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Published by Risk Cooperative, 2019-11-26 02:04:11

Risk Matters | Fall 2019

Risk Matters, a semi-annual publication, offers curated content and wide ranging analysis from Risk Cooperative's team of experts, as well as our featured guests and risk leaders.

Keywords: climate,risk,cyber,cybersecurity,risk management,climate change,blockchain,amazon

A SEMI-ANNUAL PUBLICATION | FALL 2019 “The pessimist complains
about the wind. The
Beyond the optimist expects it to
Numbers change. The leader
adjusts the sails.”
Five Years of
Risk Trends RC ANSWERS:
What are some
Featured emerging trends in
Risk Leader: risk management?
Inga Beale DBE
FALL 2019


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RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

Contents

“Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.”

COLUMNS FEATURES 08

04 Foreword 08 Summaries Risk Cooperative
Risk Cooperative’s 1825 K St. NW, Suite 500
CEO introduces the Gun Owners and Personal Liability Washington, D.C. 20006
newest issue of Insurance: A Vital Tool in the Battle
Risk Matters. Against Mass Shootings +1 202.688.3560
[email protected]
05 Featured Risk Leader CyberVista: Executive Briefing on Cyber
Risk Matters presents Insurance Risk Matters is published
our Featured Risk semi-annually by Risk
Leader, Inga Beale RC Quick Takes - Equifax Breach Cooperative to move
DBE.
Cataloguing and Catalyzing Blockchain risk from being a cost to
07 By the Numbers For Impact becoming a catalyst for
A closer look at risk change, new initiatives and
trends over the past 09 Articles greater resilience around
five years. the world. With this and
09 3D Risk Management: A Survivorship our latest curated content,
28 RC Answers Framwork we aim to advance the
Risk Cooperative’s
team and invited 11 It is Time for a Cyber FDIC standards of practice
guests field questions of the risk and insurance
related to risk, 13 America the Resilient
readiness and profession.
resilience. 15 Simple Ethics Rules for Better Risk ©2019
Management
29 Announcements
Risk Cooperative 17 Blockchain and the Power of Singularity
company highlights.
19 Facebook Breaks Silence

21 An Amazon Survival Guide is Needed

23 It’s Long Past the Time for Banks and
Insurers to Unfriend Coal. Here’s Why.

25 A Two-Tier Health Care System Could
Be Just What the Doctor Ordered

3


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

Foreword

This is a very special issue of Risk Matters, as it marks the 5-year anniversary of
Risk Cooperative. Over the past five years, the global risk landscape has changed
significantly. We have seen the emergence of a host of complex and intangible risk
domains challenging the fundamental way corporations do business around the
globe. Cyber, once a term that would need in-depth explanation to the average
American, has now become part of the common lexicon. Natural disasters—record
breaking floods, fires, and storms—and greater political instability from world
powers require companies of all sizes to rethink how they manage their risks.

When we set out to found Risk Cooperative, it was with this fast-evolving risk land-
scape in mind, sensing that the risk management and insurance solutions available
at the time were not adequate to properly mitigate the threats they must face. The
past 5 years have proven this hypothesis correct. We have seen a daily onslaught
of cyber breaches, where insurance claims are determined in the courtroom rather
than between the insured and the underwriters. We’ve seen entire communities
displaced due to extreme weather events occurring with more frequency and
severity. And we’ve seen the proliferation of technology solutions and connected
devices both increase vulnerabilities, while at the same time create opportunities
for risk reduction.

In this issue we explore not only at how the risk landscape has changed, but also
the new classes of intangible assets that must now be protected. From digital
assets, the enterprise value of digitization efforts, and reputational exposures, orga-
nizations now need to evaluate a wider scope of values when determining their
risk management strategies and appetites. This issue of Risk Matters looks at the
various ways we can help to prepare for greater operational resiliency. Our work
these past five years has allowed us to tackle innovative enterprise risk manage-
ment strategies and develop programs to address even the most complex risks.

The last five years have taught us that we can no longer manage risk by looking
in the rear-view mirror at yesteryears data. By shifting to a more agile risk posture,
and aligning risk management with strategic objectives, organizations can create
risk agility and resiliency to operate in this new risk world.

Andres Franzetti is the Co-founder and
Chief Executive Officer of Risk Cooperative

4


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

Featured Risk Leader

Dame Inga Beale is a renowned public speaker, institutions such as Zurich Insurance and General

businesswoman, and the former CEO of Lloyd’s of Electric’s GE Capital.

London – the iconic 330-year-

old insurance and reinsurance Inga has served on numer-

market. With over 35 years of ous boards over the years

global experience in financial in a non-executive capac-

services she was awarded her ity and is currently a member

damehood in 2017 for services of the London First Board and

to the UK economy. the London Mayor’s Business

Advisory Board. She is currently

During her 5 year tenure at Patron of Insuring Women’s

Lloyd’s, Inga modernized the Futures, an organization that

$40 billion insurance giant brings together insurance and

through the introduction of personal finance professionals

technology, moving it from a to improve women’s lifelong

paper-based market to an elec- financial resilience. Her philan-

tronic trading environment, but DAME INGA BEALE, thropic interests include being
without losing “the magic” that PUBLIC SPEAKER, CONSULTANT AND an advisor to the LGBT charity
makes Lloyd’s what it is. Stonewall and the Pitt Rivers
FORMER CEO OF LLOYD’S

Museum at Oxford University.

Importantly, she embedded a Inga’s committment to tackling

culture of innovation with the opening of the Lloyd’s

Innovation Lab in the heart of the market and “I thought, I’m really excited about taking this
expanded into new, high-growth markets including job on, I must modernise this market because
China, Dubai, and India.

As the first female CEO of Lloyd’s, she also played it’s so special, yet I realised if we didn’t
a critical role in advancing diversity and inclusion introduce technology we would be losing out
initiatives across the global insurance sector includ- to the rest of the world. What I didn’t realise at
ing the Dive In Festival, a movement to support the the time was the amount of work that needed
development of inclusive workplace cultures. The to be done around the culture.”

festival is now in its fifth year with events in over 60

cities in 30 countries around the world.

industry challenges through innovation, and her

Prior to Lloyd’s, and from her early days in the 80’s relentless advocacy of diversity and inclusion ini-

as a trainee at the Prudential in London, Inga has tiatives has made an indelible mark on the financial

lived and worked in France, Germany, Switzerland services industry. It is our honor, as we mark Risk
and the USA, taking on global CEO roles for insur- Cooperative’s 5th anniversary, to name Dame Inga

ance groups Canopius and Converium, and been Beale our Risk Matters Featured Risk Leader.

in executive leadership roles at large financial

5


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

By the Numbers

Just this week the World Meteorological Organization IoT Devices Global Population
announced a new record high in atmospheric, heat-
trapping greenhouse gas concentrations1. There are exponentially more connected
devices than the global population. Our
The resulting surface temperature changes are fueling new, interconnected risk paradigm requires
extreme weather events that have increased dramatically more agile, innovative and informed risk
in frequency and rate since 2014, costing billions and management and regulatory frameworks.
challenging our national security.
The EU’s General Data Protection
THE LAST Regulation (GDPR) went into
effect in May 2018 while
5 YEARS California’s Consumer Privacy Act
(CCPA) will take effect in January
HAVE BEEN THE 20205. Going afoul of these rules
HOTTEST ON RECORD.2 will have costly ramifications for businesses.

OF THE U.S. Meanwhile, blockchain technology has
POPULATION LIVES matured in the last five years, offerring
IN COASTAL AREAS applications that can address data
AFFECTED BY privacy concerns, supply chain risks, and
RISING SEA LEVELS3 disaster recovery efforts.

OF THE TOP 5 COSTLIEST 1 https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/greenhouse-gas-
WEATHER DISASTERS IN concentrations-atmosphere-reach-yet-another-high
THE US SINCE 2000 HAVE 2 https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/02/2018-
OCCURED IN JUST THE fourth-warmest-year-ever-noaa-nasa-reports/#close
LAST 3-4 YEARS.4 3 https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/sealevel.html
4 https://www.c2es.org/content/extreme-weather-and-climate-change/
6


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

Trust is worth more than gold in Cyber breaches now impact billions of individuals each
today’s business environment. To lose year. Financial data, health records, and consumer
consumer trust is to face rapid and preferences have all been compromised to the tune of
significant economic consequences. $1 trillion in 2018.8

Consider the millions lost by CBS, A significant number of cyber attacks, over 40%, are
Netflix, and other organizations on small businesses, and it can take nearly 6 months
after high-profile #metoo to detect a breach. Yet more than 77% of organizations
accusations.6 have no cybersecurity strategy in place.

