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Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience, 9th Edition

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Published by Marvin's Underground Collections, 2017-10-02 15:13:15

Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience, 9th Edition

Foundations of Behavioral Neuroscience, 9th Edition

Schizophrenia, Affective Disorders, and Anxiety Disorders

dizygotic twins (Hettema, Neale, and Kendler, 2001) At least two studies suggest that chromosome
9 contains a region associated with OCD (Hanna et al., 2002; Willour et al., 2004).

Not all cases of OCD have a genetic origin; the disorder sometimes occurs after brain damage
caused by various means, such as birth trauma, encephalitis, and head trauma (Hollander et al.,
1990; Berthier et al., 1996). In particular, the symptoms of OCD appear to be associated with
damage to or dysfunction of the basal ganglia, cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex (Giedd et al.,
1995; Robinson et al., 1995).

Evidence suggests that infectious illness can sometimes affect the basal ganglia and produce
the symptoms of OCD. Bodner, Morshed, and Peterson (2001) report the case of a 25-year-old
man whose untreated sore throat (he lived in a religious group that prohibited antibiotics) devel-
oped into an autoimmune disease that produced obsessions and compulsions. The investigators
found antibodies to a particular type of streptococcus bacterium in his blood, and MRI scans indi-
cated abnormalities in the basal ganglia. An MRI study of thirty-four children with streptococcus-
associated tics or OCD by Giedd et al. (2000) found an increase in the size of the basal ganglia that
they attributed to an autoimmune inflammation of this region.

Several functional imaging studies have found evidence of increased activity in the frontal
lobes and caudate nucleus in patients with OCD. A review by Whiteside, Port, and Abramowitz
(2004) discovered that functional imaging studies consistently found increased activity of the
caudate nucleus and the prefrontal cortex. Guehl et al. (2008) inserted microelectrodes into the
caudate nuclei of three patients with OCD who were being evaluated for neurosurgery. They
found that two of the patients, who reported the presence of obsessive thoughts during the sur-
gery, showed increased activity in neurons in the caudate nucleus. The third patient, who did not
report obsessive thoughts, showed a lower rate of neural activity.

TREATMENT

A review by Saxena et al. (1998) described several studies that measured regional brain activity of
OCD patients before and after successful treatment with drugs or cognitive behavior therapy. In
general, the improvement in a patient’s symptoms was correlated with a reduction in the activity
of the caudate nucleus and prefrontal cortex. The fact that cognitive behavior therapy and drug
therapy produced similar results is especially remarkable: It indicates that very different proce-
dures may bring about physiological changes that alleviate a serious mental disorder.

The prefrontal cortex and the cingulate cortex are involved in emotional reactions, so it is not
surprising to learn that they might be implicated in OCD. In fact, some patients with severe OCD
have been successfully treated with cingulotomy—surgical destruction of specific fiber bundles
in the subcortical frontal lobe, including the cingulum bundle (which connects the prefrontal and
cingulate cortex with the limbic cortex of the temporal lobe) and a region that contains fibers that
connect the basal ganglia with the prefrontal cortex (Ballantine et al., 1987; Mindus, Rasmussen,
and Lindquist, 1994). These operations have a reasonably good success rate (Dougherty et al.,
2002). Another reasonably effective surgical procedure, capsulotomy, destroys a region of a fiber
bundle (the internal capsule) that connects the caudate nucleus with the medial prefrontal cortex
(Rück et al., 2008). Of course, brain lesions cannot be undone, so such procedures must be con-
sidered only as a last resort. As Rück and his colleagues report, some patients suffer from adverse
side effects after surgery, such as problems of planning, apathy, or difficulty inhibiting socially
inappropriate behavior.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been found to be useful in treating the symp-
toms of Parkinson’s disease. Because OCD, like Parkinson’s disease, appears to involve

cingulotomy The surgical destruction In one extraordinary case, a patient performed his own psychosurgery. Solyom, Turnbull, and Wilensky
of the cingulum bundle, which connects (1987) reported the case of a young man with a serious obsessive-compulsive disorder whose ritual
the prefrontal cortex with the limbic hand washing and other behaviors made it impossible for him to continue his schooling or lead a
system; helps to reduce intense anxiety normal life. Finding that his life was no longer worthwhile, he decided to end it. He placed the muzzle
and the symptoms of obsessive- of a .22-caliber rifle in his mouth and pulled the trigger. The bullet entered the base of the brain and
compulsive disorder. damaged the frontal lobes. He survived, and he was amazed to find that his compulsions were gone.
Fortunately, the damage did not disrupt his ability to make or execute plans; he went back to school
496 and completed his education, and found employment. His IQ was unchanged. Ordinary surgery would
have been less hazardous and messy, but it could hardly have been more successful.


Schizophrenia, Affective Disorders, and Anxiety Disorders

abnormalities in the basal ganglia, several clinics have tried to use DBS of the basal ganglia or
fiber tracts connected with them to treat this disorder. This form of therapy appears to reduce the
symptoms of OCD in some patients (Abelson et al., 2005; Larson, 2008). Le Jeune et al. (2010)
found that DBS of the subthalamic nucleus, which plays an integral role in the cortical–basal gan-
glia circuitry, reduces the symptoms of OCD. As I mentioned at the beginning of this subsection,
one of the more modern forms of psychosurgery is destruction of the internal capsule. Goodman
et al. (2010) found that DBS of the internal capsule reduced the symptoms of OCD in four of six
patients with severe, treatment-resistant OCD. A significant benefit of DBS is that, unlike psy-
chosurgical procedures that destroy brain tissue, it is reversible: If no benefit is obtained from the
stimulation, the electrodes can be removed.

Three drugs are regularly used to treat the symptoms of OCD: clomipramine, fluoxetine,
and fluvoxamine. These effective antiobsessional drugs are specific blockers of 5-HT reuptake;
thus, they are serotonergic agonists. In general, serotonin has an inhibitory effect on species-
typical behaviors, which has tempted several investigators to speculate that these drugs alleviate
the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder by reducing the strength of innate tendencies
for counting, checking, cleaning, and avoidance behaviors that may underlie this disorder. Brain
regions that have been implicated in OCD, including the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia,
receive input from serotonergic terminals (Lavoie and Parent, 1990; El Mansari and Blier, 1997).

The importance of serotonergic activity in inhibiting compulsive behaviors is underscored by
three interesting compulsions: trichotillomania, onychophagia, and acral lick dermatitis. Tricho-
tillomania is compulsive hair pulling. People with this disorder (almost always females) often
spend hours each night pulling hairs out one by one, sometimes eating them (Rapoport, 1991).
Onychophagia is compulsive nail biting, which in its extreme can cause severe damage to the ends
of the fingers. (For those who are sufficiently agile, toenail biting is not uncommon.) Double-blind
studies have shown that both of these disorders can be treated successfully by clomipramine, the
drug of choice for obsessive-compulsive disorder (Leonard et al., 1992).

Acral lick dermatitis is a disease of dogs, not humans. Some dogs will continuously lick at
a part of their body, especially their wrist or ankle (called the carpus and the hock). The licking
removes the hair and often erodes away the skin as well. The disorder seems to be genetic; it is
seen almost exclusively in large breeds such as Great Danes, Labrador retrievers, and German
shepherds, and it runs in families. A double-blind study found that clomipramine reduces this
compulsive behavior (Rapoport, Ryland, and Kriete, 1992). At first, when I read the term “double-
blind” in the report by Rapoport and her colleagues, I was amused to think that the investigators
were careful not to let the dogs learn whether they were receiving clomipramine or a placebo.
Then I realized that, of course, it was the dogs’ owners who had to be kept in the dark.

