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Published by ftshwlf1.0, 2019-12-02 10:18:43

(UPDATE) E-Magazine Article Review IMR652

E-magazine for our group project :)

Keywords: magazine,review

issue 08 november 2019

11 two
a modern business record magazine

2019 ASCOT



UP TO 50% OFF!


11 two

editor in chief liyana anwar
creative director khaliesah tarmizi
managing editor ain husna aziz

style editor eve maureena
associate editor asyikin akira

on the cover

This magazine will show you about what is
Business Records and some national and
international policies about business records,
other than sharing with the readers about what
we learn and gain through this whole
Hope you enjoy :)


issue 08


november 2019

page 4

Exploring and get to know about our
faculty and the programme.

page 8

We go under the surface and reveal the
true colors of the editors. The reader might
want to know more about them.

page 13

We got up extra early to experience the
wonder that is Lake Ottawa at sunrise.
Worth it? Definitely.

page 42

This whole semester has been extra
adventurous for each of us. We going to
share the experience in learning this
course. Spoiler: it's amazing.

page 53

we will go through one-by-one on the
policies of records management and also
electronic records management.

page 60

a snippets on top 10 best place to travel and
about other modern fashion. Photos inside!

page 71

A bit to sum up from the whole magazine.







The study of expression ought to form a part of the study of psychology, but it also comes within
the province of anthropology because the habitual, life-long expressions of the face determine

the wrinkles of old age, which are distinctly an anthropological characteristic.


Faculty of Information Our academic rich reservoirs of
Management is programmes, knowledge are
responsible supplemented by systematically
in preserving the past, industry attachments, organised, maintained
valuing the present, equip graduates with and enhanced for
enriching the future. knowledge and skills to optimum value. To
take on the challenging achieve this aim, the
Faculty of Information demands of managing programmes consist of
Management, UiTM, information in various the blended
takes pride in being the forms and in various components from four
pioneer in providing types of organisations. main areas: Information
professional education Our graduates become Technologies,
to fulfil the manpower the main driving force Professional and
need of the country in for the development of Technical Aspects of
three very important a knowledge-based Information and
fields, namely: society, transforming Records Management,
Information Malaysia into a Public Relations, and
Management, Library developed nation, Users’ Needs and
Management, and ensuring the country's Services.
Records Management.


This programme recognises The duration mode is between 2 542 MI
information as a strategic resourse. It years to 5 years for full time and part
is designed to educate and train time students. Graduates will have
students with knowledge and skills in the opportunity to work in any
managing information. It involves organization as Information Systems
analysing, designing, developing, and Executives, Junior Web Designers,
managing various types of information Information Specialists, Information
systems for identifying, acquiring, Managers, Automation Officers,
organizing, storing, and retrieving as Information Officers, Director of
well as disseminating information for Information Centers, Information
users' strategic and competitive Consultants, and also IT Librarians



This programme focuses on work The duration mode for full time 442 MI
related to library management and students is between 2 to 3 years
information organisation in libraries while for the part time students, it will
and information centers. The program be 4 to 5 years. Graduates will have
provides and trains people with skills the opportunity to work in libraries
and competencies in management, and information centers as Librarians,
ICT, information literacy, information Library executives, Information
storage and processing and retrieval specialists, Information consultants,
(manuals and computerised Information officers, Abstractors,
techniques), through a variety of Indexers, Bibliographic compiler, and
teaching modes and assessment also Library consultants.
throughout the duration of the











Creative Director

My name is Nurkhaliesah binti Ahmad
Tarmizi, I’m 22 years old. I was born in
Klang, Shah Alam. I lived with my
mother and brother. My father has
passed away for about three years.

My first journey started at Tadika
Masjid Negeri and after that my
standard 1 till standard 6 I went to
Sekolahh Rendah Agama Integrasi
Seksyen 19, Shah Alam (SRAI 19). Next,
I went to Sekolah Menengah
Seksyen 24/2 Shah Alam (SMKS24/2)
from form 1 till form 5.
After I finished all my school, I got
offered to further my diploma in
information management at UiTM
Kedah for about 2 and half years. I
spend my good time by
learning lesson, experience and
making a lot of good friends. Now, I’m
currently studying my degree,
Bachelor of Information Science (Hons)
Information System Management and
will be graduated on 2021.




My name is Eve Maureena Moses, I’m 23 years old. I come from
Serian, Sarawak. I’m currently taking Bachelor of Information
Science (Hons.) Library Management (IM244). I’m a final year
student. My goal entering a university is to fulfil my parents desire

who wish to see me as an educated woman and wearing a
convocation robe. Other than that, me myself also want to have the

feel of being an educated and respected woman. Since entering
university, I slowly able to adapt to the surrounding and “the

culture”, I once was an introvert girl who don’t have confident to
confront people and shy person. At here I found many friends who’s
always by my side, guiding me with my study and appreciate me as
a friend. Time past and finally I can easily make friends with others,

talk confidently, laugh and exchange ideas. I enjoy my time at
university, with such helpful friends here. Currently, I’m striving to
perform the best for my academic and live well with my family. Now

I’m already in final year, I’m hoping that my hard work from
previous semester until now will come to good results. I just want my

family happy and proud with me. That’s my priority.


My name is Norasyikin Akira Binti Yahaya and I am 23 years
old. I am a Library Management student and currently in
my part 6. The goal I’m currently striving for is to make
this world a better place to live in by starting the changes
with myself. Sure, I’ve had bad experiences in my life too,
but this is exactly what made me the way I am now,
grateful, with a desire to study well because it will help me
become a successful person in future and have a high

quality of life. I believe that it is manifesting day by day and
I feel even more responsibility for what I do and where I
go. With all I already have, I know that I’m on the right
path and I will do my best to inspire others to live the way
they feel like living as well.










