added a definition called
parents who are now very involved with youth events ‘Support Person’ at the beginning of the rulebook.
and the growing number of coaches present at many Second, they rewrote Fundamental Rule 3 (Accep-
high-level national and international races. tance of the Rules) to include support people.

The increasing use of coaches has clearly outpaced Definition: Support person – The purpose of
the rules that govern how these people should act at this new definition is to make it clear exactly who is
regattas. That’s why the rulemakers added a number considered a support person. Basically, anyone who
of rules in the new rulebook about ‘support people.’ helps a competitor prepare for competition qualifies
as a support person. This includes coaches, trainers
The purpose of the new support person rules is and so on. In addition, a competitor’s parent or
not to discourage coaching. Coaching has been a very guardian is always considered a support person.
valuable resource for many sailors, so the new rules
are written to make sure that coaches comply with FR 3: Acceptance of the Rules – This is the
all the rules about coaching that are now starting to Fundamental Rule that, in the past, said that sailors
appear in the sailing instructions, notice of race, and who participate in a race agree to be governed by the
so on. Check out this page and the next for much more rules and to accept the penalties imposed under the
on the new support person rules. rules. Now this rule has been expanded to include
support persons.The new FR 3 has several important
NEW! requirements relating to support people:

- By providing support, a support person agrees
to accept the rules (3.1b);

- By permitting their child to enter a race, a parent
or guardian agrees to accept the rules (3.1b);

- Each competitor agrees that his or her support
persons are bound by the rules (3.2); and

- Each competitor agrees to ensure that their
support persons are aware of the rules (3.3d).

Fundamental Rule 3 sets out requirements to
which sailors and support persons must agree before
a race. It places an onus on sailors to ensure that their
support persons obey the rules, and it removes any
excuse for support persons not knowing the rules.

NEW DEFINITION: Support Person

Any person who
(a) provides, or may provide, physical or advisory support to a

competitor, including any coach, trainer, manager, team staff,
medic, paramedic or any other person working with, treating
or assisting a competitor in or preparing for the competition,
(b) is the parent or guardian of a competitor.
OLD DEFINITION:
There was no previous definition of support person.

Parents are considered to be support persons just like NEW 3 Acceptance of the Rules
any coach, which means they must comply with all the
rules that apply to support people. Note that when a 3.1 (b) A support person by providing support, or a parent
parent permits his or her child to enter a race, he or she or guardian by permitting their child to enter a race,
agrees to accept the rules (Fundamental Rule 3.1b). In agrees to accept the rules.
turn, the competitor (the child) must ensure his or her
parents are aware of the rules (Fundamental Rule 3.3d). 3.2 Each competitor and boat owner agrees, on behalf of
their support persons, that such support persons are
2 bound by the rules.

3.3 Acceptance of the rules includes agreement
(d) by each competitor and boat owner to ensure that
their support persons are aware of the rules.

OLD There was previously no mention of support person in
rule 3 (or in any other rule).

New 2017-2020 Rules

Support person

US Sailing Team Sperry/Onne van der Wal The purpose of the new rules about
support people is to make sure that
coaches comply with the particular
requirements of each regatta. At the
Olympics, for example, coaches are
often confined to a coaching ‘box’
to leeward of the starting line. The
new support person rules will make
it easier for organizing authorities
and protest committees to enforce
rules like this.

Enforcement of rules about support persons support person has broken a rule.
Rule 64.4(a) gives the PC several
In addition to defining a support a report from any source, including options: it can warn the support
person and requiring that person a person with a conflict of interest. person, exclude him or her from
to accept the rules, the rulemakers Once the PC conducts a hearing, the event or venue, remove any
privileges or benefits, or take other
added several other rules to help it may then take action against a action within its jurisdiction.

keep support people in line: support person in accordance with The second part of rule 64.4
allows a PC to penalize a sailor for
• Rule 60 (Right to Protest) - new rule 64.4 (see below). the breach of a rule by a support
person when: a) the sailor may
Before this year, no rule expressly • Definition: Party - A support have gained a competitive advan-
tage as a result of that breach; or
allowed a protest committee (or person who is subject to a hearing b) the support person committed a
further breach after the competitor
anyone else) to take action against under rule 60.3(d) is now defined had been warned.

a support person. Now there is a as a ‘party’ to that hearing. This Note: Because rule 64.4b conflicts
with the rule (63.1) that says a boat
new rule (60.3d) that permits a means he or she has all the rights cannot be penalized without a hearing,
it may not actually give PCs the power
protest committee to call a hearing of any party to a hearing, including to penalize competitors, and there’s a
good chance it will be changed soon.
to consider whether a support per- the right to file an appeal.
• Rule 69 (Misconduct) - This
son has broken a rule. They may • Rule 64.4 (Decisions . . .) – rule has been revised significantly
and now contains a number of
call this hearing for any reason, This is a significant new rule that references to support people (see
page 14 for more on this.)
including their own observation, describes what a protest committee

evidence taken during a hearing or is able to do when it decides that a

NEW 60 Right To Protest . . . NEW 64.4 Decisions Concerning Support Persons

60.3 A protest committee may (a) When the protest committee decides that a support person who
(d) call a hearing to consider whether a is a party to a hearing has broken a rule, it may
(1) issue a warning,
support person has broken a rule, based on (2) exclude the person from the event or venue or remove any
its own observation or information received privileges or benefits, or
from any source, including evidence taken (3) take other action within its jurisdiction as provided by the rules.
during a hearing.
OLD There was no specific rule that allowed (b) The protest committee may also penalize a competitor for the breach of
a protest committee to hold a hearing about a rule by a support person by changing the boat’s score in a single race,
whether a support person broke a rule. up to and including DSQ, when the protest committee decides that
(1) the competitor may have gained a competitive advantage as
NEW DEFINITION: Party the result of the breach by the support person, or
(2) the support person commits a further breach after the
A party to a hearing is . . . competitor has been warned by the protest committee that
(e) a support person subject to a hearing a penalty may be imposed.

under rule 60.3(d). OLD The previous version of rule 64 (Decisions) did not have any provision
OLD There was previously no mention of allowing a protest committee (or anyone else) to discipline a support person
support person in the definition of Party. or penalize a boat for an action of her support person.