These costs accumulate from legal fees, reduced A HACKING ATTACK
market value from lasting reputational harm, and lost
productivity from inside these organziations impacted HAPPENS EVERY 39
by harassment and inequity.
ON A YEARLY BASIS, SECONDS IN THE U.S.8

EVERY THIRD PERSON

IN THE U.S. IS AFFECTED

BY HACKER ATTACKS.8

Increasing political uncertainty – from the U.S.- THE NUMBER OF RECORDS EXPOSED
China trade war, to Brexit and the return to IS INCREASING DRAMATICALLY. 9
economic nationalism globally – is impacting how
enterprises do business. Fallout from the trade wars 2004-2013 | 4.8 BILLION
is expected to slow global growth to just 3% - the
slowest in 10 years.7 2014-2019 | 11.6 BILLION

5 https://techcrunch.com/2019/11/14/californias-new-data-privacy-law-brings-u-s-closer-to-gdpr/
6 http://curmudgeongroup.co/quantifyingamovement/
7 https://www.reuters.com/article/us-imf-worldbank-trade/fallout-from-trumps-trade-wars-felt-by-
economies-around-the-world-idUSKBN1WY0PZ
8 https://www.cybintsolutions.com/cyber-security-facts-stats/
9 https://www.informationisbeautiful.net/visualizations/worlds-biggest-data-breaches-hacks/

7


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

Summaries

GUN OWNERS AND PERSONAL LIABILITY RC QUICK TAKES—EQUIFAX BREACH
INSURANCE: A VITAL TOOL IN THE | PUBLISHED 08.06.2019
BATTLE AGAINST MASS SHOOTINGS
| PUBLISHED 10.07.2019 Written by Andres Franzetti
Originally published on RiskCooperative.com
Written by Les Williams and Andres Franzetti
Originally published on Risk & Insurance As the October 31st deadline for a Brexit deal draws
near, the specter of post-Brexit consequences is
The shooting in El Paso, TX added a new dimension becoming more and more real. Risk Cooperative
to the gun control debate. Mexico may hold the U.S. CEO, Andres Franzetti offers his take on the risks
responsible for the death of its citizens, opening up to organizations from uncertainty and economic
a new area of liability that U.S. companies involved nationalism. 
in the high-risk business of selling firearms would be
wise to insure against. Read the full article: https://riskcooperative.com/
news-and-analysis/rc-quick-takes-equifax-breach/
Read the full article:
https://riskcooperative.com/news-and-analysis/ CATALOGUING AND CATALYZING BLOCKCHAIN
americas-global-security-problem/ FOR IMPACT | PUBLISHED 05.22.2019

CYBERVISTA: EXECUTIVE BRIEFING ON CYBER Written by Dante Disparte
INSURANCE | PUBLISHED 09.09.2019 Originally published on Forbes.com

Featuring Les Williams In a landscape where up to 92% of blockchain
Originally published by CyberVista projects fail, where are the successes? Cataloguing
and Catalyzing Blockchain for Impact is one way to
Dubai has instituted a unique digital transforma- get a sense of the social impact the technology is
tion journey–the goals are not profit or efficiency, having around the world.
but happiness. Smart Dubai puts citizens at the
forefront, supported by political leadership and a Read the full article: https://riskcooperative.com/
whole-government strategy to reduce the friction news-and-analysis/cataloguing-and-catalyzing-
between citizens and government. blockchain-for-impact/

Watch the video: https://riskcooperative.com/
engagements/cybervista-briefing-cyber-insurance/

Links to all RC published articles, interviews,
and engagements are located under Insights on

riskcooperative.com.

8


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

Featured Analysis

3D RISK MANANGEMENT: A SURVIVORSHIP Morgan install ‘native’ Chief Risk Officers (CROs) in
FRAMEWORK | PUBLISHED 05.16.2014 their business lines, these individuals are often mar-
ginalized and kept on a need-to-know basis. This
Written by Dante Disparte has the placebo effect of creating a false sense
Originally published by the American Security of comfort that risks are being managed, when in
Project reality often excessive risk-taking behavior is carried
out in the CRO’s line of sight. The latency and back-
For most firms risk management is a necessary ward orientation of traditional risk measures often
evil, increasingly consigned to being an adjunct to negates proactive controls and when the smoke
compliance, finance and other so called “business begins to rise, it is often too late.
prevention” functions. Non-financial firms tradi-
tionally address risk through a series of transfer One-dimensional risk management follows a hier-
mechanisms, such as insurance, self-funded vehi- archical command and control structure. This not
cles or they merely absorb unforeseen losses with only creates isolation compounded by the vast
their earnings. The financial sector, on the other remoteness of global firms, in most cases, CRO’s
hand, applies sophisticated statistical methods in a report directly to the excessively optimistic CEO’s
form of speculative risk management that captures they are supposed to manage. This was the case with
the upside and the downside of risk-taking. These JP Morgan, as Jamie Dimon, JP Morgan’s all-pow-
approaches are used to calculate value at risk (VaR), erful Chairman and CEO, pushed the boundaries
regulatory capital and other internal and external of the firm’s internal hedging activities carried out
risk measures. Many of these methods, however, by its Chief Investment Office (CIO). For a one-di-
are based on backward looking book values and a mensional approach to be effective, studies have
permissive fox watching the chicken coop environ- found that the one variable firm’s cannot compro-
ment, wherein financial institutions often develop mise on is to have an independent board-level risk
their own internal risk metrics with loose guidance management regime2. In cases where CRO’s report
from regulators. directly to the CEO and not the board, “paycheck
persuasion” is a powerful inducement not to ring
The frequency of potentially preventable losses, the alarms too loudly or to turn a blind eye to egre-
along with the calamitous effects of black swans, gious behavior.
suggests that quants not only need qualitative tools
in their arsenal, they need structural alternatives to The robustness of risk management in the financial
one-dimensional risk management. This one-di- sector has a spotty record due to the wholesale col-
mensional structure often misses the mark and can lapse and public bailout of the system during the
suffer from confirmation bias in that centralized risk recent financial crisis. This is compounded by the
managers who look for trouble, may in fact find it implicit or explicit mandate given to risk managers
by chasing misleading risk signals. JP Morgan, long to merely toe the regulatory line and do what is min-
considered a best practitioner in banking risk man- imally required in terms of solvency, capital buffers
agement, missed the London Whale’s transgressions, and other standards. Indeed, many analysts suggest
despite some fairly obvious warning signs1. Under that JP Morgan’s London Whale debacle was driven
the first dimension, even though many firms like JP by persistent regulatory arbitrage to reduce the

9


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

Featured Analysis

risk-weighting of its capital buffers3. In to noise” ratio that may lead to false positives and
short, meeting externally imposed com- may only be applicable to firms or markets with a
pliance standards does not bode well slower velocity. For example, it is doubtful that a
for survivorship. In fact, under persistent two-dimensional risk management approach would
conditions of economic duress, such have saved the high-velocity trading firm Knight
as those seen during the recent crisis, Capital, which crashed and burned with spectacu-
which is defined as a 40% collapse of U.S. lar speed due to a rogue trading algorithm. Besides,
equities, even the mightiest institutions tracking defects is a slightly more gratifying task
would fall. This not entirely improbable when you have a tangible product. In financial ser-
scenario would see another instance of vices, however, defects are occluded by correlations
privatizing gains, while socializing losses and their formless nature. Much like a virus, financial
– this time to the tune of 598 b.USD for risk is often identified through contagion and rising
the top 10 systemic firms in the U.S. to temperatures, neither of which are sound preven-
fill their capital shortfall4. In short, doing tive measures. Despite all the passive and active
what is minimally required by the reg- safety features in a modern car, externally imposed
ulator under a one-dimensional risk management speed limits and driving conditions, there is no risk
structure is a risky business. management substitute for a well-trained driver.
Similarly, most risks in financial and non-financial
While risk in financial firms makes for headline firms emanate from the behavior of people inside
news and has broad public interests as banks are the firm and in the market.
increasingly viewed as utilities, preventable losses
and missed signals as not confined to Wall Street. Against this backdrop, a hybrid third-dimension of
Toyota’s ascendance as a global automotive power- risk management offers a new framework for an
house has hit a few speed bumps following a series increasingly punishing and interconnected world.
of worldwide product recalls, sticking accelerators In this approach, risk management is not merely
and an embarrassing mea culpa by Akio Toyoda, a quantitative preventive feature, but rather an
Toyota’s CEO. Long heralded as the paradigm
for kaizen, or total quality management, Toyota’s
assembly line follows a horizontal, or two-dimen-
sional, risk management structure. The aim is to
reduce the probabilistic incidence of errors in the
manufacturing process to as many standard devi-
ations as possible, for example 6 sigma. Famously,
this two-dimensional structure empowers workers
on the assembly line to pull the cord, in effect stop-
ping production in the event of an error or pattern
of errors.