Business continuity planning is about identifying the critical functions and services your business
delivers and planning for how you would maintain or resume them in any disruptive event or
emergency such as a power outage, fire, flood or earthquake. After all, if you can’t deliver your
critical functions and services such as clients, staff and suppliers could be adversely affected,
customers might look elsewhere and turn to your competitors, or you may fail to meet contractual
or legislated obligations, there may be financial repercussions or your organisation’s reputation
could be adversely affected. Business continuity plan is a methodology which is used to create and
approve a plan for defending the continuity of business operations before, during or
after a disaster disturb.


The article’s title is risk analysis on the development of a business continuity plan. It is written by
three authors, Alexander Setiawan, Adi Wibowo and Andrew Hartanto Susilo. Three of them are
from informatics engineering from Faculty of Industrial Technology. They finished their study in
Petra Christian University Surabaya, Indonesia. One of the author which is Alexander Setiawan, he is

the lecturer at Informatics Engineering Department in Petra Christian University. He lives
in area Surabaya area, East Java, Indonesia. He is experienced as lecturer with a demonstrated
history of working in the education management industry. Skilled in Negotiation, SQL, Strategic
Planning, IT Strategy, SAP for Education. Strong education professional with a Master of Technology

(M.Tech.) focused in Information Technology from Gadjah Mada University (UGM).


Based on the article the authors discussed about the risk analysis on the development of a business
continuity plan (BCP). They explained about the importance of the business continuity plan to
prevent any loss in the organization and there are also many benefits from implying the BCP but
before the plan is made, we need to observe carefully the risk and the potential impacts. From what
i understand, the author try to say that disaster or disruptive events is something we cannot avoid
but we can prevent the risk of loss in the organization that might happen by apply the business
continuity plan. It may not prevent fully but at least it can reduce the loss. Then, they also explained
the BCP processes that are involves. In my opinion, their writing style in the article is
understandable and well written.



The choice of words they use is easy to understand and the readers do not need to refer dictionary
or etc. The student like me can easily understand what the authors tried to deliver in the article.
The authors also tried to make it simple as possible and do not complicated by stated the points,
mapping and so on. Usually some article, they only write in a long essay which is quite confusing
and hard to understand. In the article also shows step by step of BCP, so that we can see it clearly
and explain it detailed one by one. The authors also conduct the interview data and sampling
with the company regarding risk factor faced by them. It shows the likelihood definition of high,
medium and low and the probability of occurrences based on the interview’s result. After that, they
evaluate the all the results. Overall, the contents of the article are related to the main topic and
each of the small topic are explained detail. For example, they used a lot tables to shows the
explanation and results. The writing style is recommended to student like me who want to gain
knowledge by reading the article with a simple structure and straightforward to the main topic.


The main target audience of the article must be business people who work in the organization.
They should know what is the business continuity plan and what to do before apply the plan. They

also need to know the importance of the business continuity plan and what it can do the
organization when the disaster or disruptive events happen. This is important information to all of

them to improve their stability of the organization by prevent or reduce the loss. Other target
audience should be students who are studying business course. They might need to do the reading
regarding the assignment. This article is able to help them a lot to gain knowledge in order to finish

the work. It is also essential for business student to knows what is business continuity plan. Other
than students who study business, the other students can also gain their knowledge by reading

the articles. This can help them survive in the future if they interested in entering business world.
The last target audience should be researcher. As we know, researcher is among the PhD students

to do their thesis. This is a good article as a reference for PhD students. This is because all the
content of this article is up to date and relevant it surely can help for them to produce good thesis.


Besides, the article is current because it was published in 2017. There are no month stated in the
article but it still considered latest because it is 2010 above. The content of the article is reliable and
can be used to refer such as for research and so on. Then the content is up to date follow by time to
time. The authors also wrote the points in interesting way and make it easier to do article review.




The scope of discussion in the article stated with the introduction of the business continuity plan
(BCP), and they also explain it in the theory to make the reader fully understand the main topic in
the article. After that, they proceed about the process on how of business continuity plan by stated
in the points one by one. There are four process included business impact analysis, risk assessment,
risk management and risk monitoring and testing. This process is very important and it also need to
upgraded time by time according to the threat of the organization. Then, the article discuss on the

steps to promote business continuity plan. The article also refer to the ISO 27002: 2005 which
make the content reliable which is quality management standard that presents guidelines
intended to increase business efficiency and customer satisfaction.

The authors also discusses the model business strategy by make it simple in the mapping in order
to make it clear. From the risk that stated, we need to recognize what kind of risk we had. In order
to recognize the risk we need to follow the step continuity plan. The authors also explain about the

risk mitigation strategies that can be selected and implemented in the organization. The article
also covers about the risk of BCP and the evaluation of the risk. They also shows the probability of

the risk occur from the research the author had conducted in the company. Then, from that
probability the article evaluate all the risks. Lastly, the authors show the result from the research

and it shows that using IT as supporter of business processes in the company and running well
because there is no IT incident that directly became threats the business process of
the company.


In the nutshell, the business recovery plan is a good solution to help the organization to reduce any
loss that happen in the incident but we need to study the risk and the potential impacts
beforehand so the plan can be made successfully. From the article the readers know which
strategies should be selected and implemented. By study the risk, we can evaluate ourselves which
risk is high, medium or low. All the risk can be evaluated carefully using standard risk domain and
the predictions can be more reliable if using the right standard for example in the article, they used
Standard ISO 27002: 2005ISO. Consequences in the article, it shows that all the risk need to ne
evaluate because the high risk may become the threat.

The recommendation from the article is the authors also mention in the next development process
is to continue the process of risk analysis to the audit process to assess the performance and
condition of IT in the company. It is recommended that we need to imply the risk analysis
whenever we want to plan the business continuity planning. This is to ensure our organization wan
prevent all the risk either high or medium for the success of the organization.