SECTION SUMMARY

Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders severely disrupt some people’s lives. People with panic imaging studies suggest that the amygdala and the cingulate, prefrontal,
disorder periodically have panic attacks, during which they experience and insular cortices are involved in anxiety disorders.
intense symptoms of autonomic activity and often feel as if they are go-
ing to die. Frequently, panic attacks lead to the development of agora- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessions—
phobia, an avoidance of being away from a safe place, such as home. unwanted thoughts—and compulsions—uncontrollable behaviors,
Family and twin studies have shown that panic disorder is at least partly especially those involving cleanliness and attention to danger. Some
heritable, which suggests that it has biological causes. investigators believe that these behaviors represent overactivity of
species-typical behavioral tendencies. OCD has a heritable basis. It can
Panic attacks can be alleviated by the administration of a benzodi- also be caused by birth trauma, encephalitis, and head injuries, espe-
azepine, a finding that suggests that the disorder may involve decreased cially when the basal ganglia are involved. A streptococcus infection can
numbers of benzodiazepine receptors or an inadequate secretion of an stimulate an autoimmune attack—presumably on the basal ganglia—
endogenous benzodiazepine. A benzodiazepine antagonist can trigger that produces the symptoms of OCD.
a panic attack. Nowadays, the first choice of medical treatment for panic
attacks is an SSRI. In addition, the presence of a particular allele of the Functional imaging studies indicate that people with obsessive-
BDNF gene is associated with increased levels of anxiety. Functional compulsive disorder tend to show increased activity in the prefron-
tal cortex, cingulate cortex, and caudate nucleus. Drug treatment or

(continued)

497


Schizophrenia, Affective Disorders, and Anxiety Disorders

Section Summary (continued) Thought Question
Most reasonable people would agree that a person with mental disor-
behavior therapy that successfully reduces the symptoms of OCD gen- ders cannot be blamed for his or her thoughts and behaviors. Most of us
erally reduces the activity of the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. would sympathize with someone whose life is disrupted by panic attacks
In severe cases of OCD that do not respond to other treatments, surgical or obsessions and compulsions, and we would not see their plight as a
procedures such as cingulotomy and capsulotomy may provide relief. failure of will power. After all, whether these disorders are caused by trau-
Deep brain stimulation with implanted electrodes has been shown to matic experiences or brain abnormalities (or both), the afflicted person
be effective in some patients, and, unlike cingulotomy and capsulot- has not chosen to be the way he or she is. But what about less dramatic
omy, has the benefits of being reversible. The most effective drugs are examples: Should we blame people for their shyness or hostility or other
SSRIs such as clomipramine. Some investigators believe that clomip- maladaptive personality traits? If, as many psychologists believe, peo-
ramine and related drugs alleviate the symptoms of OCD by increas- ple’s personality characteristics are largely determined by their heredity
ing the activity of serotonergic pathways that play an inhibitory role (and thus by the structure and chemistry of their brains), what are the
on species-typical behaviors. Three other compulsions—hair pulling, implications for our concepts of “blame” and “personal responsibility”?
nail biting, and (in dogs) acral lick syndrome—are also suppressed by
clomipramine.

EPILOGUE | Prefrontal Lobotomy

In the chapter prologue I wrote that the repercussions of the 1935 (bundles of axons). One rather gruesome procedure did not even
report of the surgery on Becky the chimpanzee are still felt today. require an operating room; it could be performed in a physician’s
Since that time tens of thousands of people have received prefron- office. A transorbital leucotome, shaped like an ice pick, was intro-
tal lobotomies, primarily to reduce symptoms of emotional distress, duced into the brain by passing it beneath the upper eyelid until
and many of these people are still alive. At first the medical com- the point reached the orbital bone above the eye. The instrument
munity welcomed the procedure because it provided their patients was hit with a mallet, driving it through the bone into the brain. The
with relief from emotional anguish. Only after many years were care- end was then swept back and forth so that it cut through the white
ful studies performed on the side effects of the procedure. These matter. The patient often left the office within an hour.
studies showed that although patients did perform well on standard
tests of intellectual ability, they showed serious changes in personal- Many physicians objected to the “ice pick” procedure because it
ity, becoming irresponsible and childish. They also lost the ability to was done blind (that is, the surgeon could not see just where the
carry out plans, and most were unemployable. And although patho- blade of the leucotome was located) and because it produced more
logical emotional reactions were eliminated, so were normal ones. damage than was necessary. Also, the fact that it was so easy and left
Because of these findings, and because of the discovery of drugs no external signs other than a pair of black eyes may have tempted
and therapeutic methods that relieve the patients’ symptoms with- its practitioners to perform it too casually. In fact, at least twenty-five
out producing such drastic side effects, neurosurgeons eventually hundred patients underwent this form of surgery (Valenstein, 1986).
abandoned the prefrontal lobotomy procedure (Valenstein, 1986).
What we know today about the effects of prefrontal lobotomy—
I should point out that the prefrontal lobotomies that were per- whether done transorbitally or by more conventional means—tells
formed under Moniz’s supervision and by the neurosurgeons who us that such radical surgery should never have been performed. For
followed were not as drastic as the surgery performed by Jacobsen too long the harmful side effects were ignored. As we saw earlier in
and his colleagues on Becky, the chimpanzee. In fact, no brain tis- this chapter, neurosurgeons have developed a much restricted ver-
sue was removed. Instead, the surgeons introduced various kinds sion of this surgery—cingulotomy—to treat intractable obsessive-
of cutting devices into the frontal lobes and severed white matter compulsive disorder. Fortunately, this procedure reduces the
symptoms of OCD without producing such harmful side effects.

KEY CONCEPTS 3. The effects of dopamine agonists and antagonists on the posi-
tive symptoms of schizophrenia gave rise to the dopamine
SCHIZOPHRENIA hypothesis.

1. Schizophrenia is characterized by positive, negative, and cog- 4. Evidence of brain abnormalities is found in people with schizo-
nitive symptoms. phrenia. Many researchers believe that brain abnormalities

2. Because a tendency to develop schizophrenia is heritable, bio-
logical factors appear to be important in the development of
this disorder.

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Schizophrenia, Affective Disorders, and Anxiety Disorders

seen early in life trigger pathological changes during adoles- 9. Successful treatment of depression with deep brain stimula-
cence and young adulthood. tion, TMS, vagus nerve stimulation, SSRIs, or SNRIs reduces
5. Evidence suggests that the negative and cognitive symptoms the activity of the subgenual ACC, which apparently reduces
of schizophrenia are primarily caused by decreased activity the activation of the amygdala.
of the prefrontal cortex, which causes an increased release of
dopamine in the nucleus accumbens and provokes the posi- 10. The affective disorders are related to sleep disturbances and
tive symptoms. can be relieved by REM sleep deprivation or total sleep depri-
vation. In addition, some people suffer from seasonal affective
MAJOR AFFECTIVE DISORDERS disorders. Thus, affective disorders may be caused by malfunc-
tions of the neural systems that regulate circadian rhythms.
6. The major affective disorders include major depression
and bipolar disorder. Evidence suggests that both types are ANXIETY DISORDERS
heritable.
11. The most common anxiety disorders are panic disorder, gen-
7. Biological treatments for unipolar depression include norad- eralized anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Like
renergic or serotonergic agonists, electroconvulsive therapy depression, these disorders have a hereditary component and
(ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), bright-light are more likely to occur in people who possess a particular
therapy (phototherapy), and sleep deprivation. Bipolar disor- allele of the BDNF gene. Treatment includes administration
der can be effectively treated by lithium and some anticonvul- of benzodiazepines and SSRIs.
sant drugs.
12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder may be related to the species-
8. The monoamine hypothesis was suggested by the findings typical behaviors of grooming, cleaning, and attention to
that monoaminergic agonists and antagonists affect the symp- danger. It has a hereditary component and appears to involve
toms of the affective disorders and that depressive symptoms abnormalities or damage to the basal ganglia. It is treated with
are provoked by dietary depletion of serotonin in people with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as clomipramine,
a history of this disorder. which inhibit these behaviors in laboratory animals.

EXPLORE the Virtual Brain in

PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
Explore the anatomical and neurochemical substrates of schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety. The
underlying developmental and/or chemical processes for each disorder are explained in this module,
including descriptions of the cellular mechanisms and genetic factors. Learn about the relationship
between stress and psychiatric disorders.