Speed & Smarts #141 3

The 2017-2020 Racing Rules

Tacking in the zone © US Sailing Team Sperry/Jen Edney

W hen it comes to the right-of-way Rule 18.3 has been changed, but it’s still risky for a port-tack boat
rules, the biggest change in the new to tack inside the zone at a windward mark, especially when there
rulebook is definitely rule 18.3 (Tacking are other boats approaching on starboard tack. If you want to make
in the Zone). This is the rule that was a port-tack approach (which often works well), reduce your risk by
added a few years back to discourage coming in to the mark at least four lengths below the port layline.
boats from approaching the windward That way you can make your final tack to starboard outside the zone.
mark on port tack. Rule 18.3 had been
working OK, but the rulemakers saw a
few ways it could be improved, so they
rewrote the entire rule.

Though its wording is different, new
rule 18.3 still has the same purpose – to
reduce the number of port tackers who
tack inside the zone at windward marks,
causing congestion and confusion.

However, a few things have changed
in the rule. Here are two important ones:

1) The new rule applies only at a mark
that boats must leave to port; and

2) The new rule does not apply when
both boats tack inside the zone.

Check out this page and the next for
a more complete description of these
changes in the new rule.

Requirements for the application of rule 18.3

There are four conditions that must be met NEW!
before the new rule 18.3 (Tacking in the Zone)
applies between two boats: WIND

1) The boats must be required to leave the b1e.rBoounatdsinmgutshte fet3ch. iPngmtuhset be be4e.nSomnussttarhbaovaerd
mark on their port side. Rule 18.3 does not mark to port mark tack since she
apply when boats are rounding a mark to Wimndawrkard after she tacks
starboard (see page 5); entered the zone.
Zone he2a.dPtomwusint dpafrsosm
2) A boat (P) must pass head to wind from port to starboard S
port tack to starboard tack inside the zone;
tack inside the
3) After she passes head to wind, P must zone.
be fetching the mark on starboard tack; and

4) The other boat (S) must have been on
starboard tack since she entered the zone.
Rule 18.3 does not apply when both boats
pass head to wind in the zone (see page 5).

If all these conditions exist, there are two
limitations on the boat that tacked:

a) she must not cause the other boat to
sail above closehauled to avoid contact; and

b) she must give mark-room if the other
boat becomes overlapped inside her.

Because the Red boat (P) passes head to wind P
in the zone of a mark that boats must leave to port,
and the Green boat (S) has been on starboard tack since
entering the zone, rule 18.3 applies between these boats.
The new rule continues to make it risky for P to approach
the windward mark this close to the port-tack layline.

4 New 2017-2020 Rules

NEW! Rule 18.3 no longer applies Rule 18.3

WIND Windward Two boats tacking inside the zone
mark
The old rule 18.3 (Tacking in the Zone) applied whenever
A B a boat tacked inside the zone and ended up on the same
tack as another boat that was fetching the mark. This
Zone created some confusing situations when both boats
tacked inside the zone; in those cases it was often a
Once these boats get onto starboard tack, Boat A challenge to figure out how rule 18.3 applied.
has the right of way and is entitled to mark-room
from B (rule 18.2a). Since both tacked inside the One of the best features of new rule 18.3 is that it no
zone, rule 18.3 does not apply, so it’s OK if B has longer applies in these situations. Now it turns on only
to luff above closehauled to keep clear of A. when the starboard tacker entered the zone on starboard
tack. That makes the rule easier to apply while racing.
If two boats both pass head to wind inside the zone, rule
18.3 does not apply between them. It doesn’t matter which
boat passed head to wind first or what their reason was for
tacking – if neither of them entered the zone on starboard
tack, they don’t have to worry about 18.3.
Of course, they might have to worry about tacking in the
zone if there are any other boats (e.g. C) that enter the zone
on starboard tack. In that case, even though rule 18.3 does
not apply between A and B, it would apply between A and C,
and between B and C. If either A or B cause C to sail above
closehauled to avoid contact, they would break rule 18.3.

Rounding a windward mark to starboard P NEW! Rule 18.3 no longer applies

Rule 18.3 (Tacking in the Zone) used to apply at every WIND
windward mark, whether boats were rounding it to port
or starboard, but no longer. The rulemakers felt that Windward
rule 18.3 was ‘unnecessary and has undesirable conse- mark
quences’ at starboard marks, so they have now limited
rule 18.3 to port roundings. Zone
S
This is not a huge change because boats round
windward marks to port most of the time. However, When S passes head to wind inside the zone
starboard roundings still come into play: at a mark boats are rounding to starboard,
she doesn’t have to worry about whether P
• at the right-hand end of an upwind finish line has to sail above closehauled to avoid her.
• at Mark 1 of a digital N team race course; and In fact, S can luff P head to wind if she wants.
• sometimes when the RC is using fixed marks.

In these situations, rule 18.3 no longer applies to
a boat that tacks inside the zone, so she must abide
by the other rules that apply. For example, while S is
tacking she must keep clear of P or she will break
rule 13 (While Tacking). When S turns up into her
tack she must be careful, as a right-of-way boat, to
comply with rule 16 (Changing Course). And once
S completes her tack onto port (and gains the
right of way as a leeward or clear ahead boat),
she must initially give P room to keep clear.

NEW 18.3 Tacking in the Zone OLD 18.3 Tacking in the Zone
If a boat in the zone passes head to wind and is then on the
If a boat in the zone of a mark to be left to port passes same tack as a boat that is fetching the mark, rule 18.2 does not
head to wind from port to starboard tack and is then thereafter apply between them. The boat that changed tack
fetching the mark, she shall not cause a boat that has
been on starboard tack since entering the zone to sail (a) shall not cause the other boat to sail above close-hauled to
above close-hauled to avoid contact and she shall give avoid contact or prevent the other boat from passing the mark on
mark-room if that boat becomes overlapped inside her. the required side, and
When this rule applies between boats, rule 18.2 does not
apply between them. (b) shall give mark-room if the other boat becomes overlapped
inside her.