Although many aspects of this flat structure are
appealing, it labors under a potentially high “signal

10


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

embedded firm-wide decision making framework IT IS TIME FOR A CYBER FDIC
that makes staying in business, everybody’s busi- | PUBLISHED 01.06.2015
ness. Leveraging the best of the first and second
dimensions will filter signal to noise and encourage Written by Dante Disparte
bounded risk taking at all organizational levels. The Originally published by the American Security
power in this approach lies in combating complexity Project
with simplicity and removing the stigma of raising
the alarm. Some of the more enduring risk man- In today’s modern frictionless economy, the prin-
agement precepts take a via negativa or, subtractive cipal requisite for growth and order is the free flow
path, prescribing actions that should be avoided, of sensitive information, banking transactions and
for example, thou shalt not kill. Imagine the power, private data on a global scale.
clarity and resilience of the Volcker Rule, which in
1077 pages precludes proprietary trading, if it was With this shift brought on by the unrelenting growth
simply stated as thou shalt not speculate with other of ecommerce and mobile platforms comes the
people’s money – the very egregious behavior that nagging reality that cyber risk is here to stay. It is the
got JP Morgan into trouble. sort of drag on the market that needs to be priced
into the system rather than treated like something
1 Robert Kaplan, et. al., JP Morgan’s Loss: Bigger that can be eliminated or perfectly controlled.
than “Risk Management”, HBR Blog Network, May, Market and consumer expectations need to be
23, 2012. adjusted accordingly and in the age of hyper trans-
parency, people would be wise to remember that
2 Senator Carl Levin, Chairman, et. al., JP Morgan anything can be exposed to sunlight.
Chase Whale Trade: A Case History of Derivatives
Risks and Abuses, Permanent Subcommittee on Much like bank’s zero-liability policies largely
Investigations, U.S. Senate, March, 15, 2013 Hearing. defanged identity theft and the risk that consumers
would be saddled with thousands in losses due to
3 Jon Macaskill, Rivals Hover over JP Morgan as phishing scams and fraud, so too cyber risk needs to
Farce Threatens to Turn into Tragedy, Euromoney, be neutralized by a broad consensus on how to shift
June, 2012. risk and respond appropriately. Perhaps it is time
for a cyber Federal Deposit Insurance Cooperation
4 Acharya, et. al., Capital Shortfall: A New Approach (FDIC ) to shore up confidence and risk-bearing in
to Ranking and Regulating Systemic Risks, AES the system.
Meetings, January, 7, 2012. NYU Volatility lab sys-
temic risk rankings http://vlab.stern.nyu.edu/ While the fallout from Sony’s breach is still unfold-
welcome/risk/ ing, especially as litigation is being drawn up by
past and current employees, it is likely that Sony’s
https://riskcooperative.com/news-and- besmirched reputation and consumer confidence
analysis/3d-risk-management-a-survivorship- will be the true victims of this attack.
framework/

11


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

Featured Analysis

Although Sony’s cyber attackers have threatened When the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act (TRIA) was
even more havoc following the release of The drawn up following 9/11, cyber risk was in its infancy
Interview, experts estimate the economic cost of and, as a result, was not contemplated in the Act,
this attack to be between 1% and 2% of Sony’s $22.5 which was designed to shore up mature property
billion market capitalization – hardly a death blow and casualty insurance markets and transfer cata-
to this massive enterprise. Yet, Sony’s attack raises strophic losses to the Federal government.
the specter of state-sponsored cyber terrorism,
against which no private firm can marshal a strong The fact that Sony’s business model was success-
countervailing system. Coping with this risk requires fully held for ransom by Guardians of the Peace, as
new standards of practice to emerge around an their attackers call themselves, shows that this risk
early warning system, destigmatizing the advent of category has come of age and our national response
breaches and capping liabilities when they occur. needs to keep pace. Ironically most firms go it alone
when they learn of a breach – if they learn about
All of this can be achieved through cross-sector col- this silent menace at all. This omerta is a byprod-
laboration between the government and the private uct for fear of a public and employee backlash over
sector, much like the conditions that gave rise to the the exposure of private data and trade secrets – a
FDIC following the Great Depression. In short, cyber silence that makes the overall system weaker, under
risk should not be treated like a discrete risk for indi- the guise of risk and crisis management.
vidual firms to deal with on their own. Cyber risk
needs to be treated like a threat to national security It is a simple, if painful truth, that holding on to bad
requiring a strong collective response and measures news does not dissipate its impact, it makes it worse.
to shore up the system. Therefore, the final aspect of a cyber FDIC would
be to run a central risk reporting clearing house
The FDIC is regarded as one of the most effec- that would collect system-wide information on
tive and enduring Federal agencies and its services, breaches, near misses and comparative data across
much like a centralized cyber risk pool, are not time. This last function would not only help mitigate
free. Banks pay risk premia based on their balance cyber risk, it would also help improve private sector
sheet, solvency and other factors. These funds are risk pricing and appetite as the industry still labors
then used to shore up the broad system against under limited historical data for this relatively new
bank failures and protect consumer accounts up to risk domain.
$250,000. Following the Great Depression and the
wave of bank runs/failures, the FDIC provided a vital https://riskcooperative.com/news-and-analysis/it-
safety net and restored confidence in the system. is-time-for-a-cyber-fdic/
In addition to the powers of restoring trust and
capping exposures, a cyber FDIC must also carry
strong deterrent powers in coordination with other
U.S. government agencies. In short, speak softly
and carry a big stick is an apt description and cyber
ne’er-do-wells should face proportionate applica-
tions of U.S. power for their misdeeds.

12


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

AMERICA THE RESILIENT leaks that displaced thousands of Los Angelinos,
| PUBLISHED 12.14.2016 are but a few recent examples of the convergence
of man-made and natural risks. We have not only
Written by Dante Disparte and Stephen Cheney reached a tipping point, we are sliding off the other
Originally published on International Policy Digest side.

The United States and indeed the world are entering Katrina, Irene, Sandy and, more recently Patricia,
a period of great turbulence with unforeseen con- the most powerful hurricane ever recorded, have
sequences at every turn and cascading events at set their sights on iconic U.S. cities. The internally
every failure to anticipate risk and pre-invest in resil- displaced people (IDPs) from the Gulf region and
ience. Resilience as a national priority is defined by New Orleans in particular, remind us that large scale
the ability to withstand and spring back from shock human resettlement is no longer the scourge of
events and attritional losses. developing countries, but a part of our reality in the
U.S. and something for which we are emotionally
Our oceans no longer shield us from distant and materially unprepared.
enemies and the days of Fortress America have
been replaced by vulnerability to global shocks Sadly, a platform based on long term resilience will
and insidious threats of the man-made, natural not get a politician elected in our times of grid-
and emerging variety. A mere mosquito bite half lock and internecine fighting. Yet, resilience is the
a world away and a wayward traveler imports the key issue defining our future and something each
next human pandemic. Our policymakers, political, citizen must demand of their elected officials. Each
military and business leaders can no longer debate entrepreneur and business leader should set their
or search for causality for these grave changes, we ingenuity free with resilience as their market focus.
must now respond to their impacts and do so in a The water crisis in Flint Michigan underscores just
concerted, collaborative and urgent way. The role how fragile we are and supports the argument that
of the private sector in building a resilient society resilience must become an investment-grade asset
is as stark as it was during the industrial revolution. class. Resilience on the vast scale required in the
U.S. can be measured as an investment opportunity
30 years ago, when black swans (large scale risks) in the sum total of our human, physical, response
were still rare enough for us to ignore them, it made and technological systems. In order for this asset
sense for our counties, cities and states to pick up class to emerge, the traditional investment horizon
the pieces, dust themselves off and rely on Federal needs to be stretched much further than 5 or 10
disaster assistance to rebuild. Today, with sover- years and go well into 30, 50 and 100 year spans.
eign debt presenting an emerging threat to national
security, black swans are not only increasingly com- Resilience is an investment in which the investor
monplace, they appear to be flocking around our may not be around to enjoy the returns, but there
country and coming home to roost. is no other asset class based on so much certainty.
Our world is changing and we must invest trillions
Boston’s record shattering snow fall, California’s in being prepared – no sector has this purchasing
perennial dry spell, wildfires and noxious methane