499


Schizophrenia, Affective Disorders, and Anxiety Disorders

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504


Index

Page references followed by "f" indicate illustrated 418, 441-442, 448, 471, 500 288-292, 300, 346-347, 349, 351, 356, 366,
figures or photographs; followed by "t" indicates a Affect, 3, 10, 24, 29, 42, 47, 68, 82, 84-85, 87, 89, 369, 402, 442, 445-447, 449-450, 467, 470,
table. 476, 482, 489, 492, 494, 497, 499, 502-504
92-95, 99, 101, 107, 113-114, 119, 137, 145, homosexuality and, 262
5 161, 194, 202, 207, 216-217, 225-228, 237, in depression, 489, 494, 503-504
240, 242, 244-246, 249, 251-252, 261, 269, in panic, 502
5-HIAA, 274, 278 275, 281, 285-286, 288, 304, 309-311, 315, in schizophrenia, 470, 476, 502-504
318, 329, 348, 360, 363, 398, 414-416, 418, removal of, 272, 442
A 425, 428, 447-448, 450, 460, 464, 466, 475, Amyloid plaques, 424-426, 429
477, 479-480, 483, 489, 496, 499 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 427, 434
Abilities, 11-12, 15, 18, 22, 65, 162, 166, 179-180, Affective disorders, 290, 469, 473, 475-504 Analgesics, 12, 101
194, 212, 228, 276, 332, 336, 345, 352-353, African, 478 Anandamide, 102-104
359, 374, 377, 387, 397-398, 423, 425-427, Afterimage, 151 Anatomical coding, 175
430-431, 440, 443, 465 Age, 83, 116, 186, 236, 250-251, 257, 260, 274, 286, Ancient Greeks, 6
295, 314-315, 333, 352, 369, 385, 392, 401, Androgen insensitivity syndrome, 238-239, 241, 250,
Ablation, 8-9, 107, 109, 118, 132, 264, 290 410-411, 413, 416-419, 423, 425-426, 430, 252
Abnormal, 120, 180, 234, 249, 292, 375, 386, 441, 443, 446-447, 455, 457, 477, 480, 484, Androgens, 235, 237-242, 244, 247-250, 252-253,
493 256, 261, 442
397-398, 402, 415, 417, 419-421, 423-425, schizophrenia and, 477, 480 and sexual behavior, 235, 248
428, 432, 440, 468, 473, 492, 503 sexual behavior and, 236 prenatal, 235, 237, 239, 242, 247, 249, 252, 261,
Abnormal psychology, 292 Age at onset, 480
Abnormality, 100, 129, 208, 260, 409-410 of schizophrenia, 480 442
Abstract thinking, 475 Aggression, 265, 268, 273-275, 277-279, 291, 443, Anecdotal evidence, 285
Abuse, 94-95, 99, 352, 437-464, 466-471, 478, 458 Anger, 180, 208, 222, 268-270, 273, 277-280,
493-494 amygdala and, 278, 291
social development and, 440 arousal and, 265 284-286, 288, 409, 448, 476, 503
Accessibility, 471 Aggressiveness, 47, 273, 275, 278 facial expressions, 279-280, 284, 286, 288, 476
Accidents, 9, 116, 118, 227, 406-407, 411, 414-415, Aging, 425, 446, 469 Animal rights activists, 13
432, 448, 450, 458, 468 and brain, 469 Animals, 1-2, 5-8, 10-15, 18-19, 22, 38, 40, 48, 61, 84,
Accommodation, 74, 139, 143 and memory, 446
visual, 74, 139, 143 study of, 446, 469 86, 88-89, 95, 105, 110-111, 113, 116, 119,
Accuracy, 158, 177, 280, 393, 483 Agonist, 89-91, 95-98, 100, 104, 210-211, 220, 231, 121, 124, 127, 131-133, 138, 144, 152, 154,
Acetylcholine, 42, 44-45, 47-48, 77, 82, 91-94, 98, 233, 254, 275, 278-279, 312-314, 319, 323, 157, 160, 179, 191-192, 196, 198, 209, 212,
103-105, 126, 216-218, 232-233, 271, 457, 444, 451, 459-461, 463-466, 482-483 214-219, 224-226, 228, 231, 235, 242,
469 Agonists, 89-91, 96-97, 99-102, 126, 211, 217, 221, 244-245, 247, 250, 252-253, 255-257, 261,
in REM sleep, 92 275, 312, 318, 323, 332, 455, 466, 470, 476, 265, 270-271, 273-274, 279, 290, 298,
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 45, 48, 93 480, 482, 485, 487-488, 494, 497-499, 502 305-307, 310, 312, 317, 321, 323, 332, 338,
Achromatopsia, 153, 160, 164-165 Agoraphobia, 493, 497 343, 345, 347-348, 352, 356, 359-366, 378,
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, 430 Agrammatism, 372, 374-376, 382, 386, 402 393, 412, 418-420, 423, 426, 428, 446-447,
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 430 AIDS, 13, 98, 214, 406, 430, 432, 434-435, 450, 455, 450, 453, 455-458, 462-465, 481, 486-487,
Acquisition, 120, 156, 272, 288, 347-348, 355, 360, 483 489-490, 499
370, 401, 446, 453, 460, 489 transmission of, 434-435 and language, 5, 12
Action potential, 21, 23-24, 30-31, 33-34, 36-39, Alarm calls, 181 communication between, 40, 317
44-47, 49, 95-96, 334, 339-340 Alcohol, 99-100, 128, 131, 246, 329, 352, 410, learning by, 366
properties of, 334, 339 415-417, 435, 438, 450-455, 457-461, research on, 12-13, 15, 256-257, 270, 305, 323,
Action potentials, 21, 38-39, 41, 45, 48-49, 98, 110, 463-466, 468-470, 479, 504
119-120, 123, 144, 177, 192, 221, 339, 410 behavioral effects of, 458-459, 464 332, 352
Actions, 4, 6, 49, 83, 88, 91, 93, 96, 158-159, 200, drugs with, 460, 464 Animism, 2
232-233, 241, 275, 282, 286, 312, 320, 378, maternal use of, 479 Anions, 34, 39, 44, 192, 194
380, 383, 387, 412, 414, 442, 444, 452, 485 mental retardation and, 417 Anomia, 372, 374-376, 382-383, 386, 430
Activity level, 121, 323, 325, 444 use and abuse, 469 Anonymity, 260
Adaptation, 18, 185, 201, 321, 369, 468, 470, 478 use of, 131, 435, 450, 452, 460, 469, 479, 504 Anorexia nervosa, 14, 294, 320-323, 325-329
evolutionary, 478 alcohol consumption, 458, 461
hearing, 201 Alcohol use, 458, 504 treatment of, 323, 326, 328-329
adaptive response, 215 Alcoholism, 129, 131, 352, 364, 459, 461, 463, ANS, 74-75, 77, 92, 311-313
Adaptive significance, 198 465-466, 468-470 Antagonists, 89-91, 97-98, 101, 217, 256, 264, 312,
Adaptive value, 286 Algebra, 380
Addiction, 106, 438, 450-458, 460-471 Alleles, 130, 466 332, 417, 429, 444, 463, 468, 470, 482, 487,
to nicotine, 450, 456, 461-462, 466, 468 All-or-none law, 21, 38 498-499
Adenine, 102 Alpha activity, 204-205, 207 Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 189
Adenosine, 25, 102-104, 216, 219-221, 223, 230-231, Alpha waves, 205 Anterior pituitary gland, 68-69, 239-242, 252, 258,
233-234, 414, 433 Alzheimer disease, 433, 435 261, 311, 445, 450
Adipose tissue, 294, 301-303, 305, 307-309, 312-314, Amacrine cells, 140, 143, 146 Anterograde amnesia, 332, 352-359, 364, 366, 424
316, 318, 325 American Psychiatric Association, 440, 443, 467 Anticipatory anxiety, 493
Adjustment, 159, 182, 230, 479 American Sign Language, 383, 402 Anticonvulsant drugs, 410, 415, 485, 492, 499
Adolescence, 11, 210, 229, 441, 480, 499 American Sign Language (ASL), 383 Antidepressant drugs, 210, 485-486, 488-492
pregnancy, 441 Amnesia, 332-333, 352-359, 363-364, 366-369, 382, Antidepressants, 485, 489, 492, 502-503
puberty, 480 424 Antigens, 114, 449-450
sleep and, 210 anterograde, 332, 352-359, 364, 366, 424 Antihistamines, 98, 218
sleep deprivation, 499 retrograde, 352, 357, 364, 369 Antischizophrenic drugs, 500
Adolescents, 314, 323, 456, 464, 471, 494, 502 spontaneous, 367, 369 Antisocial behavior, 274-275, 278-279
Adoption studies, 107, 129-131, 133, 461, 475 Amniotic fluid, 442 Antisocial personality disorder, 278, 292
Adrenal androgens, 240 Amplitude, 176, 205-206, 384 Anvil, 170
Adrenal glands, 97, 240-241, 249, 271, 300, 445-447 of sound, 176 Anxiety, 14, 80, 97, 100, 254, 272, 276, 290, 318, 323,
Adrenal hormones, 301, 445 Amusia, 180, 202 325, 429, 443, 446, 453, 458, 460, 462-463,
Adulthood, 11-12, 210, 244-245, 249-250, 252-253, Amygdala, 53, 66-67, 72, 95, 115-116, 121, 193-196, 471, 473-504
256, 309, 443, 447, 480, 495, 499 198, 222, 234, 253-256, 259, 261-263, 268, conditioning, 272, 290
physical changes, 244 270-273, 275, 277-278, 280-281, 283-284, stress and, 446, 499
physical changes during, 244 twin studies, 460, 475, 493, 497
Adults, 11-12, 93, 180, 213, 286-287, 329, 401-402, Anxiety disorders, 14, 97, 100, 462, 471, 473, 475-504
generalized, 473, 493-494, 499, 502
in women, 483, 493, 503
phobias, 14