Speed & Smarts #141 5

The 2017-2020 Racing Rules

When ‘mark-room’ Uh-oh, WIND No
no longer applies A passed head change
to wind so she Protest
Another significant change in the right-of- no longer gets Zone
way rules is found in the fourth section (d)
of rule 18.2 (Giving Mark-Room). This is the mark-room
rule that describes when a boat entitled to
mark-room no longer gets that mark-room. B I need
Two conditions remain the same in the new
rulebook: A boat loses her entitlement to mark-room,
mark-room if she: 1) passes head to wind, or
2) leaves the zone. A please

New rule 18.2(d) includes one additional Two ways a boat can lose her right to mark-room
time when a boat is no longer entitled to mark-
room. It says this happens when she ‘has been Rule 18.2(d) describes three ways in which a boat entitled
given that mark-room.’ to mark-room can lose that entitlement. Two of those are
exactly the same as in the old rulebook:
When has a boat been ‘given mark-room’?
According to the definition, a boat has received 1. Pass head to wind (above) – If a boat entitled to
mark-room once she has been able to sail to mark-room passes head to wind, the other boat is no
the mark, pass the mark on its required side, longer required to give her mark-room. This happens most
and round the mark as necessary to sail the frequently when two boats approach a windward mark on
course. When all three conditions are met, a port tack and the one clear ahead tacks to round the mark.
boat is no longer entitled to mark-room.
2. Leave the zone (below) – If a boat entitled to mark-
This is important to know because a boat room goes outside the zone, the other boat is no longer
that is entitled to mark-room will be exoner- required to give her mark-room. This is the case even if she
ated if she breaks any of the rules listed in rule went outside the zone in order to give mark-room to boats
21 (Exoneration). But once she has been given rounding the mark ahead of her.
mark-room, she will no longer be exonerated.
Check out the rest of this page and the next for 1 WIND
a more complete explanation.
1 I’m clear ahead at the zone.
NEW 18.2 Giving Mark-Room 2 I need mark-room, please.

18.2 (d) Rules 18.2(b) and (c) cease to apply when You went out of the zone so I
the boat entitled to mark-room has been given that don’t have to give you mark-
mark-room, or if she passes head to wind or leaves room any more – in fact, now I
the zone. have an inside overlap so you
2 must give me mark-room!
OLD 18.2 Giving Mark-Room
Leeward Zone
18.2 (c) However, if the boat entitled to mark-room mark
passes head to wind or leaves the zone, rule 18.2(b)
ceases to apply. 3
3
CURRENT Rule 18.2(b) and (c) (No changes)
(b) If boats are overlapped when the first of them No
reaches the zone, the outside boat at that moment change
shall thereafter give the inside boat mark-room. If a
boat is clear ahead when she reaches the zone, the
boat clear astern at that moment shall thereafter
give her mark-room.
(c) When a boat is required to give mark-room by

rule 18.2(b),
(1) she shall continue to do so even if later an

overlap is broken or a new overlap begins;
(2) if she becomes overlapped inside the boat

entitled to mark-room, she shall also give that
boat room to sail her proper course while they
remain overlapped.

6 New 2017-2020 Rules

Rule 18.2(d) – Mark-Room

JH Peterson photo This J70 is in the process of rounding
a leeward gate mark. She was entitled
to mark-room from boats that were
clear astern of her when she entered
the zone. This means they had to give
her room to leave the mark on the
required side, room to sail to the mark
(i.e. approach it in a seamanlike way),
and room to round the mark as
necessary to sail the course.

In the photo this boat has sailed
to the mark, she has left the mark to
starboard and she has just reached the
heading (closehauled) needed to sail
the next beat. Therefore, she has been
given the mark-room to which she was
entitled. So according to rule 18.2(d),
the rule requiring other boats to give
her that mark-room no longer applies.

Once a boat has received mark-room, she’s no longer entitled to it

According to new wording that has been added to are guaranteed a minimum amount of space that is
rule 18.2(d), once a boat has been given the mark- necessary for them to sail around the mark in a safe
room to which she is entitled, the rule that gave her and seamanlike way. This ‘guarantee’ is critical for
that mark-room in the first place no longer applies. boats that do not have the right of way; otherwise a
This is the third way that a boat can lose her entitle- right-of-way boat on the outside could simply force
ment to mark-room. Though this wording is new, it them to go on the wrong side of the mark.
doesn’t really change the rule – it just clarifies when
the mark-room rule turns off, but this While a boat is sailing within the mark-room to
is an important detail for sailors which she is entitled, she will be exonerated (by rule
to understand while racing. 21) if she breaks a rule in an incident with the boat
When boats required to give her that mark-room. But once a boat
are entitled to has been given mark-room, she’s no longer protected
1 I need mark-room, they by rule 21. That’s why it is important for boats to know
mark-room, when this transition occurs.
please

1 WIND Red has an inside overlap, so Blue must
give her mark-room. Mark-room for Red
2 sbahneteoTetpflhhnoaoeeinsglsiglRiteviteeoeeordwnnpkba4merro,oedasatpreotbkccho-strlaehaeostaedo.rmiisof f includes three things:
2 1. Room to leave the mark on the required
NEW! Leeward 4 side. Blue must give Red enough space to leave
Zone mark 4 the leeward mark on the required port side; this
means Red can aim slightly to the right of the
3 Leeward mark as she approaches it.
3 boat! 2. Room to sail to the mark. Blue must give Red
space to sail ‘to the mark’ in a seamanlike way.
Red needs enough room so she can handle her
boat in the existing conditions without risk of
touching the mark or any boat outside her.

3. Room to round the mark as necessary to sail
the course. Red is entitled to go around the mark
in a way that allows her to sail the next leg of the
course. In this case the next leg is a beat, so mark-
room includes enough space for Red to head up
to a closehauled course.
Once Red has been given the mark-room
to which she is entitled, rules 18.2(b) and
(c) no longer apply.