13


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

Featured Analysis

power and patience like large pension funds, hedge man-made, natural and emerging threats. Behind
funds and insurers. these figures, countless lives and livelihoods are at
stake. Resilience is the challenge of our time and an
Unfunded losses that are passed on to the Federal asset class worth investing in – doing so requires
and state balance sheet through agencies like FEMA, mobilizing all stakeholders to get off the side-
the CDC or the military are not sustainable in the lines and begin demanding long term change and
long run. In a resilient society, these vital agencies investment.
would be the suppliers of last resort and not the
first responders – after all, these are often the cost- https://riskcooperative.com/news-and-analysis/
liest interventions we have when combating a crisis. america-the-resilient/
Some crises, like the Great Blackout of 2003, which
sent 55 million people in the Northeast and Canada
into darkness are so insidious they are triggered by
tree branches touching high tension power lines
in Ohio. Sending the Army Corps of Engineers to
prune trees along the U.S. electrical grid is a costly
proposition that comes at the price of our global
security posture, even though they would get the
job done.

Instead of waiting on the sidelines and responding
to and funding shocks as they emerge, we must
begin to anticipate and prefund them along the
entire spectrum of risks one county and city at a
time until we have a tightly woven resilient fabric
protecting our society. From this platform of endur-
ance, we can continue to lead global efforts having
pioneered the new industries and methods for
human adaptation.

The central question of building a resilient society
is not one we are accustomed to asking – namely,
who pays for it? In seeking answers, we came across
the Lloyd’s City Risk Index a scholarly work in con-
junction with Cambridge University. It provides a
measured framework for quantifying the economic
value at risk in 301 cities around the world com-
prising more than 50% of global GDP, including 29
cities in the U.S. In all, there is $7.33 trillion of eco-
nomic output at risk in North American cities to 18

14


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

SIMPLE ETHICS RULES FOR BETTER RISK cliché – like a phrase on a motivational poster that
MANAGEMENT | PUBLISHED 11.08.2016 employees walk past every day but never really look
at — they can also be useful if leaders put real muscle
Written by Dante Disparte into them. Here are a handful that I have found most
Originally published on Harvard Business Review useful in fostering a healthy sense of risk-aware-
ness in organizations in which senior managers are
For far too long, managing risk has been seen as themselves also demonstrating ethical leadership:
an esoteric business function — designed to control
losses and adhere to compliance standards. But as Values matter most when they are least convenient.
more organizations fall prey to complex intangi- In an environment riddled with uncertainty and
ble risks, from unwanted disclosure due to rampant variability, value systems are meant to be the only
cyber threats to breaches of conduct driven by constants. However, all too often they are proven
skewed incentive systems, the aperture of risk man- to be meaningless words in an annual report. For
agement is expanding from protecting the balance value statements to be more than empty slogans,
sheet to promoting ethical leadership and val- they must withstand the trial by fire of tough calls
ues-based decision making. guiding behavior and decision making when it is
least convenient. The now famous Tylenol recall of
Consider Yahoo, with its record-breaking cyber the 1980s is an enduring example of how Johnson
breach estimated at more than 500 million records, & Johnson’s credo guided decision making in a time
or Wells Fargo, facing unwanted public excoriation of crisis. A small number of firms are counter-intu-
after creating thousands of fake customer accounts, itively becoming activists about championing their
or the Volkswagen emissions scandal or the warning value systems, even at the risk of short term share-
signs that could have prevented the Germanwings holder returns. No one gets extra credit for doing
disaster. Many of these failures were either fueled the right thing when it is easy.
by or lost in the byzantine maze that is the modern
enterprise, which often breeds a combustible mix of Bad things happen in the dark. Ethical lapses arise
indifference and short-termism. Complex systems when people take risks but do not bear the down-
fail in complex ways. But all start with human failings. side of their risky behavior. These hazards are most
prevalent where they can be most easily hidden
Senior business leaders and their boards must there- – such as in remote locations, less-supervised busi-
fore change the way they think about risk and how ness units, or on understaffed teams. Misaligned
they respond to it. Rather than countering complex incentives can also create organizational “blind
risk with an even more complex risk-management spots.” Wells Fargo’s massive account-rounding
system, which comes with its own blind spots and scandal illustrates the insidious effects of incom-
brittle places, leaders have to equip the individuals plete employee incentives that turn a blind eye to
in their charge with common levels of risk aware- unethical behavior.
ness, codes of conduct, and value systems.
Combating issues like these begins with transpar-
To do this, I’ve often relied on a handful of maxims. ency and accountability. When information is shared
While it’s true that maxims can sometimes sound quickly and openly across the organization, bad

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Featured Analysis

dealings can be rooted out before they spread. It’s and show that they are open to hearing bad news,
leaders’ responsibility to shine a light into any dark they can help hone an organization’s muscle
organizational corners. memory –on how to respond to emerging threats.
When those executives conversely dismiss details
Privacy is a luxury. In the age of pervasive cyber- as too “in the weeds” for their attention, show that
risk and unwanted disclosure, consistently aligned they don’t want to hear questions or bad news, or
behavior is the best defense. All it takes is one are simply impossible to ever track down in the hall-
employee clicking on one sketchy link in one email ways, moral lapses become more likely.
for an organization or institution to be infiltrated by
anyone from a disgruntled employee, to WikiLeaks, Remember the example of Citibank from the 2008
to nation state actors. The recent large-scale housing crash – Kellogg professor Adam Waytz
denial of service attack that affected internet stal- found that leaders in New York were both physically
warts like Amazon, Twitter, and PayPal by exploiting and psychologically distant from whistleblow-
connected devices underscores that the amount ers in Missouri and Texas. No significant actions
of money spent on cyber security is not a proxy were taken to curb the improper behavior, and the
for greater defense. The Clinton campaign spent company had to pay a $158.3 million settlement in
months of time and effort atoning for statements 2012.
made in emails sent through Hillary Clinton’s private
server, and continues to respond to emails hacked Just as David was able to slay Goliath with a simple
by, allegedly, the Russian government and leaked sling, complex risks are best addressed with simple
through Wikileaks. Apparently, the hackers were measures. Firms should not embrace ethical lead-
able to get access to the emails when campaign ership or risk agility out of fear of failure or mere
chairman John Podesta clicked on a phishing link. compliance. Risk agility is a source of lasting com-
petitive advantage. After all, when the competitive
Today, risk lies between the chair and the keyboard. landscape is littered with the tombstones of firms
Given that breaches are now seemingly inevitable, that failed to understand and respond assertively to
risk managers might need to spend less effort trying risk, the ethical and agile enterprises will inherit the
to prevent the next hack and more time reminding spoils.
employees not to include embarrassing or sensitive
information in easily-breached communications in https://riskcooperative.com/news-and-analysis/
the first place. simple-ethics-rules-better-risk-management/

Remoteness breeds indifference. Attitudes toward
risk are deeply informed by the tone, tenor, and
remoteness of the top. Leaders who practice what
they preach, have conviction, and lead by example
are better at managing risks than those that merely
pay lip service to ethics, value systems, or codes
of conduct. Simplicity is key in addressing this gap.
When senior leaders encourage bounded risk-taking