The outcomes from the article, I had learnt that business continuity planning is very essential in the

organization. The knowledge I get from the article is also very useful as the basis information in
should know in case someday I would like to involve in business world. The knowledge also we can

share to other people who neglect this important information and it very wasteful to not know
something this helpful for us..











The article is written by Judith Lamont (Treat) Jacobson, 85, of Clinton, CT and East
Boothbay, ME. She graduated from Milton High School in 1951 and went on to earn her
B.S. in Education from Wheelock College in 1995. She is a research analyst with Zentek
Corp. She began her long teaching career at the Josephine Foster School in Braintree, MA
from 1955 to 1960. Judy was a dedicated educator spending many years in the Clinton
school system, primarily teaching fourth grade at the Abraham Pierson School. In 1994
she received the honor of being named a runner up for Clinton Teacher. The latest article
she published such as compliance and quality assurance ; pieces of a complex supply
chain puzzle, the second article is enriching text analytics with graph databases, E-
discovery; what metrics reveal, and the last one Is about search technology; greater
power, but increasingly simple to use, data quality goes mainstream. She publish a lot of
useful article to help a researcher to do their research.


       The general problem of this article is about record management has been compared

to taking out the trash. This is because people seems like they don’t know what to do if
they keep unwanted information in their company. These scenario happen because of
they don’t have enough on how to handle the record. Keeping the information that you
don’t need is a risk from a compliance and security view. However, for other organization
the situation occur because of cost can be incurred when data from applications that are

no longer use it keeps on being and maintained. It is would be such a wasted if the
companies continue to paying expensive license fees for applications that not being used
anymore. The author will identify the problem with these cases, the information needs to

be reviewed, classified and migrated or deleted. So that the companies application can
be decommissioned.




From the article, Judith stated the objective is to saves expensive cost for other
companies to start their business record management which is to keep client
information or important records. The steps can be taken to reduce the amount of
content being stored in the application. This is because the organization is paying
carelessly without understand rules of regulation. The problem occur because of there
is a lot of information need to be kept till they wasted their money. I think the author
stated clearly and give a detail explanation about what happen in the companies.
Their purpose is to figure out about how to securing the data and the author related
the cases with expensive license and fees. The author determine to find a solution
regarding the objectives because of overcoming barriers in handling business records.


The author demonstrate this points in her major finding that records can be scattered
all over an enterprise if the application environment do not develop system very well.
The author said that the hardest part is to find sensitive material and how the record

will be managed, it can be chaotic if it not manage well. The crucial part is some of
employees use Dropbox for keep their content but then some of them use another IT
platform which is using SharePoint for other content. The author stated that because
of they did not centralized use only one application to keep their content because of

that content can be scattered anywhere without proper handling. In addition, the
content might be lost due the decentralized application.

Regardless of fact that, this article does not have any graph or illustration given but
they have strong fact regarding the text. I think that all the text in the paragraph has a
lot of data and information I can get. Therefore, without any illustration doesn’t means
that I don’t get various information, because of too many illustration may not contain

the information and I can’t do observation from my reading through this article.




The target audience of this article is for the organization that have issue of retaining
content at some application available for business record management. This article
specifically for organization out there because of they must had a problem in handling
incurred cost when data from application that are no longer use and in good condition
but still needs to pay expensive fees for inactive application.  For instances, the author
suggest that any organization can start retaining their content into the cloud because of
good security and have a legal agreement. I think this article have many important
knowledge for organization for develop their skill of using worth application so that they
can’t be influence by wasted their money with useless application. 


Last but not least, the author maintain her neutrality on giving opinion and solution
without being biased to any other organization existed. The author also use very easy
language in order to clarify every points she explain so that the reader can understand
what is she trying to deliver. Judith, the author also did not use any jargon or difficult term
that maybe hard for me to understand in detail. To summarize from this article, I hope the
organization will take some advice and solution given by the author so that their business

record can stay retaining data with safe and secure without any thread.









This paper highlighted about the electronic records management that
transformed the traditional mode of recordkeeping and brought with it some
constraints which records managers had to contend with if they are to remain
relevant in the information society. This paper also explained the background
and conditions of electronic records management face by the organisations as
well as the strategies for electronic records management in organisations.

Keywords: Electronic Record, Technology, Authentic Record, Organisation,


Electronic records management has become a game changer in the records and
archives management field. Traditional records and archives management work
procedures, work methods, theories and principles have been questioned and
new ways of thought, paradigms and philosophies introduced.
Researchers and scholars in the records and archives
management field have also pursued research on e-records
management and such research has been fluctuated and
different. Electronic records analysed as the attributes of a
record based on concepts and principles that have evolved over
centuries of detailed study of the documentary process.

Records management is considered a business process planned
to support organization’s targets where records are counted a
resource and are utilized completely and cost effectively to
realize and organisation’s mission and each department or
faculty creates and maintains a culture which promotes effective
and efficient records management and facilitates convenient
decision making. Electronic information is thus a powerful asset
to oversee organisation information resources in an integrated
manner, but it all depends on the readiness of an organization
to embark on such initiative. Therefore, the essential goal of
records management program is to monitor records throughout
their life cycle. Efficient records management provide reliable
information that may be inevitably required for effective
functioning of organisations.


A well organised record enables the general public and organisations to discover
information easily and facilitates transparency, accountability and reliability. It
enables an organisation to perform its functions successfully and efficiently will
ensures that organisation keeps up just those records it usually a requirement
for useful purposes. Only authorized persons have access to the information,
thus preventing information from being stolen or damaged. Millar in 2003
stated, this is in order to ensures the protection of privacy and confidentiality
and prevents inappropriate disclosure of information that could harm the
organisation or infringe the privacy rights of individuals if records are not
appropriately overseen.