Speed & Smarts #141 7

The 2017-2020 Racing Rules

Rules when not racing

In the 2013-2016 rulebook, there was only one
right-of-way rule that you had to worry about
when you weren’t racing. That was rule 24 (Inter-
fering with another boat), which said “a boat not
racing shall not interfere with a boat that is racing.”

The new rulebook has one more thing to watch
out for. The preamble to Part 2 (When Boats Meet)
now says a boat not racing can also be penalized
if she breaks rule 14 (Avoiding Contact) and the
incident resulted in injury or serious damage.
(Note there are also many non-right-of-way rules for
which a boat can be penalized when she’s not racing.)

Start Line JH Peterson photo

Collisions before or after racing If there is an incident between races, or during a start
that ends in a general recall, and a boat that breaks rule
According to the preamble to the rulebook’s Part 2 14 (Avoiding Contact) causes serious damage, can she
(When Boats Meet), the right-of-way rules apply be penalized in a race? In previous years, the answer was
between boats that are ‘sailing in or near the racing no, but additions to rule 36 (Races Restarted . . .) and to
area and intend to race, are racing or have been the Part 2 preamble now allow a protest committee to
racing.’ However, a boat that is not racing will not penalize a boat in the race nearest the incident.
be penalized for breaking one of those rules, with
two exceptions. The first is if she interferes with a Collisions during a general recall
boat that is racing. That’s explained in rule 24.1, When a race ends in a general recall or abandonment
which has not changed. after the start, most rule infringements that happened
during the original race are ‘forgiven’ when the race is
The second exception is new. The preamble restarted or resailed.The exceptions are when a boat
now says that a non-racing boat can be penalized breaks rule 30.2 (Z flag penalty), rule 30.4 (Black flag
if she breaks rule 14 (Avoiding Contact) when the penalty) or rule 69 (Misconduct). These exceptions
incident resulted in injury or serious damage (to remain the same in the new rulebook.
the other boat or to herself!). Previously, a boat that However, rule 36 (Races Restarted or Resailed)
caused injury or serious damage when not racing now includes a new exception that’s
was liable for the damage but could not actually be consistent with the new Part 2
penalized in a race. Now if she is protested she will preamble (see left). If a
be penalized in the race closest to the incident. boat breaks rule 14
(Avoiding Contact) and First substitute
causes injury or serious – General
damage (to herself or the other
boat), this breach will not be forgiven. Recall

NEW Part 2 When Boats Meet NEW! NEW 36 Races Restarted or Resailed

Preamble: The rules of Part 2 apply between boats that If a race is restarted or resailed, a breach of a rule in the original
are sailing in or near the racing area and intend to race, race, or in any previous restart or resail of that race, shall not
are racing, or have been racing. However, a boat not
racing shall not be penalized for breaking one of these (a) prohibit a boat from competing unless she has broken
rules, except rule 14 when the incident resulted in injury rule 30.4; or
or serious damage, or rule 24.1.
(b) cause a boat to be penalized except under rule 30.2,
OLD Part 2 When Boats Meet 30.4 or 69 or under rule 14 when she has caused injury or
serious damage.
Preamble: The rules of Part 2 apply between boats that are
sailing in or near the racing area and intend to race, are racing, OLD 36 Races Restarted or Resailed
or have been racing. However, a boat not racing shall not be
penalized for breaking one of these rules, except rule 24.1. If a race is restarted or resailed, a breach of a rule, other than rule
30.3, in the original race shall not prohibit a boat from competing
or, except under rule 30.2, 30.3 or 69, cause her to be penalized.

8 New 2017-2020 Rules

Rule 18.3

Another way boats can be exonerated for breaking a rule
In the 2013-2016 rulebook, rule 21 (Exoneration) played an important role in guiding
boats around marks and obstructions. It said that when a boat was sailing within the room
or mark-room to which she was entitled, she would be exonerated if she broke any of the
rules listed in rule 21. In other words, she could take the room or mark-room she needed
with confidence, knowing she would not be penalized for an incident with the boat
required to give her that room or mark-room.
The ‘old’ version of rule 21 applied only when a boat was entitled to room or mark-
room ‘under a rule of Section C’ (At Marks and Obstructions; rules 18, 19 and 20). In
the new rulebook those limiting words have been deleted, so rule 21 now
applies any time a boat is entitled to room or mark-room. This means that
When a give-way boat entitled to room under rule 15 (Acquiring Right of Way)
the right- W or rule 16 (Changing Course) will also now be exonerated if she

of-way boat is sailing within that room and breaks one of the listed rules.
(Red) changes
her course, she L

must give the wind- NEW 21 Exoneration OLD 21 Exoneration
ward boat (Green) room to
keep clear. As long as Green is sailing When a boat is sailing within the room When a boat is sailing within the room or
within the ‘room to which she is entitled,’ or mark-room to which she is entitled, mark-room to which she is entitled under
she will be exonerated if she breaks rule she shall be exonerated if, in an a rule of Section C, she shall be exoner-
11 (On the Same Tack, Overlapped). incident with a boat required to give ated if, in an incident with a boat required
However, if Green is slow to respond or her that room or mark-room, to give her that room or mark-room,
doesn’t do everything she can to keep
clear of Red, she will not be exonerated. (a) she breaks a rule of Section A, (a) she breaks a rule of Section A, rule
rule 15 or rule 16, or 15 or rule 16, or

(b) she is compelled to break rule 31. (b) she is compelled to break rule 31.