16


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

BLOCKCHAIN AND THE POWER OF and wealth transfer - an unalterable, secure and
SINGULARITY | PUBLISHED 01.08.2017 transparent registration process should give the
world comfort and elected leaders longevity.
Written by Dante Disparte
Originally published on Huffington Post What drives this unique technology is the power
of distributed singularity, from which Blockchain’s
Set on Sir Richard Branson’s Necker Island, the identity pioneers like Dr. Mariana Dahan, who
third annual Blockchain Summit, hosted by BitFury, launched the World Identity Network on Necker
a leading full service Blockchain company, and Island, and Vinny Lingham of Civic, draw their
Bill Tai, a venture investor and technologist, has inspiration. Blockchain operates on the basis of a
come to a close. This event was an intimate, if distributed ledger (or database) system, inexorably
perfectly balanced, gathering of technology, policy, marching forward recording and time-stamping
investment and business leaders from around the transactions or records. While some may herald
world and across sectors. Topics ranged from the Bitcoin as Blockchain’s “killer app,” it is easy
public policy implications of what is being heralded to maintain that the killer app is not the digital
as a foundational technology, to new emerging currencies that ride on Blockchain’s rails, but rather
business models that can ride on the very rails that the rail system altogether. Two trains can ride on
enabled the global bonanza of digital currencies rails. But a high-speed maglev train is a decidedly
like Bitcoin. A key question that underpinned the faster mode of transport than a steam engine. Just
Summit is if Blockchain could not have existed as the maglev makes little or no contact with the
without the Internet, what could not exist without rails enabling low-friction transport, the Blockchain
Blockchain? can greatly reduce the friction in how the world
transfers and records value. If the Internet augured
Blockchain technology can undoubtedly frictionless information sharing, Blockchain can
change industries, especially those that labor augur frictionless value transfer. Herein lies the
under often byzantine, opaque and friction- domain of truly profound change - accepting that
laden business models. While many of the early Blockchain is still in the era of a thousand flowers
pioneers are focusing on finance and insurance, being planted, many of which began blossoming
the opportunities for this radical technology on Necker Island.
may very well reorder society as we know it. The
remarkable case of Estonia, for example, shows For now, the Blockchain standards war - which
a country reinventing itself into a future-proof in reality is an incredibly collaborative search for
digital state, where citizen services are rendered use cases - is largely being waged in the cash
nearly instantaneously and to people all over the transfer market, with firms like Bitt, founded by
world. Similarly, promising work inspired by the the Barbadian entrepreneur, Gabriel Abed, and
famed Peruvian economist, Hernando de Soto, BitPesa, founded by Elizabeth Rossiello, emerging
on improving land registries is being carried out with low-friction highly scalable business models.
by BitFury in a host of countries. With land and What is most encouraging is that these firms,
property being the two largest assets people will have not shied away from regulatory regimes, but
own - and the principal vehicle of value creation rather embraced them, greatly legitimizing the

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Featured Analysis

poorly named crypto currency market. BitPesa has willingness to forego traditional asset ownership for
received UK regulatory approval from the Financial fractional, usage-based access. Blockchain takes
Conduct Authority (FCA), which is one of the most this intuition even further by enabling these same
stringent financial regulators in the world, while market dynamics to occur, but on a rail system
Bitt has created a veritable pan-Caribbean digital robust enough to survive in Thomas Friedman’s
currency accepted by many regional central banks. hot, flat and crowded world. Envision a skills
In short, digital currency and frictionless asset engine enabling people to repurpose themselves,
transfer are not going away and the more pioneers obtaining vital (verifiable) credentials to enter the
like Bitt and BitPesa harmonize with established workforce or to find work following a setback or
financial norms, the more this space can thrive. job loss? Without Blockchain this proposition is
not only cost prohibitive, it is incredibly centralized
The Blockchain Summit on Necker Island was favoring a dated algorithmic hiring model that has
all about encouraging breakthrough innovation left millions of workers behind. With Blockchain,
across all sectors. If the Internet was truly a this type of “reinvention engine” is not only
disruptive technology, Blockchain is an augmenting possible, it can be developed with sufficient
technology, that can greatly improve and amplify autonomy and transparency across stakeholder
many established business models and forms of groups ultimately becoming a utility.
governance. At a time when the world is gripped by
profound changes driven by an erosion of public Indeed, one of the most promising companies
trust in business, institutions and government, a focusing on Blockchain applications is
trust engine like Blockchain can begin to shore PowerLedger in Australia, which was founded
up accountability and transparency. Similarly, with by Dr. Jemma Green. Dr. Green, traveled more
rampant cyber-threats hobbling companies and than 40 hours carrying her young daughter in
countries around the world, Blockchain cannot hand and her weight as one of the world’s true
only serve as a vital source of transparency - Blockchain visionaries. Her firm taps the power of
recalling that sunlight is the greatest disinfectant - singularity and decentralization in the Blockchain,
it may very well serve as a global disaster recovery as well as underscores the ability to harness
and business continuity engine. Blockchain’s renewable energy in ways (and in places) never
security properties are often undersold, however, thought possible. Fractionalizing urban energy is as
these are among the most important features important to human adaptation and development,
of this technology. Indeed, hardwired into as building a rural energy matrix that incorporates
Blockchain’s distributed structure are the very best micro grids and new distribution and payment
practices of cybersecurity redundancy that so models. PowerLedger is well on the way toward
many organizations struggle to abide by. solving this challenge and Blockchain will be at the
center of both.
Where minds begin to race when it comes to
Blockchain and where Blockchain Billionaires Blockchain is here to stay and the exuberance of its
will likely emerge, is in the unitary approach (and most ardent enthusiasts (who are on the verge of
smart contracting features) to value transfer. The a Bitcoin “civil war”), of which there were many on
sharing economy has undoubtedly tapped people’s Necker Island, should be tempered with the reality

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RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

that all breakthrough innovations are decided by FACEBOOK BREAKS SILENCE
the market. For this, large firms and established | PUBLISHED 03.22.2018
models of organizing and transferring value have
been cautious to dismissive of Blockchain. This Written by Dante Disparte
posture may consign many of these players to Originally published on Forbes.com
the wrong side of history, or worse, irrelevance.
Indeed, the emergence of global industry bodies The coat of Teflon that usually shields Facebook
like the Global Blockchain Business Council, which and its affable leader, Mark Zuckerberg, who has
is quickly establishing chapters around the world, matured into a techno statesman in the public eye,
as well as the Blockchain Trust Accelerator, are is beginning to wear thin. Facebook now joins a
aiming to normalize this technology and, critically growing number of firms embroiled in a trust deficit
create a lexicon and library of use cases that are with a case of reputation risk whiplash. But unlike
not threatening in the world’s halls of power. an Equifax-style scandal, which was prompted by
external factors and exacerbated by internal mis-
https://riskcooperative.com/news-and-analysis/ deeds, Facebook’s eroding market confidence
blockchain-power-singularity/ appears to be self-induced by 5 days of silence and
lax third-party risk management. Reports of more
than 50 million personal records being accessed
by Cambridge Analytica and Aleksandr Kogan, a
Cambridge University researcher whose personality
quiz provided a backdoor to this data, is not only a
terrible violation of consumer privacy, it highlights
how trust (the new thrift of the modern economy),
is hard to earn and easy to lose.

Although Facebook has been no stranger to global
privacy and security concerns, it has largely survived
past scandals unscathed continuing its unrelent-
ing march to social media dominance with more
than 2.2 billion monthly active users. This time,
however, the nature of this massive privacy violation
has people like Brian Acton, who Mr. Zuckerberg
made a billionaire with the $19 billion acquisi-
tion of WhatsApp, committing the treacherous act
of joining the delete Facebook campaign on that
other controversial social media platform, Twitter
and elsewhere. The scandal, which Facebook has
been silent about until Mark Zuckerberg released a
statement on the platform, has eroded shareholder
value by 8% or $35 billion. While the stock will surely