505


types of, 97, 100, 479, 481, 483 380, 382, 386-387, 414, 419, 422, 424, 233-234, 236, 250, 262-264, 290, 326-327,
Aphasia, 283, 288, 372-384, 386-387, 394-395, 427-429, 456, 464, 487, 498 329, 368-369, 400-401, 434-435, 503
of ganglion cells, 140, 143 and motivation, 369
397-403, 407, 429 terminals, 24, 32, 67, 69, 92, 95, 98, 116, 311, 341, of memory, 368
conduction, 372, 380-382, 387, 398, 400 Biopsychology, 14-15
isolation, 401 456, 464 Bipedalism, 11
Aphasias, 373, 384 Bipolar cells, 140-141, 143, 146
Apoptosis, 60, 72, 419, 423-424, 428, 430-431, B Bipolar disorder, 476, 483-485, 487, 492, 499-500,
502
433-434, 456, 467 B12, 317 suicide in, 485
Apparent movement, 148 Baby, 11, 68, 186, 241, 250, 286, 295, 324, 365, 439, Bipolar neurons, 24, 74, 172, 183-184, 192, 195, 198
Appetitive stimulus, 335, 451, 464 Birth, 11-12, 130, 236-237, 239, 244-245, 248, 250,
Aptitude, 180 470 257-258, 260, 262-263, 322, 324, 326,
Arcuate fasciculus, 380-382, 387, 402 Balance, 21, 30, 34-35, 38, 43, 66, 75, 77, 95, 162, 415-416, 441, 450, 458, 473, 477-479,
Arguments, 13 481-482, 485, 496-497, 500-501
Arithmetic, 333 182, 187, 199, 234, 294, 296, 301, 304, 313, preterm, 326
Arousal, 69, 71, 73-74, 76, 97, 203-204, 207, 216-223, 315, 319, 326, 328-329, 382 process of, 11, 257
Bariatric surgery, 317, 319, 326, 329 Black widow spider, 89, 92-93, 104
226, 229-232, 234, 246-247, 265, 271 Basal ganglia, 60, 62, 66-67, 69-70, 72, 79, 95, 97, Black widow spider venom, 89, 93, 104
Arousal and performance, 265 102, 128, 179, 217-218, 254, 310, 332, Blastocyst, 479
Art, 117 347-351, 356, 359, 366, 375, 400, 406, 419, Blind spot, 139-140
Artificial selection, 10 421-422, 428, 430, 434, 452, 496-497, 499, Blind spots, 140
Asia, 461 501-502, 504 Blind studies, 463, 497
ASL, 383-384 in classical conditioning, 349 Blindness, 8, 64, 77, 124, 154, 165, 388-389, 397,
Asperger syndrome, 467 in OCD, 496-497 407, 410
Assessment, 329, 375-376, 401, 501 Basic emotions, 292 Blocking, 32, 91, 94-96, 218, 291, 347, 349, 407, 430,
Association areas, 63, 65, 291, 380, 501 Basilar membrane, 171-177, 181 455, 459, 462, 476, 488
Association cortex, 64-65, 77, 124, 136, 146, 149-155, Bedwetting, 210-211, 229 Blood, 13, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29-30, 48-50, 53, 56-58, 64,
Behavior, 1-3, 5-10, 12, 14-16, 18, 22-23, 30-31, 47, 66, 68, 73-76, 84-86, 88, 93, 95-96, 98,
158-161, 163, 174, 176, 181, 188, 191, 273, 65, 68, 83, 85, 88-89, 92, 102, 107-110, 101-103, 108, 114, 117, 120, 122, 132, 139,
278, 281, 333-334, 344-347, 352, 356, 366, 112-116, 118, 121-122, 125-129, 131-133, 180, 185, 201, 206, 208, 212, 216, 218, 223,
375, 377-380, 383, 387-388, 391, 393, 395, 158, 160, 162, 164, 166, 193-194, 198, 256, 258-259, 269-272, 281, 296-309, 314,
398, 400, 424, 434, 441-442 201-202, 203-205, 207, 210-211, 215, 217, 316-319, 321, 324, 328, 346, 374, 408-409,
sensory, 64-65, 77, 154, 191, 333-334, 344-347, 222, 224, 231, 233-234, 235-259, 261-265, 411-416, 425-428, 430, 434, 441, 445-447,
268-270, 273-280, 282, 285, 288-290, 292, 449-450, 452, 461-462, 478, 488, 490, 496
356, 366, 378-380, 383, 387, 398 293-329, 333-336, 344, 348-351, 353, 363, blood-brain barrier, 21, 23, 29-30, 49-50, 56, 85,
Association studies, 130-131, 484 366, 373-374, 417, 439-440, 442-444,
Associative learning, 367, 369-370 446-454, 456, 458, 460, 464-471, 474, 88, 93, 95, 98, 101-103, 218, 300, 306,
Astrocytes, 26-27, 29-30, 50, 60, 102, 216, 220, 223, 482-483, 494, 496-498, 501-502 308, 319, 412, 425, 427, 452, 461, 488
and hormones, 47 blood pressure, 53, 73, 96, 132, 271-272, 300-301,
408, 424, 430 and stress, 374, 448, 450, 470 346, 411-412, 445-446, 449-450, 488
Attachment, 172, 263, 339 biology and, 9, 326 Blood-brain barrier, 21, 23, 29-30, 49-50, 56, 85, 88,
brain structures and, 252 93, 95, 98, 101-103, 218, 300, 306, 308,
establishment of, 339 confirming, 248 319, 412, 425, 427, 452, 461, 488
fathers, 263 experimental analysis of, 467, 501 Body, 2, 4, 6-9, 11-12, 14, 17-18, 22-26, 29-30, 33-34,
first, 263, 339 genes and, 10, 245 36, 39, 47, 53-54, 56, 58-59, 61, 63-64,
Attention, 13, 53, 69, 77, 92, 94, 96-97, 102, 113, 138, infant, 202, 250, 259, 262-263, 417 67-71, 73-75, 77-79, 82-88, 93, 97, 100-103,
moral, 252, 269, 276-279, 288, 290, 292 105, 109, 112-114, 116, 118, 136-137, 141,
142-143, 149, 159-161, 163, 178, 187, 213, neural control of, 203, 235, 247, 253, 256, 258-259, 146, 155-156, 158, 160-161, 163-166,
215, 217, 219, 270, 310, 348-349, 373, 401, 167-168, 170-202, 212-213, 215-216, 225,
403, 418, 432, 437-464, 466-471, 475, 261-262, 268, 273, 327 227-228, 236, 239-242, 245, 248, 250, 252,
480-481, 495, 497, 499 sexual, 14, 113, 115-116, 121-122, 127-128, 207, 257, 265, 269, 276, 280-281, 284-285,
benzodiazepines and, 499 287-288, 290-291, 294-297, 300-305,
Attentional processes, 476 234, 235-237, 239-259, 261-265, 321, 308-318, 320-324, 326-329, 339, 344, 355,
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, 439, 443-444, 442, 452 383-384, 395, 407-410, 417, 419-420, 429,
466 species-typical, 92, 254, 273, 278-279, 288, 445-446, 449, 453, 455, 457, 459, 484, 497
diagnosis of, 443 334-335, 497-498 Body fat, 240, 309, 315, 317-318
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 443, strength of, 334, 444, 452, 497 Body language, 280, 290-291
466 Behavior genetics, 264, 501 Body mass index (BMI), 314
Attitudes, 492 Behavior therapy, 275, 322, 328, 449, 494, 496, 498 Body position, 184
Attraction, 8, 34, 247 Behavioral conditioning, 370 Body posture, 280-281, 284
Attractiveness, 94, 244, 246, 252, 264-265 Behavioral ecology, 265 Body weight, 86-88, 257, 304-305, 308-309, 314-316,
Attribution, 467 Behavioral neuroscience, 1, 3-16, 18-19, 21, 51, 81, 320-323, 326-329
Attributions, 265 107-108, 118, 135, 167, 203, 235, 262, 264, hormones and, 257, 322, 329
Audience, 28, 291 267, 293, 331, 369-370, 371, 405, 437, 473 metabolic rate and, 309
Audition, 8, 24, 72, 167-202, 281, 396 brain, 1, 3-13, 15, 18-19, 21, 107-108, 118, 262, Bonding, 241, 256-258, 442
disorders, 281 264, 369, 473 Bone growth, 241
ear and, 168, 170, 176-177 neuron, 21, 370 Botox, 93, 286
Auditory association area, 382 Behavioral observations, 6, 119 Botulinum toxin, 89, 92-94, 104, 286, 291
Auditory association cortex, 64-65, 174, 176, 181, 188, Behavioral states, 47 Boys, 236, 239, 249-252, 260, 443, 467
273, 334, 345-346, 377-378, 398 Behavioral treatment, 327 sexual development in, 239
Auditory canal, 170 Beliefs, 13, 88, 365, 475 Brain, 1, 3-13, 15, 17-19, 21-24, 26, 28-32, 39-40, 44,
Auditory hair cells, 168, 171-172, 181, 201 Bell, A., 262 46-47, 49-50, 52-74, 77-80, 82, 84-88,
Auditory information, 62, 168, 172-175, 181, 346, 382 Benzodiazepine receptor, 502 92-103, 105-106, 107-129, 132-133,
Australia, 326 Beta activity, 204-205, 207 136-143, 147, 149, 151, 153-166, 169-170,
Autism, 156, 160, 164, 262, 402, 438-443, 465, Bias, 244 172-175, 177-183, 187-190, 192-193,
467-468, 470, 476 controlling, 244 195-202, 204-206, 208, 210-223, 225-234,
Autoimmune disease, 29, 48, 496 Biases, 164 237, 242, 244-245, 247, 249-254, 256-265,
Automaticity, 292 cognitive, 164 269-279, 281-292, 294, 296, 298-315,
Automobile accidents, 450 Binding sites, 41, 47, 87, 90-91, 99-100 318-319, 324-328, 332-335, 338, 341,
Autonomic nervous system, 52, 67, 74-77, 79, 88, 92, Binge eating, 321 343-352, 355-358, 361-369, 372-375,
97, 213, 215, 269, 272, 285-287, 289-291, Binocular disparity, 149 378-403, 406-427, 429-435, 438, 440-459,
311, 409, 445, 450, 466, 493 Binocular vision, 148 461-464, 466-471, 473-475, 477-483,
Autonomic nervous system (ANS), 74, 77 Biological basis, 279, 504 485-493, 495-504
parasympathetic division, 74, 77 Biological clock, 204, 220-222, 224-226, 228, 492 action potentials and, 21
Autonomy, 71 Biological factors, 236, 252, 260, 322-323, 440, 482, activity during sleep, 206
Awareness, 1, 3, 5, 116, 367, 394, 415, 440 498, 504 adolescent, 263, 442, 454, 504
Axis I disorders, 500 Biological rhythms, 203, 205-228, 230-234, 492 amygdala, 53, 66-67, 72, 95, 115-116, 121, 193,
Axon terminal, 25 circadian rhythms, 203, 224-228, 230-231, 195-196, 198, 222, 234, 253-254, 256,
Axons, 21, 23-30, 32, 36, 38-40, 49-50, 54, 60-62, 233-234, 492 259, 261-263, 270-273, 275, 277-278,
64-75, 77, 92, 94-95, 97-98, 107, 109-110, Biological treatments, 473, 485, 492, 499
113-120, 122-123, 125-126, 132, 139-143, ECT, 485, 492, 499
147, 150, 152, 158, 172-176, 178, 181-186, electroconvulsive therapy, 485, 499
188, 190, 192-193, 195-198, 217-219, 222, vagus nerve stimulation, 485, 492, 499
225, 228, 254-255, 257-258, 273, 278, 300, Biology, 9, 14, 18, 50, 80, 144, 164-166, 200-201,
302, 306-307, 309, 311-312, 314, 337-339,
341, 343, 346-347, 349-350, 356, 363, 366,