A subtle correction about obstructions in the zone M – I need
mark-room,
Here’s a new rule that fixes a problem which most sailors please. And I
never knew existed. It addresses a particular situation at no longer have
a mark and says rule 19 (Room to Pass an Obstruction) MI to give you

does not apply in that specific case. room to pass
O, even
To understand why we have new rule 19.1(b), O though it’s an
imagine a scenario where three overlapped boats are obstruction.
running downwind on port tack toward a leeward mark.
When I and M reach the zone they are overlapped;
therefore the outside boat (M) must give mark-room
to the inside boat (I). Zone
I and M are also passing a third boat (O), which is
an obstruction to them. According to the old version of
rule 19, when two boats were passing an obstruction, NEW!
the outside boat had to give the inside boat room Lemewarakrd
between her and the obstruction. In other words, I
had to provide room for M to pass between I and O.
This meant rules 18 and 19 were in conflict, which
was potentially confusing. In addition, few sailors real-
ized that rule 19 (Room to Pass an Obstruction) even NEW 19 Room to Pass an Obstruction

applied here. Therefore, the rulemakers decided to fix 19.1 When Rule 19 Applies
this problem by making it clear that the inside boat (I) Rule 19 applies between two boats at an obstruction except
is always entitled to mark-room in cases like this. To do
this they added (b) to rule 19.1 (When Rule 19 Applies). (a) when the obstruction is a mark the boats are required
to leave on the same side, or
Rule 19.1(b) says rule 19 does not apply between
two boats at an obstruction when two conditions occur: (b) when rule 18 applies between the boats and the
1) rule 18 applies between the boats, and obstruction is another boat overlapped with each of them . . .

OLD 19 Room to Pass an Obstruction

2) the obstruction is a nearby boat overlapped with 19.1 When Rule 19 Applies
each of the two boats. Rule 19 applies between boats at an obstruction except when
it is also a mark the boats are required to leave on the same
When both of these exist, rule 19 does not apply side . . .
and the boats are guided only by rule 18 (Mark-Room).

Speed & Smarts #141 9

The 2017-2020 Racing Rules

Rule changes about Be wary of interfering with other boats

penalties, hearings The second part of rule 24 (Interfering With Another Boat)
describes several times when you’re not allowed to interfere
T here are a lot of rule changes in the with another racing boat. Several things are new:
new rulebook, but not too many
involve the right-of-way rules that apply 1) Rule 24.2 still says you can’t interfere with boats that are
when boats meet. Most of the changes are taking a penalty or sailing on another leg; new this year are
found in rules about procedural matters. boats ‘subject to rule 22.1’ (i.e. boats returning to start).

There are also several changes to the 2) Rule 24.2 now includes the wording “if reason-
penalties that can be given for breaking ably possible.” Usually it is possible to avoid
certain rules. A theme of the new rulebook interfering with boats listed in the rule, but
is a trend toward discretionary penalties not always. Now if you can’t avoid interfering
(rather than DSQ as the only option). This with those boats, you won’t be penalized.
direction is stated in the new rulebook’s
introduction, which describes a notation 3) After the start, you can interfere with the
‘DP’ (see page 11) that can now be used boats listed only when you are sailing your
with rules in an event’s NOR or SIs. proper course. Since there is no proper course
before the start, there is now no excuse for
Several rules in the new rulebook have interference with those boats during that time.
also been changed to add more discretion
to the penalties that can be given for NEW re2a4soInnatbelyrpfeorssinibgle,wa ibtohatAsnhaolltnhoetrinBteorfaetre with a boat that is
breaking them. These include rule 2 (Fair
Sailing), rule 69 (Misconduct), rule 55 24.2 If
(Trash Disposal) and Appendix T1 (Post- taking a penalty, sailing on another leg or subject to rule 22.1. However,
Race Penalties). All of these are described after the starting signal this rule does not apply when the boat is sailing
elsewhere in this issue. her proper course.

OLD 24 Interfering with Another Boat
24.2 Except when sailing her proper course, a boat shall not interfere
with a boat taking a penalty or sailing on another leg.

A fairer Fair Sailing rule?

The purpose of the Fair Sailing Rule (Fundamental
Rule 2) is to ensure that racing boats compete ‘in
compliance with recognized principles of sportsman-
ship and fair play.’ This is a serious rule and therefore,
in the past, the penalty for breaking it was always a
DSQ not excludable from a boat’s series score (DNE).

However, all breaches of rule 2 are not equal.
Pushing another boat backward after a collision, for
example, is different than intentionally and secretly
removing required corrector weights while racing.
Because of this, the new rule 2 gives the protest
committee a choice of penalties – they can stick with
the old DNE for severe breaches, or go with a simple
disqualification (which could be discarded) for less
egregious offenses.

JH Peterson photo NEW 2 Fair Sailing

A new rule 85, called ‘Changes to Rules,’ has been A boat and her owner shall compete in compliance with
added to the rulebook’s Part 7 (Race Organization). recognized principles of sportsmanship and fair play. A boat
Rule 85.2 includes a very good chart that explains how may be penalized under this rule only if it is clearly established
and where various types of rules may be changed. that these principles have been violated. The penalty shall be
either disqualification or disqualification that is not excludable.
If you’ve ever been confused about which rules may OLD 2 Fair Sailing
be changed at a regatta, rule 85 will be very helpful. A boat and her owner shall compete in compliance with recog-
It lists all the rules that apply to racing (e.g. class rules, nized principles of sportsmanship and fair play. A boat may be
sailing instructions, prescriptions) and shows the specific penalized under this rule only if it is clearly established that these
rules or documents that govern changes to them. principles have been violated. A disqualification under this rule
shall not be excluded from the boat’s series score.
10
New 2017-2020 Rules

Penalties and Hearings

A more practical rule about conflicts of interest At most regattas it is now usually
OK for coaches, sailors and other
For many years the rulebook defined an ‘interested party’ as a person people with conflicts of interest
who could gain or lose as the result of a protest committee’s decision, to serve on a protest committee.
or who had a close personal interest in the decision. According to the
old rule 63.4, an interested party was not allowed to serve on a protest
committee. This was a key principle in ensuring that juries were fair.
However, rule 63.4 was broken all the time. Juries frequently
included interested parties such as coaches or competitors. Protestor

These were often the only people available to hear protests,
and they were often the most qualified as well.
With this in mind, the rulemakers decided to write a more
practical rule. They started with a new definition called
‘conflict of interest.’ This is similar to ‘interested
party,’ but also says that a person has a conflict Protestee

of interest if he ‘may reasonably appear to have a
personal or financial interest which could affect his
ability to be impartial.” In other words, a person
doesn’t need to have an actual conflict of interest,
just the appearance of one. This means more peo-
ple will have a conflict of interest than in the past.
However, the new rule 63.4 (Conflict of Interest)
is more lenient about who can serve on protest Protest
committees. It allows someone with a conflict of committee
interest to serve on a jury when ‘all parties consent’ members

or when ‘the protest committee decides that the
conflict of interest is not significant.’