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Featured Analysis

recover given Facebook’s sheer dominance of the motives. Facebook, like so many private enterprises
social media world, earning back consumer and that are busy providing services they aim to mone-
regulatory trust will be hard fought. tize under the guise of “social utility,” are best used
by people who are open-eyed about the tradeoffs.
Want it or not, Facebook has now become a pro- In short, the 2.2 billion users who voluntarily made
tagonist on both sides of the Atlantic in the battle to Facebook a global census bureau should not be
restore trust in democratic institutions and privacy surprised by efforts to sway them and make money
standards. Firms like Cambridge Analytica, with the based on their online behavior.
grotesque videotaped admission from its crestfallen
CEO Alexander Nix, made money in exploit- Where a redline was crossed, however, was when
ing people’s private information fueling election Facebook was subverted as an instrument of foreign
malfeasance in the U.S. and elsewhere. While Mr. electoral intervention and social sabotage at scale.
Zuckerberg’s apology tour is just beginning follow- While Cambridge Analytica is clearly one of the cul-
ing his statement and planned interview on CNN, it prits of this social engineering, many other firms
will not be long before Facebook must heed calls and nation-state actors, like the Russian-backed
for hearings with lawmakers and regulators in the Internet Research Agency, partake in the type of
U.S. and UK. These inquiries will dive deeper into micro-targeting that Facebook and its billions of
third-party vulnerabilities on the platform, poten- users have enabled. The world’s social network may
tial legal liabilities and other restrictions, which may have to replace its user and privacy statements with
challenge the firm’s revenue model further eroding a new social compact that restricts advertising and
trust. The advent of GDPR, the EU’s far-reach- micro-targeting from a wide range of third-party
ing privacy regulations, which take effect in May users on a wide range of themes. Indeed, Facebook,
of 2018, along with the likelihood of an EU digital like other technology firms, have demonstrated that
tax levied on firms like Facebook will only serve to they can abide by self-regulation and at speed when
compound Facebook’s trust and compliance chal- they banned advertisements for initial coin offerings
lenges. Critically, GDPR grants EU citizens the right (ICOs), which have been prone to potential investor
to be forgotten. fraud risks. If only the same prudence was demon-
strated during electoral cycles and in protecting
While 50 million records is a rounding error for a firm consumer privacy. Until then, social network users,
of Facebook’s network size, the nature and appar- like voters, should weigh their conscience, use their
ent ease with which these data backdoors were judgement and proceed with caution.
opened by third-parties will create lasting discom-
fort and scrutiny. The notoriously media shy Mark https://riskcooperative.com/news-and-analysis/
Zuckerberg is facing a tough challenge of restoring facebook-breaks-silence/
trust in the unwieldy and vast expanse of the social
network he built but is now larger than him. For
all the unwanted scrutiny of Facebook and its lax
privacy and security standards, individual users must
also look themselves in the mirror and question
their digital naïveté about Facebook’s commercial

20


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

AN AMAZON SURVIVAL GUIDE IS NEEDED its lucrative government and defense contracting
| PUBLISHED 11.19.2018 business, along with the attendant logistical and
market proximity benefits of establishing two hubs
Written by Dante Disparte on the east coast. It is already being reported that
Originally published on Forbes.com the regional move opens a pathway for Amazon to
win a $10 billion defense contract. In one fell swoop
After much national fanfare, Amazon, the second this would net out the direct investment cost of $5
firm to join the trillion-dollar club, has announced billion, which was the promised investment in HQ2,
the new homes of its much sought after HQ2. Not not counting the subsidies both host cities pro-
one home, but two, as the search for a single single vided in the vicinity of $2 billion. Like when Amazon
city has in fact split with Long Island City, New York bought Whole Foods for $13 billion only to have this
and Crystal City, Virginia (now recast as National sum netted out by share price increases, it is very
Landing), in the greater Washington, D.C. area, likely Amazon’s gains in subsidies, government con-
claiming victory. While there are certainly a number tracts and increased valuation will quickly net out
of disappointed city leaders throughout the country, the direct investments in HQ2.
from places as far flung as Puerto Rico to Miami, how
Amazon’s two new homes prepare for the arrival of No stranger to home market unrest and nega-
a trillion-dollar behemoth in some respects requires tive externalities, Amazon and firms of its size and
an Amazon Survival Guide. This will help ensure clout have grown accustomed to being lightning
that smiles are not only on Amazon’s ubiquitous rod neighbors, including in the communities where
packages and at fawning ground-breaking cere- they were founded. Recognizing this and the linger-
monies, but on the faces of job seekers, business ing impact large tech firms have had on distorting
and community leaders who must contend with a affordable housing markets, Jeff Bezos, through
new market-making and market disrupting neighbor his philanthropic efforts, has allocated $2 billion
over the long term. to improving affordable housing and early school-
ing options. Addressing adverse market responses
The D.C. region playing host to half of HQ2 is no in this manner aims to turn frowns upside down
surprise, in no small measure because Amazon’s reverting back to the smile on Amazon’s packages.
CEO (the world’s richest man), Jeff Bezos, has Similar largess may be needed in its new host cities,
already planted a substantial personal flag in the which are both plagued by affordable housing and
region, buying D.C.’s largest (and most expensive) other social issues.
private residence. Like all self-respecting billion-
aires, the allure of political power and perhaps even The other considerable advantage that will accrue
presidential aspirations, is a good reason to lay to Amazon from its bifurcated east coast HQ2 is
a foundation in the nation’s capital. In Amazon’s the ability to more directly influence and inform
case, Bezos is slated to become one of the region’s national policymaking, particularly as it relates to
largest employers after the Federal government emerging business models where Amazon is staking
and adds to the Washington Post, which is the its claim. For example, the prospect of nation-wide
other regional asset he owns. The business logic drone deliveries means the drones must take off
is clearer still, especially as Amazon vies to expand with FAA approval. A platform in the capital region

21


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Featured Analysis

playing home to Jeff Bezos will be more amena- much was asserted in pre-investment promises. To
ble to allowing delivery drones to fly in lower, this welcoming committee, getting into Amazon’s
currently unregulated airspace. Seeing as helipads value chain and gaining the economic competitive-
were thrown into the mix to sweeten site selection ness that Amazon represents can be a boon. On
inducements, Amazon clearly intends to fly more the other hand, Amazon’s 50,000 new hires, espe-
than helicopters from these new locations – with cially in the highly competitive and already costly
National Landing in line of sight of D.C.s Reagan D.C. market, will come at the substantial expense
National Airport. of regional employers, who are already involved in
a fierce hiring and retention knife fight for top tech-
Similar market entry is taking place in healthcare nical talent. Indeed, one of the insidious aspects of
especially as the triumvirate between Amazon, JP the D.C. area job market, is that many facets of the
Morgan and Berkshire Hathaway evolves into a yet Federal government and national security apparatus
to be named company with considerable leader- are in fact already privatized.
ship in Dr. Atul Gawande at the helm. This health
insurance platform that pools a combined 1 million As with all economic growth, market displacement
employees from the three firms into a new insur- is the attendant consequence. For this, the first
ance structure represents a major broadside to all chapter of an Amazon Survival Guide, would outline
industry participants. Nationalizing this framework business scenario planning for what the possible
into more direct competition with private health positive and negative impacts are likely to be. Like
insurance and state or government-backed health- with all risk management, you cannot buy insur-
care programs is more likely to receive a regulatory ance when your house is on fire, no more than you
blessing with an influential east coast Amazon, not- can respond to Amazon poaching your top talent
withstanding the ructions between Jeff Bezos and or your lucrative government contract the moment
President Trump, which took a turn for the comical it happens. Risk favors the prepared. Similarly, firms
on Saturday Night Live. that try to get into a spending war with Amazon on
employee compensation and benefits risk engaging
Beyond Amazon and the triumvirate leading a mass in a fool’s errand. Instead, the value proposition of
private health insurance opt out, the prospect of employment in these firms and government agen-
direct competition to health insurers from a tech cies must hinge on qualitative matters where more
titan, a banking titan and an insurance titan, could money is not a proxy for higher employee engage-
very well be the death knell to underperform- ment, satisfaction and, critically, loyalty.
ing insurers. The jury will remain out on whether
this is good for markets and consumers. What is The other known and expected negative external-
true of the companies and employers operating ity of a friendly neighborhood Amazon is depletion
in Amazon’s shadow is that they now face a major of affordable housing stock and rapid appreciation
double jeopardy, where they only have a few years of existing inventory. In both homes for HQ2, the
to begin preparing. On the one front, no public or lack of affordable housing is already an endemic
business leader wants to unfurl the “unwelcome issue. In national terms, the greater Washington area
mat” to an investor that stands to hire a combined is rivaled only by Hawaii in terms of rental costs.
50,000 employees in host cities – or at least this Would-be urban dwellers – those who want to