The most recent decade has created a larger number of records than any earlier
decade of human activity. The fact that the majorities of them are less
dependable, retrievable or accessible than at any other time is one of the
incongruities of the cuttings edge data age. Rick Barry (2010) stated, cultural
and technological changes that are now ordinary daily habits would have been
unimaginable ten to 20 years prior by all but the most looking ahead visionaries.
Weimei Pan (2017) has defined the implementation of an IT system as an
organisational effort directed toward diffusing appropriate information
technology within a user community.

The twenty-first century is a decade that saw the emergence of
networking and widespread sharing of information (Barry, n. d.).
Lipchak and McDonald (2013) perceive electronic records
management readiness as the capacity to create, manage, share
and use electronic information and related technologies to
improve the activities in organisation. This implies the ability of
a foundation and the workforce to utilize electronic records in
the improvement of their services. Ability here include financial,
human capital, regulatory framework, infrastructural facilities,
administrative and systemic capacities of the institution. It is
likewise the eagerness of the organisation to use electronic
record keeping or the management systems in the creation,
receipt, maintenance, use, disposition of, or archiving the
institutional electronic records.

Electronic records management are probably going to pose
genuine challenges if not organized efficiently. Brendan Eze
Asogwa (2013) explained these challenges when they remarked
that electronic records management has brought about new
issues with which archives and records managers had to confront.
In order not to remain stagnant in the electronic information
environment, top management and employees in records offices
must focus on electronic records management
24 standards. This could be accomplished by setting up sustainable
infrastructures that make electronic records venture fruitful.

Mostly records managers and archivists lack the fundamental skills and
competences that would enable them to deal records in electronic environment.
Due to inadequate skills in information technology, many traditional information
professionals are very conservatives and feel uncomfortable towards computer.
This may be because of generation gaps between the new and old professionals
which drove analogue information managers to perceive computers as a threat
to their status as experts. Ezeani (2010) investigated that younger librarians are
faster in capturing the use of ICTs than the older librarians because “older
librarians are finding it difficult to cope with the requirements of the digital age”.
Management of electronic archives and records in organizations may not
succeed if the established policies and infrastructures are not upheld by
qualified and experienced records and archives personnel, and the presence
of satisfactory and standard preparing of employees. Asogwa (2012) investigated
study on the electronic records management readiness of federal universities in
Nigeria discovered that all the staff in the registry departments has never had
any training specifically on records and archives management. Brendan E.
Asogwa (2012) in his previous research likewise affirmed that the two significant
challenges facing archives and records institutions were inadequate personnel
who are mostly not trained in archives and records management. This lack of
proper training and low level of education made these personnel to suffer from
declining monetary wages and low morale profile.

The effects of the adoption of information and communication technologies
without estimating and getting ready for the outcomes of hybrid records
systems, digital environments facilitating manipulation of data,
media and digital obsolescence, and the proprietary and eccentric
nature of utilizations have just been seen in governments and
other organisations. In 1996, in Canada, the insufficiency of
procedural instruments for guaranteeing the realness of electronic
records turned into a point of hearings held by the Canadian
Commission of Inquiry into the Deployment of Canadian Forces
to Somalia.

This sample makes very certain that, although physical
preservation is an issue with electronic records, it is not the major
issue. The greatest difficulties with which digital systems present
are the creation and upkeep of dependable records and the
preservation of their authenticity over time.  It is fundamental for
each organisation that its records be able to stand for the
facts they are about, that is, that their content is trustworthy. It is
similarly significant that, in time, those records can be proved to
be what they imply to be, safe from any kind of altering and
corruption, that will be, that they are trustworthy as records.
Luciana Duranti (2010) explained that, the previous type of
trustworthiness is defined reliability, the latter is defined


Records reliability depends upon the level of degreeof completeness of their
form and on the level of control exerciseover their procedure of creation.
Records authenticity depends on their mode, form and state of transmission as
drafts, originals orcopies, and on the manner of their preservation and
custody.It is important that the international community of records
professionals develop strategies, procedures and standards capable of meeting
the challenge presented by the creation and maintenance of solid records and
the preservation of authentic records.


Transition to an electronic environment in communication and routine
correspondences is one of the issues of top priority. However, the level of
readiness of organisation towards electronic record management is very
important and need to be taken into account. The substructure is weak and may
collapse if concerted and revolutionary measures are not taken about its
conditions. The weakness is a result of lack of records management
infrastructures. Legal frameworks and awareness of the importance of
managing e-records has led to adhoc approach to records keeping and the
attendant effects of misfiled, misplaced and or complete loss of vital records.
this show the important of information professional defining
restrictions for access to records, using electronic access tools,
determining separately the recordkeeping conditions and access
restrictions for records within current, semi-current and
non-current periods, and not taking measures adequately to
prevent unauthorized persons to access to the records within
the unit are among the most crucial problems. It was found that
there was need to enable all staff to have access to documentation
related to record procedures within the unit, and to make
performance assessment guides documented, current and



Asogwa, B. (2012), "The challenge of managing electronic records in developing
countries", Records Management Journal, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 198-211.

Barry, R. (2010), "Opinion piece – electronic records: now and then",
Records Management Journal, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 157-171.

Chigariro, D. and Khumalo, N. (2018), "Electronic records management research
in ESARBICA: a bibliometric study", Records Management Journal, Vol. 28 No. 2,
pp. 159-174.

Duranti, L. (2010), "Concepts and principles for the management of electronic
records, or records management theory is archival diplomatics", Records
Management Journal, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 78-95.

Eze Asogwa, B. (2013), "The readiness of universities in managing electronic
records", The Electronic Library, Vol. 31 No. 6, pp. 792-807.   0037

Henttonen, P. and Kettunen, K. (2011), "Functional classification
of records and organisational    structure", Records Management
Journal, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp. 86-103.