NEW DEFINITION Conflict of Interest NEW p6ro3t.e4stCcoomnfmlicittteoefmInemtebreerssthall declare any

A person has a conflict of interest if he (a) A
(a) may gain or lose as a result of a decision to which he contributes, possible conflict of interest as soon as he is aware of it.
(b) may reasonably appear to have a personal or financial interest A party to the hearing who believes a member of the
which could affect his ability to be impartial, or protest committee has a conflict of interest shall object
(c) has a close personal interest in a decision. as soon as possible. A conflict of interest declared by a
OLD DEFINITION: Interested Party protest committee member shall be included in the
A person who may gain or lose as a result of a protest committee’s written information provided under rule 65.2.
decision, or who has a close personal interest in the decision. (b) A member of a protest committee with a conflict
of interest shall not be a member of the committee for
Introducing ‘DP’ (Discretionary penalties) the hearing, unless
(1) all parties consent, or
In the Introduction at the front of the 2017-2020 rulebook, (2) the protest committee decides that the
there is a new note about Discretionary Penalties. It says, conflict of interest is not significant.
“The notation ‘DP’ in a rule means that the penalty for a (c) When deciding whether a conflict of interest is
breach of the rule may, at the discretion of the protest significant, the protest committee shall consider the
committee, be less than disqualification.” DP has been views of the parties, the level of the conflict, the level
used for several years at international events; its inclusion of the event, the importance to each party, and the
in the rulebook means sailors will now be seeing this option overall perception of fairness.
more at local and regional regattas. (d) However, for World Sailing major events, or for
other events as prescribed by the national authority
Appendix K (Notice of Race Guide) and Appendix L of the venue, rule 63.4(b) does not apply and a person
(Sailing Instruction Guide) suggest a number of places who has a conflict of interest shall not be a member of
where regatta organizers should use DP in their SIs or NOR. the protest committee.
These include rules that don’t affect a boat’s performance,
where disqualification (which was the only previous option) OLD 63.4 Interested Party
seems too severe a penalty. The Sailing Instruction Guide,
for example, recommends using DP with any rule that A member of a protest committee who is an interested
specifies when a racing boat can or can’t leave the harbor. party shall not take any further part in the hearing but may
See World Sailing guidelines for discretionary penalties here. appear as a witness. Protest committee members must
declare any possible self-interest as soon as they are aware
Speed & Smarts #141 of it. A party to the hearing who believes a member of the
protest committee is an interested party shall object as
soon as possible.

11

The 2017-2020 Racing Rules

Protests and redress

T he new rulebook includes refinements in the procedure for filing
protests and requesting redress. The requirements for informing the
protested boat have been relaxed when an incident results in injury or
serious damage or when any crewmember is in danger. Written protests
now only need to identify the incident; other info required by the protest
form can be added or corrected before or during the hearing.

The rule about redress has been broadened slightly to include boats
whose place (not just their score) in a race or series has been made
significantly worse. There are also major changes to the US prescription
to rule 63.2, which allows any boat to be a party to a redress hearing.

NEW 61 Protest Requirements When you don’t have to hail ‘Protest’ or fly a red flag
61.1 Informing the Protestee
Rule 61 is the rule that says when you want to protest another boat you
(a) (4) if as a result of the incident a must hail the word ‘Protest’ and conspicuously display a red flag “... at
member of either crew is in danger, the first reasonable opportunity for each.” There are only a few times
or there is injury or serious damage that when you can have a valid protest without doing both of these things.
is obvious to the boat intending to For example, if your boat is less than six meters long, you don’t have
protest, the requirements of this rule to display a red flag.
do not apply to her, but she shall
attempt to inform the other boat within Another exception is explained in rule 61.4, which is intended to
the time limit of rule 61.3. make protest requirements more forgiving when boats are dealing
with damage or an injury right after an incident. In the old rulebook,
OLD 61 Protest Requirements 61.4 said you didn’t have to hail ‘Protest’ or display a red flag when
61.1 Informing the Protestee the incident resulted ‘in damage or injury that is obvious to the boats

(a) (4) if the incident results in damage involved . . .’ That rule has been revised and the
or injury that is obvious to the boats new 61.4 now applies whenever:
involved and one of them intends to
protest, the requirements of this rule do a) a member of either crew is in danger
not apply to her, but she shall attempt b) there’s serious damage (not just damage); or
to inform the other boat within the time c) the injury or serious damage is obvious ‘to
limit of rule 61.3. the boat intending to protest’ (it no longer has
to be obvious to the other boat as well).

A more lenient rule for written protests NEW 61 Protest Requirements
61.2 Protest Contents
Another requirement for a valid protest is the filing of the
protest in writing, which is explained in rule 61.2. In the A protest shall be in writing and identify
old version of this rule, the only thing that absolutely had (a) the protestor and protestee;
to be included in a written protest was “(b) the incident, (b) the incident;
including where and when it occurred.” All of the other (c) where and when the incident occurred;
requirements could be met any time before or, in some (d) any rule the protestor believes was broken; and
cases, during the hearing. (e) the name of the protestor’s representative.