506


281, 283-284, 288-292, 300, 346-347, 254, 263, 363-364, 369 Castration, 248, 256
349, 351, 356, 366, 369, 402, 442, oxytocin and, 256, 259, 262 Cataplexy, 208-211, 222, 229, 232, 234
445-447, 449-450, 467, 470, 482, 489, pons, 53, 57, 60, 66, 70-71, 73, 79, 92, 97, 126, Categories, 13, 89, 92, 95, 124, 154-155, 185-187,
492, 497, 499, 502-504
anatomy of, 53, 71, 79, 116, 119, 136, 139, 143, 174, 183, 217-218, 221, 223, 230, 270, 197-198, 214, 236-237, 259, 334, 336, 355,
159-160, 162, 165, 170, 174, 182, 192, 272, 283, 346 366, 380, 387, 397, 407-409, 440-441, 452,
195, 332, 356, 401 positron emission tomography and, 232 460, 474, 480-482, 495
and emotion, 6, 66, 201, 269, 290 psychosurgery and, 504 Categorization, 201
and learning, 63, 72, 214-215 regions of, 8, 15, 59-60, 62-67, 74, 92, 94, 97-98, Cations, 34, 37, 43, 192
and schizophrenia, 455, 500, 503 101, 103, 109, 116, 120-125, 127, Causation, 323
and sensory stimulation, 412-413 132-133, 143, 151, 154-157, 160-161, Cell body, 23-25, 30, 33, 74-75, 339
and sleep, 220, 231-232, 234, 485, 490-492, 499 163, 170, 175, 179, 181, 190, 196-198, Cell division, 11, 236
auditory cortex, 62-63, 65, 67, 174-175, 179-181, 210, 215, 217-218, 220, 225, 228, Cell membrane, 32, 35, 39-40, 124, 299, 301, 424
199, 201-202, 346, 378-380, 387, 402 250-251, 258, 264, 270, 275, 278, 284, Cell, The, 23, 25-26, 30, 32-37, 39-44, 46-47, 50,
autism and, 468 310-311, 313-314, 338, 341, 345-349, 59-62, 73-74, 95, 97-99, 103, 112, 115, 121,
autistic disorder and, 468 356-357, 361-362, 364-365, 368, 375, 123-124, 130-131, 145, 147, 149, 181, 183,
behavior and, 6, 109, 116, 118, 202, 234, 249, 254, 378, 380, 382-384, 386-388, 391, 188, 192, 209, 218, 226, 298-299, 301-302,
257, 259, 262, 264, 274, 276, 278-279, 395-396, 423, 426, 441, 443, 445, 447, 311, 338-340, 343, 351, 362, 416, 419-421,
335, 363, 471, 482 454, 458, 461, 475, 481-482, 487-490 424-425, 428-429
brainstem, 200, 232, 327 research methods for, 107 Cells, 3, 5, 8, 10-11, 13, 21-47, 49-50, 56, 59-62,
central core, 97 scanning, 15, 65, 113, 116, 118, 139, 341, 358 68-69, 72, 79, 83-85, 88, 98-99, 101-103,
cerebral hemispheres of, 212, 216 schizophrenic, 454, 474-475, 477-483, 501-502 105, 109-110, 112-115, 118-121, 123-124,
circadian rhythms and, 228 self, 1, 3, 5, 12, 22, 74, 88, 112, 169, 188, 198, 127, 132, 136-137, 139-149, 152, 163-165,
computer metaphor, 17 202, 208, 234, 249, 273, 290, 327, 343, 168-173, 175-176, 181-184, 192, 195-202,
CT scans, 116-117, 132, 448, 477 369, 378, 435, 443, 448, 453, 455-457, 225-228, 231-232, 236-239, 242, 247,
development, 7, 10-12, 18, 28, 52, 59-61, 66, 459, 467-468, 470-471, 491, 503 295-298, 300-303, 305, 307-309, 311, 313,
71-72, 98, 107, 116, 124, 129, 154, 164, sensation and, 63 326, 332, 337-341, 343, 358, 360-367, 369,
202, 212-213, 215, 228-229, 233, 237, sex differences in, 250, 262 407-408, 414, 416-421, 423-425, 427-430,
242, 244-245, 247, 249, 251-253, sexual orientation and, 250, 262 432-434, 449-450, 459, 478, 481
260-264, 271, 273-274, 282, 301, 314, smell and, 202 amacrine, 140-141, 143, 146
319, 324, 375, 383, 392-394, 397-398, substantia nigra, 69-70, 73, 95, 101, 105, 350, depolarized, 43, 338-339, 343
402, 406-407, 410, 415-419, 425-426, 419-422 gustatory, 168, 192, 195-196, 200, 202
429, 432-433, 440-441, 443, 447-451, synapses in, 21, 61, 93, 198, 254, 346, 368, 469, horizontal, 33, 140-143, 146-147, 182, 361
461, 464, 466, 468, 471, 473-474, 482 hypercomplex, 147
477-481, 485, 488, 493, 497-498, 500, three layers of, 57 polarized, 33
502 tour of, 18 receptive fields of, 142, 145
divisions of, 52, 55, 62, 68, 70, 77, 345, 364 vestibular information, 159, 183 retinal ganglion, 141, 145-146, 163, 165, 231-232
drugs and, 82, 103, 213, 410, 415, 451, 464, 498 volume of, 26, 57, 180, 225, 278, 298-301, 307, stem, 59-61, 68-69, 98, 101-102, 181, 183, 199,
during adolescence, 210, 229, 499 358, 447-448, 454, 480, 487, 490
endocrine system and, 67, 72, 314 Brain damage, 3, 5-6, 29, 62, 95, 105, 107, 109-110, 226, 311, 313, 362-365, 408, 414,
evolution and, 165, 262 112, 116, 118, 120, 132, 153-154, 156, 162, 428-429, 433
frontal lobes, 64, 198, 272, 275, 348, 366, 374, 166, 180, 188, 201, 213, 277, 279, 281, 288, Central nervous system, 22-24, 26-30, 44, 46, 52,
383, 407, 417, 421, 474-475, 480-481, 352, 355-357, 362, 364, 366, 372-374, 54-59, 66, 72-74, 77, 79, 84-85, 87, 92-93,
496, 498 378-379, 385, 387-391, 394, 396-398, 407, 97-100, 103, 173, 184, 188, 302, 304, 368,