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RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

avoid the region’s nightmarish traffic – need to earn IT’S LONG PAST THE TIME FOR BANKS AND
at least $33.58 an hour in order to afford the rent INSURERS TO UNFRIEND COAL. HERE’S WHY.
for a 2-bedroom apartment. In New York, the same | PUBLISHED 10.14.2019
figure is $28.08, not to speak of challenges in home
ownership in both markets, let alone nationally. Written by Les Williams
While these issues are not directly Amazon’s fault, Originally published on Risk & Insurance
and no one should begrudge Amazon’s success,
policymakers, particularly those who care about September 20 through 27 commemorated a his-
affordable housing and containing the unintended toric week around the globe. According to the
side effects of unbridled gentrification, balanced website GlobalClimateStrike.net, over 150 countries
measures will matter. experienced protests supporting climate change
initiatives. These protests were effective in keeping
If the first chapter of an Amazon Survival Guide is climate change at the forefront of our social con-
about what market and regional leaders can do to science; now getting businesses on board will
prepare, the second chapter would shift the onus further amplify the message of a cleaner planet.
to Amazon and outline ways the firm and its patron
can become locally engaged citizens. In both of The Heat Is On
its new homes, Amazon moves into highly strati-
fied regions along economic, social, educational The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
and ideological lines. Deploying Amazon’s consid- (IPCC) is a working group of the United Nations
erable social and financial capital into ameliorating tasked with assessing the science related to climate
these issues including in the second city in the change. During its latest meeting in September 2019
D.C. mega-region, Baltimore, can not only bend in Monaco, 100 scientists from 30 countries met
the arc of many of these young lives, it can bend to discuss the latest science and effects of climate
the arc of the region toward long term economic change on various ecosystems around the world.
competitiveness. This much was Amazon’s chief
motivation for moving eastward. While improving According to the IPCC report, global warming has
regional economic competitiveness is not singularly already reached 1 degree Celsius above pre-indus-
Amazon’s burden to carry, what will soon become trial levels due to the increase in greenhouse gas
the region’s largest employer after the Federal gov- emissions. This has caused melting glaciers, rising
ernment, Amazon has a unique opportunity and, sea levels, warmer and more acidic oceans, and
some may argue, an obligation, to make all ships more severe weather patterns.
rise in its wake.
Hoesung Lee, chair of the IPCC, stressed that
https://riskcooperative.com/news-and-analysis/ although many of the regions studied in the report
an-amazon-survival-guide-is-needed-2/ seem distant from humans (oceans, the Arctic, the
Antarctic, high mountain regions), these regions
impact the globe in ways such as climate, food,
water, tourism, health and well being, travel, and
more.

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Featured Analysis

As an example of this interconnectedness, the mandates. Businessweek unveiled a growing trend
thawing of Arctic permafrost, or frozen tundra, not in the European business community, “Flight
only impacts the traveling and hunting patterns of Shaming.” Globally, airlines release approximately 1
indigenous peoples, it releases extreme amounts of billion tons of carbon dioxide. Due to pressure from
carbon, contributing to the increased concentration climate activists in Europe, businesses across the
of greenhouse gases on the planet. Climate change continent are revamping their travel policies. More
has produced dangerous environmental conditions business travelers are relying on buses and trains
impacting humans regardless of location on the to arrive at their destinations as their companies
planet — nothing, no one and no enterprise will be reduce the amount of flight reimbursement funds
spared from the effects, hence the need for con- made available, and more meetings are occurring
certed action. virtually via video or teleconference.

Being Greener, With the Influence of Green Airports in countries like Sweden have seen a drop in
the number of passengers they serve, and this trend
Tying money to behavior is arguably the best way will continue in other countries as Europe’s business
to produce favorable outcomes in many scenarios, community continues to respond to the changing
including the creation of a cleaner environment. cultural dynamics. Businesses may soon realize that
A recent article in Businessweek discussed how by not adopting some changes to their airline travel
climate activists are focusing their attention on policies, they may face a reputational risk, which
banks, which provide loans to major emission-pro- could result in the loss of valuable clients. Add the
ducing companies. ING Group NV is one such likelihood that air travel will get a little bumpier and
bank that is working to determine which assets on a little costlier in a more turbulent world, an “opting
its balance sheet are major contributors to global out” of all but essential business travel may be as
warming. good for comfort as it is for the bottom line.

Financial institutions, such as ING, realize that Insurance as a Catalyst for Climate Change Reform
climate change may be a hidden risk on their This past summer, the Bank of England’s Prudential
balance sheet; serious emitters of greenhouse gases Regulation Authority (PRA) stated that it will work
may see a drop in their valuation due to changes in with UK insurers to determine how climate change
policy (i.e., a country issuing a mandate to suddenly will impact their finances. The PRA is the bank’s
and drastically decrease greenhouse gas emissions, regulatory body that supervises financial service
and certain companies/industries are unable to firms like insurers. In a report released this past
pivot their operations quickly enough to meet the May, David Rule, the executive director of insurance
timeline). By targeting certain clients at-risk, ING is supervision at the PRA, explained the plan is to help
able to encourage these entities to literally “clean insurers “better assess, manage and report exposure
up” their act if they wish to remain clients in good to climate risks related to extreme weather events
standing. which in turn will lead to action.”

Banks are not alone in this emerging role of creat- California’s insurance regulator has followed a
ing a cleaner environment through decarbonization similar posture, asking insurers operating in the state

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RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

to conduct veritable climate stress tests on their A TWO-TIER HEALTH CARE SYSTEM COULD
balance sheets to not only identify climate change BE JUST WHAT THE DOCTOR ORDERED
exposed assets but also recalibrate their liabilities. | PUBLISHED 08.19.2019
This is a part of California’s broad climate-ready
strategy, which calls for a 50% decarbonization of Written by Les Williams and Nara Rodrigues
the state’s energy production by 2030. Originally published on Risk & Insurance

Given the impact climate change is having on insur- Health care has dominated each of the 2019
ance claims globally, the PRA is wise to investigate Democratic Primary Debates. The first question
how climate change will impact the balance sheets posed to the candidates on July 30th in Cleveland
of these insurers that directly has an impact on the focused specifically on a “Medicare for All” plan. The
bank’s financial health. Historically, catastrophe New England Journal of Medicine states that more
models relied mainly on historical data for under- than two-thirds of Americans feel that reducing
writing — models that are now outdated given the health care costs must be a top priority for the
impacts of climate change. federal government.

The main goal of the report is to help insurers Politicians from both sides of the aisle agree with
develop a more accurate, forward-looking under- the sentiments of these Americans, but how to
writing model that accounts for the impact of climate approach this intractable issue is the crux of the
change. By more accurately underwriting risks matter. There may be a compromise such that a
incorporating climate change, the PRA is encour- Medicare for All Plan can coexist with the existing
aging insurers to take steps to remain solvent for U.S. health care system.
decades to come. If we view business as an engine,
capital would be the fuel and insurance would be Background of Medicare
the oxygen. As insurers step up to the plate and
include climate change impacts into their under- Medicare was created in 1965 to help Americans aged
writing models, more businesses will be compelled 65 and older and those permanently disabled pay for
to make eco-friendly changes to their operations to medical coverage. Coverage includes services like
secure favorable premiums or to secure any type of prescription drugs, hospital stays, and doctor visits.
coverage in the first place. According to the Center for Medicare and Medicaid
Services (CMS), in 2016 Medicare covered over 56
Our industry has a key role to play in ensuring and million Americans at a cost of around $678.7 billion.
insuring our planet remains cleaner for generations
to come. Medicare is funded via payroll taxes from employees
and employers, self-employed individuals, income
https://riskcooperative.com/news-and-analysis/ taxes paid on social security benefits, and interest
climate-change-and-big-business/ earned on two trust fund accounts held by the
U.S. Treasury. Medicare for All involves the idea of
a single-payer system; in this case, the U.S. Federal
Government footing the health care bill for all