This meant a protest form had to include at least a However, if requirement (b) is met, requirement (a) may
description of the incident, including the date, the race be met at any time before the hearing, and requirements
number and place on the course where it happened. (d) and (e) may be met before or during the hearing.
The problem was that if a sailor did not include this info, Requirement (c) may also be met before or during the
or if any of it was incorrect, the protest was invalid. At hearing, provided the protestee is allowed reasonable
the 2016 Olympics, for example, there were at least two time to prepare for the hearing.
protests filed where the protestors wrote the wrong race
number on the form. In both cases the protest was found OLD 61 Protest Requirements
to be invalid and therefore it was not heard. 61.2 Protest Contents

That is fixed in the new rule 61.2. Now the only A protest shall be in writing and identify
requirement is that the protestor identify the incident (b). (a) the protestor and protestee;
The description of where and when the incident occurred (b) the incident, including where and when it occurred;
(c) can be met before or during the hearing. This is not to (c) any rule the protestor believes was broken; and
say that you shouldn’t put these on your protest form, but (d) the name of the protestor’ s representative.
a jury cannot find your protest invalid because you listed
the wrong date, race number or leg of the race. However, if requirement (b) is met, requirement (a) may be
met at any time before the hearing, and requirements (c)
12 and (d) may be met before or during the hearing.

New 2017-2020 Rules

Protests and Redress

JH Peterson photo A revised prescription
about redress hearings
A small change in the NEW 62 Redress
rule about redress The purpose of the US Sailing
62.1 A request for redress or a protest com- prescription to rule 63.2 (Time and
Redress (Rule 62) is a type mittee’s decision to consider redress shall be Place of the Hearing ...) is to make
of ‘compensation’ or ‘repa- based on a claim or possibility that a boat’s sure that redress decisions are
ration’ that a boat can get score or place in a race or series has been or made as fairly as possible for all
when certain things out of may be, through no fault of her own, made boats affected. The prescription
her control affect her finish significantly worse by . . . says that whenever redress is being
position. For example, if OLD The only change to new rule 62 (Redress) requested or considered for a boat
the race committee makes was the addition of the words ‘or place.’ (at a race in the USA), ‘any other
an error and scores a boat boat may participate in the hear-
OCS, she can request re- Boat Race Scores Pts. ing.’ This is not a change from the
dress and get reinstated. old prescription, but it is stated
1. Ouija 2-3-1-7-2-4-5 24 more clearly now.
The old rule said a boat
could get redress when 2. Rabbit 4 - 2 - 5 - 3 - 8 - 2 - RDG 28 In the past, boats that wanted
her score in a race or series to participate in a redress hearing
was made ‘significantly 3. Spider 1 - 9 - 4 - 4 - 5 - 7 - RDG 35 had to make a request in writing.
worse.’ If she went to the Now any boat can simply attend
aid of a boat in danger, 4. Skippy 5 - 4 - 7 - 2 - 9 - 6 - 4 36 the hearing. The protest commit-
for example, and lost 10 tee is required to request redress
points, a jury could give 5. Libra 7-5-3-5-7-5-6 38 for every boat that participates in
her those points as redress. a hearing (or requests in writing to
6. Scout 3 - 8 - 6 - 10 - 5 - 3 - 8 43 do so). This means those boats are
The problem is that once all ‘parties’ to the hearing, and
in a while a boat’s position 7. Nabob 6 - 11 - 8 - 1 - 4 - 13 - 3 46 therefore have all corresponding
in a race or series becomes rights such as the right to appeal
worse without a change in 8. Good Egg 9 - 1 - 12 - 8 - 6 - 11 - 2 49 the decision. This is quite different
her score (see examples at from the old prescription where
right). That’s why the new In this sample regatta scoresheet, the protest other boats were not ‘parties.’
rule 62 added the words committee gave redress to Rabbit and Spider
‘or place.’ Now a boat in the last race. This did not affect Skippy’s UNSESWailiPngrepsrecsrcirpibteios nthattowhReunlered6r3es.s2
doesn’t always need a score (it stayed at 36), but it did affect her
worse score to get redress. place (she moved from 2nd to 4th), so under has been requested or is to be consid-
the new rules she can request redress if she ered for one or more boats:
thinks the PC’s action was improper.
(a) Any other boat may participate in
the hearing.

(b) The protest committee shall make a
reasonable attempt to notify all boats of
the time and place of the hearing and the
reason for the request or for considering
redress, and boats shall be allowed rea-
sonable time to prepare for the hearing.

(c) The protest committee shall request
redress for the other boats that partici-
pate in the hearing or request in writing
to do so, making them parties . . .

OLD Prescription to Rule 63.2

US Sailing prescribes that when redress
has been requested or is to be consid-
ered, the protest committee shall make
a reasonable attempt to notify all boats
of the time and place of the hearing
and the nature of the request or the
grounds for considering redress. Before
holding the hearing, the committee
shall allow reasonable time for boats
to make written requests to participate.

Speed & Smarts #141 13

The 2017-2020 Racing Rules

More changes in the new rulebook

T his issue is dedicated to the had a ‘measurement committee’ to committee the ability to protest or
new 2017-20 rule changes that perform measurement functions, request redress for a boat.
will likely have the biggest impact but that committee had no official
on your racing during the next four status in the rulebook. Now there’s Rule 69 (Misconduct)
years. So far we’ve covered a lot of a new technical committee that is There have been a lot of changes in
rule revisions, from mark-room to the subject of several new rules. this rule. It was previously called
protest procedure. Here are a few ‘Gross Misconduct,’ but now it’s
more that didn’t fit into previous Rule 89.2(c) says the organiz- just ‘Misconduct.’ That’s because
pages – some of these rules have ing authority shall appoint a tech- it covers a wider range of behavior,
fairly significant changes. nical committee when appropriate. including conduct that is a breach
Rule 92 defines the makeup and of good manners or good sports-
Appendix T – Arbitration function of a technical committee: manship, but not necessarily a
Arbitration is a special process for it ‘shall conduct equipment inspec- gross breach. Rule 69 gives the
hearing protests using an arbitra- tion and event measurement . . .” protest committee more choice
tor and then a hearing if necessary. And rule 60.4 gives a technical
Some events have used arbitration
in the past, but it was never in the US Sailing Team Sperry/Onne van der Wal
rulebook before, so there was no
standard procedure. Now there is. When backing a sail at the start