handedness and, 374, 401 410-417, 429-432, 446-447, 449-450, 457, 412, 416, 427, 429-430, 432-435, 501
hemispheres of, 3, 212, 216, 250, 374 475, 477, 486, 496 cells of, 22-24, 26-30, 44, 46, 59, 72, 84, 98, 302,
hindbrain, 52, 59-60, 69-70, 72-73, 79, 310, 328 stroke and, 415 416
hunger and, 219, 221, 294, 306-311, 313, 325 Brain development, 12, 59-60, 72, 129, 212-213, 215, evolution of, 66, 304
hypothalamus, 60, 66-69, 72, 79, 85, 98, 102, 113, 229, 249, 251, 261, 415-417, 440, 447-448, structure of, 23, 52, 54-59, 66, 72-74, 79
115, 121, 127, 142-143, 193, 195-196, 450, 468, 473, 477-479 Central nervous system (CNS), 23, 30, 55, 58
198, 217-223, 225, 228, 230, 232, 234, adolescence, 229 Central sulcus, 62-64, 72
242, 251, 253, 256, 261-262, 264-265, Brain function, 17, 19, 107, 109 Cerebellum, 57, 60, 65-71, 73, 79, 101-102, 174, 179,
270-273, 275, 278, 288, 292, 294, lateralization of, 19 183-184, 228, 254-256, 408, 429-431
298-299, 308, 310-314, 319, 324-327, Brain stem, 7, 60, 65, 68-71, 92, 94, 97-98, 100-102, fear and, 254
346, 429, 445, 447, 462, 471, 492 181, 183, 199, 220, 223, 226, 230, 233, 258, Cerebral achromatopsia, 153, 160, 164
images of, 139, 143, 155-156, 193, 283, 305, 345, 273, 278, 286, 288, 294, 306, 310-313, 324, Cerebral cortex, 8, 54, 59-67, 69, 71-72, 79, 92, 97-98,
457 422, 429, 445, 487 117, 124-125, 138, 141, 151, 155, 158, 160,
imaging studies of, 489 Brain surgery, 3, 110-111, 116, 333, 410-411, 462 164-166, 205-206, 212, 217-218, 223, 229,
immune system and, 98, 450 Brainstem, 200, 232, 327 233, 263, 270, 275, 286, 310-311, 347-348,
in ADHD, 444 Breast development, 240 356-357, 362-363, 365, 391, 414, 423-426,
lesions in, 116, 230, 233, 263-264, 375, 382, 421 Brightness, 17, 138, 141, 143, 146-148, 150, 162, 170 430, 448, 456
magnetic resonance imaging of, 501 Broca, Paul, 8 association areas, 63, 65
major structures of, 52 Broca's area, 389 lobes of, 65
mental disorders and, 500 Bulimia nervosa, 294, 320, 323, 325 of left hemisphere, 63
neural circuits in, 124, 205, 273, 288, 310, 335, Buprenorphine, 461, 463-464, 466 organization of, 164
345, 352, 375, 503 sensory and motor areas, 65
neurogenesis, 61-62, 264, 363-364, 366, 368-369, C Cerebral hemisphere, 60, 62-63
418, 435, 473, 487, 489-490, 492, 503 Cerebral hemispheres, 4, 7, 59, 62, 64-65, 67, 212,
neuromodulators and, 21, 47, 49 Caffeine, 102, 104, 216, 455, 460 216, 275, 310, 374, 408, 413, 416
neurons, 11, 17, 21-24, 26, 29-32, 39-40, 44, adenosine and, 102 left hemisphere, 4, 64-65, 67, 212, 374
46-47, 49-50, 56, 59-70, 72-74, 77, 80, split brain, 4
82, 86-87, 92, 94-103, 105, 107, 109-115, CAH, 249-250 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 57-58
118-129, 132-133, 136-141, 143, 147, Calcium, 89, 99, 123, 183, 201, 338-344, 366, 368, Cerebrum, 62, 70, 174
149, 153-154, 157-159, 163-165, 169, cerebral cortex, 62
172, 174-175, 177, 181, 183, 188, 413, 426 cerebral hemispheres, 62
192-193, 195-196, 198, 202, 205-206, Camouflage, 10, 144 parietal lobes, 62
208, 210-211, 215-223, 225-234, 247, Cancer, 102, 187, 201, 312, 314, 450, 456-457, Cervix, 198
253-254, 256-259, 262, 264-265, Challenge, 333
270-272, 274, 278, 282, 284, 286-287, 461-462, 469 Change, 10-12, 33, 36-37, 94, 122, 141, 143, 157,
291, 298-302, 304, 306, 308-314, 319, hereditary, 450 162, 169, 176-177, 181, 185, 205-206, 224,
324-325, 327-328, 334, 338, 341, 343, risk factors, 469 227, 244, 260, 264, 276, 279, 286, 298, 301,
345-351, 356, 358, 361-369, 375, Candidate genes, 329, 476 303, 318, 333-334, 344, 357, 363, 366, 368,
378-379, 383, 386-387, 403, 408-409, Cannabinoids, 457, 459-460, 463-464, 468 373, 407, 409, 423, 433, 449, 452, 457, 465,
412, 414, 416, 418-424, 426-427, endogenous, 457, 459, 463-464 478
429-434, 444-447, 452, 454-455, Cannon, Walter, 444 Chemical senses, 167-168, 170-202, 263, 327
457-459, 461, 464, 468-471, 477, Capsaicin, 187, 191, 200-201 olfaction, 168, 191, 194, 196, 198-200, 263
480-481, 483, 487, 489, 496 Carbon monoxide, 102-103, 156, 379, 484 Child abuse, 440
neurotransmitters in, 49, 98, 257 Cardiovascular disease, 208, 314, 434, 445, 466 Child development, 264
olfactory bulb, 54, 61, 74, 195-198, 202, 245, 252, Career, 1, 15-16 Childbirth, 68, 71
selection, 1 Childhood, 29, 165, 249, 260, 289, 324, 393, 427,
Careers, 1, 14-15, 18, 495 440-441, 443-444, 448, 466-467, 471,
Caregivers, 250, 440, 446
Case studies, 18, 162
in research, 18