Külcü, O. and Uzun Külcü, H. (2010), "Contextual analysis of the
e‐records management requirements of Turkish Red Crescent
Society", The Electronic Library, Vol. 28 No. 2,   pp. 314-333.

Makhlouf Shabou, B. (2015), "Digital diplomatics and
measurement of electronic public data qualities", Records
Management Journal, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 56-77.

Pan, W. (2017), "The implementation of electronic recordkeeping
systems", Records Management Journal, Vol. 27 No. 1, pp. 84-98.    0014










Customer services satisfaction is very important to the business organization.
This study highlighted the critical success factors in gaining user customer
satisfaction in organisations and find how it helps in the competitive advantage
and customer retention for the service provider. Improving the service quality
and customer satisfaction of service by the organisation is the main rationale
behind pursuing this research.

Keywords: Customer Service, Mystery Shopping, Customer Identification,
Service Quality, Customer satisfaction,


Nowadays, the competitive world of business forces
organizations to increase their customer satisfaction and loyalty
and the leading companies have conducted and experienced
practically the entirety of the related strategies. Increased
competitive pressure compels today’s managers to look
continuously at approaches to improve and sustain
organizational performance. There is a probability that if quality
management practices are implemented effectively, the
organizational performance may enhance, though the
effectiveness of these practices are not uniform. In a time of
expanded challenge, the significance of accomplishing elevated
levels of consumer satisfaction has gained the consideration of
researchers and practitioners alike (Kumar et al., 2011).
Organizations that can effectively comprehend and deal with
the behaviour of customers and customer service quality will
enjoy competitive advantage. Previous research has shown that
high levels of customer satisfaction are related to the service
quality provided through customer interactions (Jayachandra
Bairi and B. Murali Manohar., 2011). A service is an interactive
process and during such interactions the customer and the
service provider co-produce the service. During this interactive
part of the service process, production and consumption
take place simultaneously and thus during that process the
customer perceives the value that is created or emerges from
the service (Gro¨nroos, 2010).



There are several factors that leading to improve customer service. One of it is,
improve the customer satisfaction. The telecom service providers need to be
extra cautious about the customer services they provide in order to improve
customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is determined by a brand's
assessment of service. For social as well as financial reasons, improved
customer services are the focus of telecom service providers. Services should be
available for customers on a reasonable basis from a social point of view. With
regard to the economic factor, services should meet the customer's needs
(Muzzamil, Sehrish and Adnan, 2010).

Another factor can lead to improve customer service is monitor employee-
customer identification. Frontline employees have two identification objectives:
not just the company, but also customers. For example, Managers therefore also
need to foster and track customer identification by applying CSR initiatives in
ways that align with key customer segments. Management could conduct studies
to determine which CSR activities are most likely to encourage dialog between
frontline employees and those customers in connection with CSR.         

According to Daniel, Bhattacharya and Scott (2016), when job performance
needs great customer service, a director should track
employee-customer identification very attentively; however,
when job performance objectives are more general and require
more company-centric activities, such as work productivity or
collaboration with colleagues, monitoring organizational
identification should be a greater priority.

Next is “Mystery Shopping”. Mystery shopping is a method used
to assess service experience by trade organizations. "Mystery
shopping is a method of assessing the quality of service, with
feedback, which is understandable for retailers on the front line."
Mystery shopping is an effective method for assessing the
friendliness and helpfulness of employees. This method is also
very useful and analytical from the customer's point of view for
evaluating the facility's hygiene, waiting time, advertising signage,
compliance to the company norm and interaction with them.
The results of mystery shopping lead to an improved
performance in the service process and it is mostly a starting
point for the learning process and the new training program for
staff. Ford, Latham, and Lennox stress that mystery shopping
offers managers with third-party data that can use mystery
shopping results when training their employees (Ludvik and
Michal, 2015).


Providing sound customer service experience not only takes into account the
point of view of service providers but must also listen to the point of view of
customers. Successful experience in customer service should take into account
the senses, emotions, thoughts, actions, values and relationships of service
providers. Brocato et al. (2012) stated that a better chance of successful service
experience can be achieved if service providers understand the points of view of
their customers.
According to Tung and Richie (2011),
the creation of both service providers and customer knowledge should enhance
the customer's perception of service experience. Service providers can construct
and plan worthwhile and valuable service activities, including improving social
relations, intellectual development, self-discovery and overcoming physical
challenges, in order to achieve a memorable customer service experience. Alba
and Williams (2012) defined that specialized knowledge can expose service
aspects that can benefit from customer engagement to experience pleasure.



Customer satisfaction measurement has started to emerge in the field of Total
Quality Management (TQM), although several researchers and
theorists from other scientific fields (e.g. marketing) have been
exploring it (Grigoroudis and Siskos, 2010). The TQM researchers
realized that the quality improvement of products and services
could not only rely on the internal metrics and standards of the
business organizations, but it had also to be combined with
customer information and feedback. Moreover, the quality
should be manifested in ways relevant and perceptible to the
total set of customers (Grigoroundis and Siskos, 2010).

To provide a better customer service to user, a few surveys was
done to measure what is needed to improve customer service in
an organization. According to Grigoroudis and Siskov (2010), the
important advantages of a customer satisfaction measurement
survey can be summarized as:

1.      Customer satisfaction measurement programs improve the
communication with the total clientele, provided that
they constitute continuous and systematic efforts of the
business organization.

2.      Business organizations may examine whether the provided
services fulfill customer expectations. Furthermore, it is
possible to examine whether new actions, effort, and
programs have any impact on the organizations ‘clientele.