If the sailing instructions so For many years the rulebook has included a rule (22.3) that says a boat
state, Appendix T applies and an moving astern by backing a sail shall keep clear of one that is not. The
arbitration will be held for any purpose of this rule has been to reduce the number of boats going
protest involving a right-of-way backward in the starting area – a tactic that often creates confusion and
rule or rule 31 (Touching a Mark). a greater likelihood of collisions.
The parties have a short meeting
with an arbitrator, and then he or Now rule 22.3 has been expanded to include boats that are moving
she gives an opinion about what a ‘sideways to windward through the water by backing a sail . . .’ This is a
protest committee would likely do. recent starting technique, also known as ‘crabbing,’ that works in a few
The parties then have the option of boats like skiffs. If a sailor backs any sail and this causes them to move
taking a penalty, withdrawing their astern or sideways to windward, they must keep clear of other boats.
protest or continuing to a hearing.
NEW b2o2atSmtaovritnigngasEterrrno, orsr ;siTdaekwianygs tPoewninadltwiaersd;, Btharocukginh gthea wSaatielr by backing
When Appendix T applies, rule
T1 says boats can take a 30% Scor- 22.3 A
ing Penalty any time after the race a sail shall keep clear of one that is not.
until the start of a protest hearing
involving the incident. OLD 2b2oaSt tmaorvtiinnggaEstrerronrtsh;roTuagkhinthgePweantearltbiyebs;acMkiongviansgaiAl sshtaellrkneep clear of one
22.3 A
Appendix U – that is not.
Audible-Signal Racing System
Appendix U is a prescription of US
Sailing that was formerly called the
‘Sound-Signal Starting System.’ It
was originally a popular and easy
way to start small-boat races using
sounds instead of visual signals.
The new Appendix U keeps the
exact same starting procedure,
but also now includes a system for
running entire races with sounds
and hails rather than the visual
signals specified in the rulebook.

Technical committee
In previous years, many regattas

14 New 2017-2020 Rules

Other Rule Changes

regarding the actions it can take made in the appendices. Appendix Two rules that now apply
when someone breaks this rule. C (Match Racing) and Appendix F whenever you are ‘afloat’
Also, the PC will not have to report (Kiteboard Rules), for example,
its findings to a national authority have some major game-changing Part 4 of the rulebook is titled,
as often as before. As a result, we revisions, and Appendix S (Stan- ‘Other Requirements When Rac-
will likely see more rule 69 hear- dard Sailing Instructions) is com- ing.’ It includes the rules about
ings during the coming years. pletely new. Read carefully any outside help, propulsion, penalties,
Appendix that applies to your crew position and so on. The pre-
The Appendices racing (and note the new changes amble to Part 4 says, “Part 4 rules
Quite a few changes have been are not marked in the margins). • apply only to boats racing unless
the rule states otherwise.” Now
Rule 64.3 (Decisions on there are two rules that specifically
Protests Concerning Class state otherwise by saying they
R(cu) lwesh)ichhasgaivensewa section apply “...at all times while afloat.”
protest
committee the authority to Rule 40 (PFDs) – This is the rule
penalize boats that break that says when a race committee
class rules in multiple races. displays flag Y, competitors must
Previously, a boat could be wear PFDs while racing. A new
penalized only if there was sentence added to this rule says
a valid protest for each race that when flag Y is displayed
in which she broke a rule. ashore, competitors must wear
The new 64.3(c) says that PFDs all the time they are on the
when a boat is penalized water (i.e. ‘afloat’).
under a class rule and the
protest committee decides Rule 55 (Trash) – This rule was
that the boat broke the new in the 2013 rulebook and said
same rule ‘in earlier races competitors must not intentionally
in the same event,’ they put trash in the water. However, it
can give her the same applied only when boats were
penalty for all those races racing. Now it applies all the time
without further protest. while boats are afloat. Note also
that the penalty for breaking this
rule may now be less than DSQ.

Another starting penalty option NEW
4W0hePneflrasgoYnias ldFislpolatyaetdiownithDoenveices
For many years the rulebook has included 3 starting penalties designed
to help race committees minimize the number of general recalls – the I sound before or with the warning
Flag, Z Flag and Black Flag rules. Now there is a fourth option – the U signal, competitors shall wear personal
Flag Rule (new rule 30.3). The U Flag is a slightly more friendly version of flotation devices . . . When flag Y is
the Black Flag Rule and has been used frequently at international events displayed ashore, this rule applies at
during the past several years. When the U Flag is displayed as a prep all times while afloat . . .
signal, “ . . . no part of a boat’s hull, crew or equipment shall be in the OLD
triangle formed by the ends of the starting line and the first mark during 40 Personal Flotation Devices
the last minute before her starting signal.” If a boat breaks this rule she When flag Y is displayed with one sound
will be disqualified – but (unlike the black flag) she is not disqualified if before or with the warning signal,
there is a general recall or if the race is abandoned. competitors shall wear personal flotation
devices . . .
NEW 30.3 U Flag Rule NEW!
NA EcoWmpe5t5itoTrrsahsahll nDotisinptoenstaiolnally put
If flag U has been displayed, no part of a U Flag
boat’s hull, crew or equipment shall be in the trash in the water. This rule applies at
triangle formed by the ends of the starting all times while afloat. The penalty for a
line and the first mark during the last minute breach of this rule may be less than
before her starting signal. If a boat breaks this disqualification.
rule and is identified, she shall be disqualified OLD 55 Trash Disposal
without a hearing, but not if the race is A competitor shall not intentionally put
restarted or resailed. trash in the water.
OLD There was no U Flag rule in past editions
of the rulebook.

Speed & Smarts #141 15

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The subtle change this year is This means when a boat is No part of this issue may be given
that a boat that is hailed for room hailed for room to tack, she must to others or reproduced, except
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spond to this hail even if she does as possible or by replying ‘You tack’ for their own personal use.
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The previous rule 20 did not make boat is breaking rule 20. She must
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required to respond even when she
did not see any obstruction. The This rule is written to ensure $38/year/6 issues ($66 for 2 years)
new rule does this. safety in cases where not all boats
may be able to see a hazard. Paper version – only in N. America

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#141 The New Rules

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16 New 2017-2020 Rules


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