507


479-480, 503 Color vision, 8, 11, 139, 144-146, 153, 160, 163-166 105, 108, 110, 113, 118, 122, 125, 130,
Children, 12, 96, 108, 130, 155, 159-160, 209-211, Colors, 59-60, 117, 122, 130, 138-139, 144-146, 132-133, 139, 142-143, 155, 157, 159-163,
184, 186, 193, 196, 201, 203-204, 206-209,
236, 239, 250-251, 260, 262, 264, 279-280, 152-153, 159, 163, 197, 362, 490 213, 215-216, 218-223, 225-231, 233,
291, 295, 314, 318, 327, 382, 389, 392, theories of color vision, 144 235-237, 239-240, 242, 246-248, 252-253,
394-397, 400, 402, 410, 415-416, 439-444, Communication, 3-4, 21, 23, 30-32, 39-40, 42, 46-47, 256-259, 261-262, 264, 268-271, 273,
446, 454, 466, 470, 475, 477-479, 482, 484, 275-276, 278, 282-283, 286, 288, 292,
496, 501-502 49, 92, 101-102, 159, 169, 215, 268-269, 294-296, 301-302, 306-307, 309-315,
autistic disorder, 439-441, 443 279-280, 282, 284, 288-289, 317, 326, 319-320, 322-324, 326-329, 335-336, 340,
development in, 239, 262, 502 371-397, 399-403, 441, 443 343, 345, 347, 349, 353, 355, 358, 360,
Chimpanzees, 11-12, 248, 265, 474 body language, 280 369-370, 374-375, 378-379, 383, 386-387,
China, 314 consciousness and, 3 390-391, 395, 409-410, 413-415, 423, 425,
Chinese, 6, 383, 391, 393, 401, 403 of animals, 40, 279, 317 427, 434-435, 441-442, 445-447, 450, 454,
Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), 100 of emotion, 268, 279-280, 282, 284, 288-289, 374, 459, 461, 463, 468, 475-477, 484, 494-495,
Chloride, 32, 34-35, 43-44, 49, 99-100, 123, 191-192, 504
301 384 of emotions, 66, 268-270, 282-283, 288
Cholecystokinin, 307, 320, 328 Community, 383, 498 perceived, 4-5, 155, 271, 286
Cholecystokinin (CCK), 307, 320 Comorbidity, 454, 468, 470, 501 Control groups, 88, 328
Choline, 45, 89, 92-93, 98, 126 comparison, 33, 84, 131, 155, 178, 263, 316, 369, Controlling speech, 384
Chorion, 479 Convolutions, 62, 417
Chromosome 20, 418 403, 456, 480-481, 500, 503 Coolidge, Calvin, 243
Chromosomes, 10, 25-26, 66, 103, 121, 129-130, 145, Compensatory response, 465 cooperation, 3, 182, 188
236-239, 241, 261, 394, 416-417, 420, 425, Competence, 108 Copulation, 113, 198, 243, 253-255, 264
433, 476, 484 Competition, 450 Cornell University, 19
in twins, 129 Complex cells, 147 Corpus callosum, 3-4, 64-68, 116, 250, 300, 350,
X, 121, 145, 236-239, 241 composite faces, 156-157 388-389, 397, 407, 486
Chronic stress, 447, 467 Comprehension of speech, 376, 383, 398 visual information and, 64
cigarette smoking, 412, 463, 470-471 Computer metaphor, 17 Correlation, 234, 274, 276, 442, 457-458, 469
nicotine and, 470 Computerized tomography (CT), 116 negative, 458
rates of, 463, 471 Computers, 7, 14, 17, 116 positive, 442, 458
Cilia, 24, 171-173, 175, 181, 183-184, 192, 195-198 Concept, 5, 12, 50, 372, 380 Cortex, 8, 53-54, 59-67, 69-72, 77-80, 92, 95, 97-98,
Ciliary muscles, 139, 142-143 Conception, 59 101-102, 109, 117, 124-125, 136, 138,
Cingulum, 496 Concepts, 3, 18, 49, 79, 105, 132, 162, 199, 202, 229, 141-143, 146-166, 174-176, 179-181,
Cingulum bundle, 496 183-184, 186, 188-191, 193-199, 201-202,
Circadian behavior, 231 261, 279-280, 288, 324, 366, 380, 387, 391, 205-206, 210, 212, 217-218, 222-223, 229,
Circadian rhythm, 224, 227, 232, 504 398, 432, 465, 498 233, 240, 249, 254, 263, 268, 270, 272-273,
Circadian rhythms, 203, 224-228, 230-231, 233-234, artificial, 132 275-279, 281-284, 286, 288-291, 298-301,
473, 484, 490-492, 499 formation of, 229 310-311, 327, 332-334, 337-338, 343-352,
biology of, 233 learning, 3, 199, 229, 280, 366 356-358, 361-366, 368-369, 375, 377-381,
jet lag and, 227-228, 231 Conclusion, 4-5, 7, 128, 162, 179, 236, 272, 274, 279, 383-389, 391-393, 395-398, 400-402,
suprachiasmatic nucleus and, 227 345, 347, 353, 362, 375-376, 379-381, 398, 408-410, 413-415, 421-426, 429-430, 434,
Claims, 5 426, 449, 492 441-442, 444-445, 448-450, 454, 456, 458,
two, 5 Concordance rate, 129, 131, 251, 394, 441, 480, 484 463-464, 466-468, 470-471, 473, 477,
Classical conditioning, 5, 271-272, 286, 332, 334-336, Conditional stimulus, 271, 334, 336, 465 480-483, 486, 488-490, 492, 494, 496-499,
346-347, 349, 355, 364, 366, 368, 370, 465 Conditioned compensatory response, 465 501-502, 504
backward, 355 Conditioned emotional responses, 271-272, 278-279, association areas of, 63, 65
extinction, 272 288, 346-347, 476 prefrontal, 64-65, 95, 189, 191, 199, 268, 270,
forward, 368 Conditioned fear response, 272-273, 446, 494
in humans, 272 Conditioned response, 271, 273 272-273, 275-279, 281, 283, 288-289,
learning in, 332, 334, 349 Conditioning, 5, 271-272, 286, 290-291, 332, 334-336, 291, 349-351, 363, 365-366, 368-369,
Classification, 7-8, 17, 94, 166, 241, 409 346-349, 351, 354-355, 363-364, 366, 402, 441, 444, 448-450, 454, 463-464,
Classroom, 288, 292, 443 368-370, 451-452, 464-465, 470 466-468, 470-471, 473, 477, 480-483,
Clinical neuroscience, 454, 467, 502 classical, 5, 271-272, 286, 332, 334-336, 346-347, 486, 488-489, 492, 494, 496-499,
Clinicians, 249, 276, 320, 322, 439-440, 443, 453-454, 501-502, 504
469, 474, 485, 487 349, 355, 364, 366, 368, 370, 465 primary auditory, 62-63, 65, 67, 174-175, 180-181,
Clinics, 80, 83, 165, 231, 234, 265, 328, 434, 461, 497 instrumental, 332, 334-336, 347-349, 351, 354-355, 199, 379-380, 387, 402
Clitoris, 206, 239-240, 249 primary visual, 62-65, 67, 141-142, 147-149, 152,
Clones, 479 364, 366, 369, 451-452, 464, 470 162, 164-165, 201, 344-345, 388-389
Closed-head injury, 414 operant, 335, 347-348 somatosensory, 62-65, 71, 77, 159, 186, 188-191,
Closure, 240, 295 Conduction aphasia, 372, 380-382, 387, 398, 400 193, 199, 202, 281-282, 284, 286, 289,
Cocaine, 84-85, 88-89, 96, 102, 104, 127-128, 258, Cones, 124, 139-141, 143-146, 149-150, 152, 291, 334, 346, 348, 409, 422, 429
263, 312, 314, 319, 326-327, 349, 369, 438, visual association, 64-65, 124, 136, 146, 149-155,
450-456, 460-462, 464, 466-470, 476-477, 162-163, 225, 228 158-161, 163, 174, 181, 188, 281, 334,
480, 487 Conflict, 4, 277, 449 344-346, 352, 377, 383, 388, 391, 393,
addiction to, 450, 460-462, 464, 466, 470 Conflicts, 229, 278 441-442
Cochlea, 170-175, 181-183, 199 wrinkling of, 286
Cochlear implant, 175-176, 202 theory, 229 Cortical cells, 164
Cochlear implants, 175-176, 181 Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 249, 264 Cortisol, 246, 265, 329, 445
Cochlear nucleus, 174 Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), 249 couples, 87, 189, 241, 248, 256, 446
Codeine, 86 Connectionist models, 369 Covert speech, 382, 400
Coding, 136, 143-146, 162, 168, 173-176, 181, Connective tissue, 57, 71, 408, 430 Cranial nerves, 52, 55-58, 73-75, 77, 79, 140,
197-202, 390-391, 403 Consciousness, 1, 3, 5, 18-19, 205, 214, 290, 327, 192-194, 408, 430
temporal, 174-175, 181, 391 Crime, 229, 455
Coding scheme, 197 407, 409-410, 415, 430 Crimes, 278
Cognition, 59, 201, 276, 290, 368, 401, 444, 468 biological rhythms, 205, 214 Critical period, 244, 253, 415
animal, 290 control of, 5, 327, 409 Cross-cultural studies, 268, 280, 284
Cognitive ability, 425 during sleep, 205 Crowding, 478
Cognitive deficits, 98, 440, 446, 486, 501 function of, 19 CT scan, 53, 116, 118, 407-408
Cognitive development, 295 sleep, 5, 205, 214, 409 CT scanners, 118
Cognitive neuroscientists, 15 Consensus, 231 Cues, 148, 158, 160, 178, 231, 247, 282, 288, 329,
Cohort, 471 Conservation, 8 358-361, 393, 458, 463, 467, 470
College, 121, 204-205, 246, 395, 494 Consolidation, 205, 214, 231, 233-234, 332, 353, auditory, 178
College students, 395, 494 binocular, 148
Color, 8-9, 11, 29, 95, 114-115, 126, 136, 138-139, 356-357, 362-363, 365, 370 reading, 393
141, 143-155, 160-161, 163-166, 181, 225, failure, 353 Cultural evolution, 373
228, 344, 362, 410, 439, 478 Consonance, 202 Culture, 26, 280, 299, 495
afterimage, 151 Consonants, 378, 395, 398 differences, 280
Color blindness, 8 Constancy, 153, 160-161, 166, 295 emotional expressions, 280
Color constancy, 153, 160-161, 166 perceptual, 160, 166 Curare, 48, 89, 93-94, 104, 486
Color mixing, 144 Constraint, 413-415, 435 Cutaneous receptors, 185, 190, 199
Construction, 10, 17, 57, 174, 260, 275, 376
Contact, 22, 27, 31, 38, 41, 83, 85, 114, 139, 185-186,