25


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

Featured Analysis

Americans regardless of age. This would eliminate their core businesses and avoid the financial burden
the need for private insurance (like Canada’s system). of providing health care to workers. Masters does
not view Medicare for All through the lens of “health
This stands in contrast to The Affordable Care Act care is a right, not a privilege”, rather he feels this
(ACA), which simply helped more Americans access single-payer system makes economic sense for
the health insurance marketplace that is still serviced businesses which in turn would help employees.
by private insurers. While there are several derivatives
of what a Medicare for All Plan would look like, the The Business Alliance for a Healthy California
common theme among the Democratic candidates’ supports Masters’ stance, the alliance stated that
plans involves the federal government’s regulation approximately 300 small businesses in California
of health care prices. now back a single-payer system and the number
continues to grow. Dan Geiger, the co-director
Proponents of a Medicare for All universe opine that of The Alliance, stated that larger businesses (i.e.
government would be allowed to better-manage Fortune 500 firms) have shown trepidation in
prices for medical care and prescription drug prices, joining the single-payer movement mainly because
while opponents argue that Americans should have they want multiple options involved with choosing
the option to choose which health care plans they among various health plans for their workforce.
want for their families or, in the case of companies, They view it as an employee attraction/retention
their employees. These naysayers also feel that by tool. The U.S. Chamber of Commerce agrees with
having the federal government directly set health the sentiments of these larger corporations.
care prices, innovation in health care would be
stifled. In a letter to congress dated March 18, 2019, The
Chamber argues that the federal government should
What Businesses Think take actions such as expanding the use of Health
Savings Accounts to lower out-of-pocket costs,
Richard Master is the CEO of MCS Industries, the repealing the health insurance and medical device
largest producer of picture frames, poster frames tax, expanding coverage options via mechanisms
and framed mirrors in the U.S. You can find their like Association Health Plans, and improving the
products at major retailers including Lowe’s, Target, existing ACA exchanges via funding cost-reduction
Walmart, Amazon, The Home Depot, and more. initiatives. If things are at a stalemate in the U.S., can
While approximately 75% of MCS’ 775 employees we learn from other countries?
now work overseas, increasing health care costs
have motivated Masters to support a Medicare for Health Care from an International Perspective
All National Plan. He is chairman of The Business
Initiative for Health Policy (BIHP), an independent, Japan’s non-profit health care system, called
non-partisan, public education and advocacy group the National Health Insurance Model, is a highly
focused on adopting Medicare for All in the U.S. successful program where the government is
the single-payer of a single insurance plan while
By allowing the government to manage health care providers remain private.
prices, Masters argues that companies can focus on

26


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

In many countries, such as Japan, hospitals and Many companies in the U.S. segment their branding,
physician groups are generally required to work Marriott owns The Ritz Carlton and The Courtyard
on a non-profit basis. If a similar program were Inn and prices them accordingly. From an employer
implemented in the U.S., there would be the risk point of view why can’t the traditional U.S. Health
of a decrease in health care personnel since U.S. care Model be viewed as a Ritz property, while
providers have higher profit expectations than other Medicare for All is viewed as a Courtyard?
countries. In Japan all citizens are required to enroll,
and they receive free screening for several diseases The opponents of Medicare for All feel that innovation
(including prenatal care), and the only contributions will be stifled in this model given the government’s
made to health care costs are those that fall outside control of health care costs.
of a certain scope of service (at which point the
citizen contribution is capped at 30%). Maybe a solution is having Medicare for All
participating employers pay a tax called the
The government has tremendous bargaining power “Innovation Incentive” added on their current payroll
in keeping health care costs low in this model, and taxes. This fee could be deposited in a pool from
the program is highly successful with Japan having which the research & development divisions at
the second longest life expectancy in the world. health care firms can draw from to pay doctors and
Health care costs are kept at a low 8.5% rate of the scientists for the development of groundbreaking
country’s GDP (lower than New Zealand, Germany, treatments. Marketing this as the “Innovation
the UK, and several other OECD countries). Incentive” leaves a better impression than simply a
“tax” that Medicare for All opponents detest.
Despite the general success found in Japan, several
countries that have some variation of a Medicare for It is imperative to price this at an affordable cost for
All model usually deal with escalated inefficiencies, small companies, like MCS Industries. Options can
corruption, and low quality of care. It is also true that bring out the best in business, so imagine a world
most countries with single-payer models experience where both health care models adopt best practices
higher waiting periods to see a doctor, as evidenced from one another creating a stronger overall health
at The U.S. Department of Veterans Affair – an care system. It will take decades to see how a two-tier
example of universal health care in our country. system unfolds in The U.S. once it is implemented,
but it is an action worth taking for the health of our
The Best of Both Worlds citizens.

Implementation of another health care model will It could be just what the doctor ordered.
face challenges at many levels in the U.S.; politicians,
pharmaceutical companies, doctors, hospitals, https://riskcooperative.com/news-and-analysis/
and citizens will offer strong opinions. Why can’t two-tier-healthcare-system/
we offer Medicare for All along with the existing
privatized option to U.S. Employers?

27


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

RC Answers

Reviewing changes contributions to these problems and strategize
in risk managment ways to demonstrate corporate responsibility.
provides valuable
perspective. But what It’s no surprise that cyber risk continues to be
emerging trends should another major risk category. Here, the emerging
I embrace to prepare for trend is to take cybersecurity from the server room
the future? to the board room. Solutions to cyber risk must
extend beyond technology and IT experts. To be
resilient, an organization must implement a cyber
strategy that includes all aspects of the business,
driven by governance initiatives. Organizations
should conduct benchmarking studies on their
current state of cyber vulnerability, proactively
educate and train their entire staff in cyber
hygiene and response best practices, and protect
themselves with insurance policies to support
response and recovery efforts in the event of a
cyber incident.

As we celebrate five years in business, we have Finally, the role of risk management is expanding
done our share of looking in the rear-view mirror from the protection of tangible assets to intangible
at how the risk landscape has changed. Risks that ones, like data and reputation. To adequately
were just emerging in 2014 are now commonplace. mitigate these intangible risks, a robust Enterprise
Add to this evolution the faster pace of change, Risk Management (ERM) strategy must be in
and it’s clear that we need to prepare now for what place, championed by the Board for top-down
the future holds. implementation, and bolstered by data-driven
models and analytics techniques. This kind of
Every new year brings scads of opinions and holistic approach keeps new and emerging risks
articles touting the Top 10 risks for the coming from remaining undetected, building readiness and
year, but there are a few trends that are really worth resliency.
embracing as part of your risk strategy.

Environmental risks related to climate change HAVE A QUESTION FOR OUR EXPERTS?
top many lists in terms of both likelihood and
impact. This means that organizations need to be Send your inquiries to [email protected]
mindful of the sustainability of their investments and your question and answer may be published
and actions. From property loss due to extreme in a future edition of Risk Matters.
weather events to repuation risk due to “flight
shaming,” businesses must evaluate their

28


RISK MATTERS | FALL 2019

Announcements

RISK COOPERATIVE CELBRATES 5 YEARS

On November 6, 2014, the Risk
Cooperative team of risk and insurance
executives founded a specialized strategy,
risk and insurance advisory firm. Over the
last 5 years, Risk Cooperative has been one
of the fastest growing firms in the industry
and has become a globally recognized
leader in the fields of risk, resilience,
national security and cybersecurity.

https://riskcooperative.com/timeline/

RISK COOPERATIVE ANNOUNCES EXECUTIVE APPOINTMENTS AND TRANSITIONS

As the company approached its 5th anniversary, governance changes among Risk Cooperative’s co-founders
were made to usher in new era of growth. Andres Franzetti, former head of strategy has served as President
and Chief Operating Officer since January 2019, and will assume the role of CEO. Dante Disparte, will
transition to Head of Policy and Communication for the newly formed Libra Association and will continuing
his work with Risk Cooperative as its Chairman.

https://riskcooperative.com/press-releases/risk-cooperative-announces-executive-appointments-and-
transitions/

HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW: CYBER SECURITY ESSAYS

Just in time for October’s cybersecurity awareness month, an article from
Dante Disparte was published in the Harvard Business Review’s collection of
Cybersecurity essays. Cyberattacks on companies and individuals are on the rise
and growing not only in number but also in ferocity. And while you may think your
company has taken all the precautionary steps to prevent an attack, no individual,
company, or country is safe. Cybersecurity can no longer be left exclusively to
IT specialists. Improving and increasing data security practices and identifying
suspicious activity is everyone’s responsibility, from the boardroom to the break
room.

https://store.hbr.org/product/cybersecurity-the-insights-you-need-from-harvard-
business-review/10280

29


LIFE & HEALTH | PROPERTY & CASUALTY | COMPREHENSIVE BENEFITS | SPECIALTY INSURANCE

Risk Cooperative, a coverholder at Lloyd’s, is a specialized strategy, risk and insurance advisory firm founded around the question, what would you
do in a world without risk? Risk Cooperative is a licensed brokerage across the full spectrum of risk and insurance solutions.

www.riskcooperative.com


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