3. The critical satisfaction dimensions, which should be improved, are
identified, as well as the ways through which this improvement may be

4. The most important strengths and weakness of the business organization
against competition are determined, based on customer perceptions and

5. The personnel of the business organization are motivated to increase its
productivity given that all improvement efforts, regarding the offered
services, are evaluated by the customers themselves.

6.  It also should be mentioned that although customer satisfaction I a
necessary but not a sufficient condition for the financial viability, several
researches have shown that there is a significant correlation among
satisfaction level, customer loyalty and profitability.


In order to be competitive, retain the customer, an organization needs to act
upon certain things such as identify and report to customer opportunities,
report significant initiatives, significant operational events, program health
check and significant risk, balance user satisfaction versus development,
maintain software applications quality consistent with industry standards,
identify best practices, set baselines for quality measurement, design and
maintain customer satisfaction scorecards, conduct customer
satisfaction survey. The customer service employees should not
feel exhausted constantly for providing friendly services to their
customers. Therefore, the organization should find relevant
solutions and strategies to reduce emotional exhaustion by
developing and raising a positive organizational environment
through organizational support and career advancement.
In addition, recruitment and selection of individuals for customer
service employees should be founded on a fit or match between
the requirements of the tasks and the employees. It has been
observed that, the service provider that pursued these critical
success factors, have benefited in improved employee attitude
and moral, expanded productivity which resulted in reduced
cost to customers throughout the years. Certain values like
technical and professional excellence, customer success, ethics
and integrity, recognition of the importance of the individual,
a culture ownership, entrepreneurial freedom with responsibility
will help in end user customer satisfaction and customer
retention in a
long run.



Akroush, M., Abu‐ElSamen, A., Samawi, G. and Odetallah, A. (2013), "Internal
marketing and   service quality in restaurants", Marketing Intelligence &
Planning, Vol. 31 No. 4, pp. 304-336.

Alba, J. W., & Williams, E. F. (2013). Pleasure principles: A review of research
on hedonic consumption. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 23(1), 2-18.           

Bairi, J. and Murali Manohar, B. (2011), "Critical success factors in gaining
user customer satisfaction in outsourced IT services", Journal of Enterprise
Information Management, Vol. 24 No. 6, pp. 475-493.

Brocato, E. D., Voorhees, C. M., & Baker, J. (2012). Understanding the Influence
of Cues from Other Customers in the Service Experience: A Scale Development
and Validation. Journal of Retailing, 88(3), 384-398. doi:

Caemmerer, B. and Wilson, A. (2010), "Customer feedback mechanisms and
organisational learning in service operations", International Journal of
Operations & Production Management, Vol. 30 No. 3, pp. 288-311.

Eger, L., & Mičík, M. (2015). Improving the quality of customer
service by using the technique    of mystery shopping. ACC
Journal, 21(2), 65-76. doi:10.15240/tul/004/2015-2-006

Hussain, M., Tsironis, L. and Ajmal, M. (2011), "A QFD strategy
for improving customer satisfaction: case study of telecom
companies of Pakistan", Asian Journal on Quality, Vol. 12 No. 3,
pp. 282-295.

Korschun, D., Bhattacharya, C., & Swain, S. D. (2016). CSR and
the Frontline Context: How      Social Programs Improve
Customer Service. GfK Marketing Intelligence Review, 8(1), 24-29.









In the extremely intensified competition for customers in today's consumer-
centred era, service quality, customer satisfaction and customer value have
become a priority for both manufacturers and service providers.  Findings on
service quality, customer satisfaction and customer value, however, are rather
differing and related studies are fragmented, especially due to the complicated
interrelationships between them. Therefore, less is known about the possible
impact of quality-related factors on customer valuation and customer
satisfaction up to now and the balancing role of customer value in the
relationship between quality of service and customer satisfaction has been
abandoned. This article will discuss what is the relations of quality customer
service with customer satisfaction.

Keywords: Quality service, customer service, customer satisfaction, satisfaction.


Every company should know the demands of customers and they claim to know
them mostly. However, it may be questionable to be able to provide a final
product according to expectations. Furthermore, all business activities such as
manufacturing, sales and customer services should ensure customer
satisfaction. Customer services are therefore always very essential and topical,
as they can help to increase customer satisfaction with the use of the product.
Today, nearly all companies have to be customer service providers. In addition,
focusing on customers, such as providing customer services, is one of the main
advantages of a company's well-done application of market orientation. Market
orientation is one of today's key marketing trends.

Customer service is all that the company does to its customers ' satisfaction.
They support from sold products to gain higher income. According to Lucia
Kanovska (2010), Industrial manufacturers are now also have become customer
service providers. This situation helps to broaden their customer activities. In
fact, it is possible to gain profit from the customer services provided for both
customers and businesses. Companies that attempt to hold a
strong position in providing customer services are pressured to
identify and measure their market segment's specific needs and
adapt their business strategy to them.

According to Kiran and Diljit (2010), customer service involves 35
making a concerted effort to meet the demands of the
customers. Requests from customers come from recognizing a
need for information and are influenced by some degree of
expectations from the ability to meet this need. While there is
no evidence that low expectations result in lower take-up of
web services, there is clear evidence that good quality customer
service can improve organization valuation.


Services are different from production activities, with the clear and
immediate difference that the result is not a physical object that is
tangible. The usual areas of "service quality" studies - healthcare,
transportation, retail, entertainment, education, finance, tourism,
and so on, touch many daily spheres, and their improvements would
affect the life experience of many a person. However, a professional
trained in traditional principles of quality improvement would
soon find additional differences applicable to both goods and
services providers and recipients (Thong Ngee Goh, 2014).

Quality describes the degree to which an entity meets of its user as
such, due to the intangible nature of services, quality tends to play a
crucial role in the service industry’s success. Quality describes the
degree to which an entity meets the needs of its user as such, due to
the intangible nature of services, quality tends to play a crucial role in
the service industry's success. Service quality has been described as
the overall assessment by customers of service or the
overall impression by consumers of an organization's
relative inferiority or superiority and its services.
A client's emotional response, such as happiness or
disappointment, is a significant outcome of any
advertising campaign and serves as a link to different
stages of customer purchasing behaviour
(Samuel, Disraeli and Amaoko, 2017).

Quality orientation is one of the main priorities of any
progressive organization. Proof from both
manufacturing and service organizations shows that
quality is the key determinant of market share, return
on investment, and cost reduction. In the health sector,
the value of facilities and their interaction with human
life, quality assurance and quality management has
continually attracted attention with patients having
increased demands from hospitals and other
healthcare providers (Mahmood and Mohammadreza,


According to Sheilagh and Mark (2011), The section of expectations tracks
customer service preferences in a specific category and also tests the consumer
assessment in the section of perceptions. The 22 paired questions reflect five
service dimensions:
a)      Tangibles: Physical facilities, equipment, personnel and communication.
b)      Reliability: Ability to perform services dependably and accurately.
c)      Responsiveness: Willingness to help customer and provide prompt
d)     Assurance: Employee knowledge and courtesy and their ability to inspire
trust and confidence.
e)      Empathy: Caring and individualized attention staff provide to customers.

The most significant quality improvement step is to evaluate customer
satisfaction and discover their needs. In 1983, the National Organization of
Health Services in the USA passed a law requiring all healthcare centres to set
plans based on patient views. Several studies on measuring hospital services
quality and patient satisfaction revealed many challenges, which emphasizes the
need for continuous attention to quality issues, keeping hospital managers
informed about potential problems and to solve them (Parand et al., 2014).


Service quality can generally be defined as perceived results from
"a comparison between consumer expectations and actual
service performance". The provision of high service quality
reinforces corporate brands and excellence in service meetings,
and several studies show that apparent
service quality also positively influences customer satisfaction
or is regarded as a precedent for customer satisfaction. Many
studies have shown that customer satisfaction has direct and/or
indirect effects on customer loyalty (and thus behavioural
intentions of customers, including desire to buy back and
word-of-mouth referrals), positive behaviour in turn will have a
positive impact on profits (Yong Lin, 2016).

Referring to Bedman Narteh, (2018) in consumer research,
customer satisfaction is an important concept. It is linked to a
number of business outcomes such as customer loyalty resulting
in the payment of premium prices, re-buying intentions and
positive word-of-mouth and provides the basis for a sustained
competitive advantage. After the consumption experience, he
defined customer satisfaction as the customer's response to
fulfilment. Similarly, customer satisfaction is seen as the
perception by the individual of the product or service's
performance in relation to desires.


Other developments in customer satisfaction research during the 1990s and also
at the beginning of 2000, dominated by a model based on the paradigm of
"confirmation / disconfirmation" to describe customer satisfaction. Satisfaction
or dissatisfaction depends on the difference between the customer's product or
service expectations and the actual performance of the product or service. If
customer expectations are met, the result will be satisfactory and if not, there
will be dissatisfaction (Hayat, Khuram and Anam, 2011).

The perceived value, according to many academics, is the overall assessment by
the customer of the benefits they receive in relation to the sacrifice they make.
Some studies argue that the perceived value of a service for customers can be
improved either by offering superior quality of service asserted that there is a
direct relationship between the level of quality of service and the extent of
perceived value for customers (Pinar et al., 2019).

Overall customer satisfaction relies on one's judgment based on corresponding
the difference between real performance or results and customer service
expectations. If the performance matches the expectations, the customer will be
satisfied; if the performance is exceeded, he / she will be very satisfied and
happy, and vice versa (Rishi and Deepak, 2016).

2.1 Relationship between reliability and customer satisfaction
As a service quality measurement, reliability will have a major impact on
customer satisfaction and is concerned with the extent to
which customers can rely on the company to deliver the
promised service accurately. (Rishi and Deepak, 2016).

2.2 Relationship between responsiveness and customer satisfaction

The primary concern of responsiveness is how service firms
respond to customers through their staff. With relation to
banking, banks ' customer satisfaction is directly affected
by the responsiveness. (Rishi and Deepak, 2016)
2.3 Relationship between tangibility and customer satisfaction
Modern-looking equipment, physical facility, well-dressed
employees, and visually appealing materials are viewed
as the positive impacts of tangibility on customer
satisfaction in the banking sector (Ananth et al., 2011)


2.4 Relationship between assurance and customer satisfaction
Assurance refers to the employees’ knowledge, competence, courtesy, and
ability to inspire confidence in customers (Rishi and Deepak, 2016).
Furthermore, Munusamy et al. (2010) and Shanka (2012) found assurance
to have a positive relationship with customer satisfaction in the banking
sector. Moreover, assurance has been found to have a positive and
significant relationship with customer satisfaction rendered by Indian
bankers (Krishnamurthy et al., 2010; Selvakumar, 2015). Banerjee and Sah
(2012) stated that public sector banks do not meet customers’ expectations
even though customers have a favourable perception toward public sector
banks, and they perceive them as providing better assurance to customers
than other banking services.

2.5 Relationship between empathy and customer satisfactions
Empathy is commonly defined as the ability to feel another person's
emotion, and has previously received significant attention from various
research communities (Benjamin et al.,2016). This is concerned with
ingredients such as ease of access, good communications, understanding
of customer needs, and friendliness (Ennew and Waite, 2013).

2.6 Relationship between perceived service quality dimensions and customer      

In service marketing literature, service quality and customer satisfaction
have been conceptualized as distinct, but closely related
constructs, and sometimes treated interchangeably to one
another in a variety of service industries (Rishi and Deepak,
2016). Several researchers have paid extensive attention to
the close relationships between service quality and
customer satisfaction and empirically validated that service
quality is an important tool used widely in order to measure
customer satisfaction through disconfirmation between
customers’ expectation and their perception toward service
delivery or service performance (Kadir et al., 2011).

2.7 Relationship between image (corporate image) and customer

Corporate image includes information and inferences
about the company as an employee, employer, customer,
community, supplier and as a corporate citizen. Since an
organisation’s corporate image affects stakeholders’
behaviour, they strive to develop and manage their image
for many reasons (Anthonia et al., 2015).



It is important to recognize that there are a number of key differences between
quality of service and manufacturing ideas and ways of quality. Given these
differences, it would not be appropriate to continue to do what has been seen to
be done in industry for some time, offering courses and training programs along
with thoughts and tools for goods generation, then hoping that those who
emerge from such learning might somehow adapt or expand such thoughts and
tools to asses, evaluate and improve the quality of service.


Kaur, K., & Singh, D. (2011). Customer service for academic library users on the
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Nekoei‐Moghadam, M., & Amiresmaili, M. (2011). Hospital services quality
assessment. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 24(1), 57-66.
Famiyeh, S., Asante-Darko, D., & Kwarteng, A. (2018). Service
quality, customer satisfaction,     and loyalty in the banking
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Ngee Goh, T. (2014). Professional preparation for service quality
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quality and customer satisfaction: qualitative research
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quality and          customer satisfaction on customerloyalty. International Journal
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Business records course has and improve my
giving me an access to be able understanding in this course. I
also have improve my social
to create and develop a skills and communication
business record management since i need to get to know
and involve with others
and any transaction when especially in a business
needed. While doing this organization. 

assignment, i have gain a lot 43
of new information and

knowledge and also enchance

I have learned a lot of skills SLLIKS
while I am taking this
course. The first and foremost
is I am able in indexing. This is

one of the most important
skills in learning Business

Records Management and I
am so happy that I can be

able to index and teach others

After completing this group
assignment, I experienced
that try to make a great
design for an electronic
magazine is not an easy task.
It needs patience, lots of time,
and most importantly is
creativity. But after some time
of designing, a lot of ideas
coming through so that I can
produce a good assignment to
be present today.




From the Business Record subject, the loss. Then, I also gained the
knowledge I gained is the information
knowledge to make article review in
that I read from the article which is
about business continuity planning. the proper way by included the

Based on my reading, I can fully overview, background, style of writing,
understand what the meaning of
business continuity planning, what scope of discussion and etc. From
their function and what benefits
gained from applying the BCP. It is that I knew how to differentiate the

much better to read from the good article or not. In the assignment
article and analyze it myself the
meaning of it. It is very important to also, we also learn to do the e-
use business continuity planning in
order to prevent or reduce disaster. magazine which is very interesting

and we be able to explore and figure

out how to make the e-magazine. The

subject itself also interesting to learn

and I also I can make use all

knowledge that I learn now and the 45


Skill that I acquired from this subject, SLLIKS
first and foremost is editing skill. I
learnt to edit the magazine and fromECNEIREPXE
that I can show what I am be able
to make it creative and unique make
it using my own style and
preferences. I also be able to do the
e-magazine, which is online flip
magazine which is quite amusing and
i be able to make my own e-magazine
in the future because I got the basic
knowledge how to make it. It is very
easy and convenient to the both
reader and the writer because from e-
magazine we do not need to print out
and prevent from wasting money..

The experience that I had gained
from the assignment is be able to
make my own e-magazine. I be
able to experience in using the
html flip which is the first time to
using it and it might be big help
in the future if there is any work
regarding e-magazine. From the
experience in learning Business
Record Management, i heard a lot
of real story from the lecturer and
sometimes I also can relate it and
the best part is I be able take it as
the moral value that be able to
46 a p p l i e d i t i n t h e f u t u r e .



I’ve been further my study for about 4 years since my diploma in information

management at UiTM Kedah. Now, I’m currently further my degree in

information system management at UiTM Puncak Perdana. This program it

does give a lot of knowledge for me to develop my skills in the future.

Information system management teach us to design and educate students in

managing information. Other than that, during my learning I’ve gain some

knowledge such as it teach to analyze the program, designing the website

through develop a program such as programming, database using our

critical thinking. As we know to develop a programming system we must use

critical thinking to produce a website.


Critical thinking which is SLLIKS
mean we have to think and
figure out the answer with ourECNEIREPXE
own. Lecturer will only guide
us to understand some points
and the rest it depends on us
how to figure out from the
lesson. I think this skills is very
good because it teach us how
to be independent person..

During my studies, my lecturer choose
to participate National Student
Affairs Invention, Innovation & Design
(NSAIID) competition. It was the first
time I’ve joined the competition.
From my experience, I can boost my
confident level to speak up and
present to other people. My
teammates need to produce one
innovation products that can be
useful for UiTM. I think that’s the best
experience I had so far to attend such
a big event. My experience taught me
how to interact with other people and
I can learn to give a good explanation
for people to understand so that they
48 c a n g a i n k n o w l e d g e .



Doing this assignment give me new knowledge regarding to
record management in business organization. I now can relate

how the record management give a crucial role providing a
good business or service to people. Through this subject also I
now know the best practice use in managing records in order to
manage the workflow and information kept in all organization,

company and also institutions.


.It finally sharpens my critical SLLIKS
thinking skills when doing this
assignment. Through writingECNEIREPXE
the article, I’m trying to think
out of the box to produce
informative and attractive
article for others to refer.

After completing this
assignment, I experienced
that doing an academic
writing is not easy. It needs
patience, complete and broad
knowledge in the fields we are
currently studying. Time
management also important
to provide a good assignment
because a planning work
guide us to do task smoothly
and excellently.


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