190, 243, 248, 274, 335, 344, 351, 363, 414,
439-440, 442, 452, 469, 485
Content words, 375, 377
Context, 6, 8-9, 38, 150, 161, 174, 265, 312, 341,
356-357, 364, 390, 502
thought and, 6
Control, 2, 4-6, 8, 25, 27, 35, 45-47, 59, 63, 65-69,
71-75, 86-88, 92-93, 95, 97-98, 102-103,

508


Cutaneous senses, 168, 184 retinal disparity, 148, 150, 161, 163 Dispersion, 27
Cyclic GMP, 103, 341, 367 Depth perception, 148 Display rules, 282
Cytoplasm, 25-26, 30, 40, 42, 44, 47, 112, 227, 296, Dermis, 185 Disposition, 501
Designer drugs, 450 Dissociation, 164, 290, 369, 401-402
419, 427 Desynchronization, 233 Dissonance, 180-181, 201-202
Deuteranopia, 145-146 Distress, 300, 442, 448, 493, 498
D Developed countries, 429, 456 Distribution, 82, 85, 99, 128, 149, 234, 248, 263, 326,
Developing countries, 314, 456
D2 dopamine receptors, 96 Development, 7, 10-12, 14, 18, 28, 48, 52, 59-61, 66, 328-329, 425, 435, 477
Darwin, Charles, 9, 279 disturbances of, 469
Data, 85, 113, 116, 118, 132, 145, 150, 207, 214-215, 71-72, 83, 98, 107, 116, 124, 129-131, 154, Diversity, 165, 262, 402, 434
164, 202, 212-213, 215, 228-229, 233,
217-218, 222, 232, 246, 248-249, 251, 258, 235-242, 244-245, 247, 249, 251-253, cultural, 402
273-274, 277, 280, 285, 299, 308, 315, 317, 260-264, 271, 273-274, 282, 295, 301, 314, Divorce, 26, 276
321-322, 345, 350, 357, 359-360, 383-384, 317, 319, 322, 324, 329, 337, 375, 383, DNA, 11-12, 25-26, 61, 112, 130-131, 193, 236-237,
400, 412-414, 418, 426, 439, 441, 446-449, 392-394, 397-398, 402, 406-407, 410,
453-455, 458-460, 463, 468, 478, 485, 491, 415-419, 425-426, 428-429, 432-433, 264, 342
493, 501 439-441, 443, 447-451, 461, 464-466, 468, Doctrine of specific nerve energies, 7, 9
Dating, 246 471, 473-474, 476-481, 484-485, 488, Dolphins, 233, 245
Daydreams, 484 493-494, 497-498, 500, 502 Dominance, 165, 279, 374, 401, 442
dB, 176, 178 adult, 11-12, 61, 71, 237-238, 242, 244-245, 249, Dominant trait, 418
Deafness, 175, 200-202, 281, 284, 372-373, 377-380, Dopamine, 83, 89, 92, 94-97, 103-105, 127-128, 271,
386-388, 398, 402 262-264, 392, 428, 500, 502
pure word, 281, 284, 372, 377-380, 386-388, 398, biological, 14, 129-131, 164, 212-213, 215, 327, 332, 349-351, 366, 368-369, 419-421,
428, 433, 443-444, 448, 451-452, 455-460,
402 228-229, 233, 236, 249, 252, 260, 262, 464, 466-471, 473, 475-476, 480-483, 485,
Death, 13, 28, 60, 100, 109, 112, 123, 213, 215, 274, 322, 394, 402, 440-441, 443, 448, 468, 487, 498-502, 504
471, 473, 485, 493, 497-498, 500, 502 cocaine and, 96, 455-456, 460, 464, 467, 480
276-278, 317, 333, 412-414, 416, 419, brain, 7, 10-12, 18, 28, 52, 59-61, 66, 71-72, 98, Dopamine agonists, 96, 455, 466, 470, 476, 480, 482,
422-423, 427-428, 430, 434-435, 448, 450, 107, 116, 124, 129, 154, 164, 202, 487, 498
456, 459, 462, 465, 470, 484, 487 212-213, 215, 228-229, 233, 237, 242, Dopamine (DA), 94, 104
understanding of, 333 244-245, 247, 249, 251-253, 260-264, Dopamine hypothesis, 473, 476, 480, 482, 487, 498,
violent, 277, 414, 450 271, 273-274, 282, 301, 314, 319, 324, 501
Deaths, 13, 413-414, 418, 450, 456, 458 375, 383, 392-394, 397-398, 402, Dorsal stream, 152, 155, 159-161, 163, 179, 344-345
leading causes of, 458 406-407, 410, 415-419, 425-426, 429, DOT, 149
Decay, 121-122, 176 432-433, 440-441, 443, 447-451, 461, Double-blind studies, 463, 497
Decision making, 119, 278 464, 466, 468, 471, 473-474, 477-481, Double-blind study, 248, 426, 497
complex, 119 485, 488, 493, 497-498, 500, 502 Down syndrome, 406, 417, 424-425, 433
Decisions, 241, 252, 275-279 fetal, 11-12, 237-238, 253, 415-417, 428, 450, 465, Dream, 204, 206-207, 210, 214, 222-223, 229, 231,
Declarative knowledge, 290 479-481, 485 233, 333
Declarative memories, 214, 229, 332, 355-357, 362, of brain, 11, 59-60, 66, 72, 107, 116, 154, 213, 251, Dreaming, 92, 97, 126, 206-207, 222, 229, 231-232,
364-365 263, 282, 397, 406-407, 418, 429, 432, 234
Declarative memory, 214, 355 448, 477-478, 480, 488 lucid, 207
explicit, 214, 355 psychosexual, 263 Dreams, 126, 204, 206-207, 209-211, 215, 222-223,
Defense, 10, 273, 449 Developmental dyslexias, 372, 389, 394 229, 233, 448, 457
Deficiency, 213, 316-317, 324, 430, 478, 482 Deviations, 87, 190 and narcolepsy, 222
production, 316, 324, 478 Diagnosis, 15, 28-29, 48, 124, 129, 232, 300, 414, interpretation of, 229
Delirium, 429 430, 440, 443, 484, 493, 495 nature of, 215
Delta activity, 205, 207 clinical, 124 REM and, 206-207
Delta sleep, 490 Diazepam (Valium), 100 REM sleep and, 206, 210, 215, 222
Delta waves, 205, 212 Dichromats, 145 Drive, 211, 214, 232, 241, 252, 309, 314, 348, 358,
Delusions, 96, 420, 446, 474-477, 482, 484 Diet, 95, 130, 192, 297, 305, 308-309, 316, 318-319, 407
Delusions of control, 475 321-322, 329, 416-417, 428, 488 sex, 241, 252
Dementia, 357-358, 369, 400-402, 406, 416, 419, balanced, 297 Drives, 250, 309
421-423, 425-426, 430, 432, 434-435 cortisol, 329 Drug abuse, 438, 451, 454, 460-461, 464, 466, 468
HIV-associated, 430 weight loss and, 321 Drug therapy, 431, 496, 503
vascular, 426 Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), 116-118 Drug treatment, 318, 326, 410, 485-486, 497, 503
Demerol, 83 Digestive system, 76-77, 83-84, 98, 296, 298, Drugs, 3, 14-15, 48, 82-106, 111, 119, 126, 169, 208,
Dendrite, 23-26, 40, 185, 192, 334, 339-341 302-303, 305-306, 308-309, 313, 318, 324 210, 213, 217-218, 232-233, 274-275, 278,
Dendrites, 23-25, 29-31, 40, 45-47, 49, 60, 62, 72, Direct dyslexia, 372, 389, 394, 396-397, 401 305, 312, 318-319, 323, 325-326, 328, 342,
103, 114-115, 120, 122, 140, 172, 184-185, Direct experience, 279 347, 351, 366, 410-412, 415-416, 421, 426,
190, 192, 196, 198, 339-340, 369, 424, 429 Disabilities, 162, 427, 443 429, 431-432, 438-439, 450-456, 458-462,
neurotransmitters and, 40, 103 Discipline, 209 464-466, 469-470, 473, 476-477, 480-483,
spines, 40, 339-340 Discrimination, 154, 165-166, 177, 199, 202, 214, 265, 485-492, 494, 496-500, 502
Dendritic spines, 26, 40, 339-344, 346-347, 366, 481 290, 354, 367 abuse of, 450, 458
Denmark, 501 of stimulus, 354 antagonist, 89-91, 93, 95, 97-100, 102, 104, 319,
Dentate gyrus, 97, 337-338, 341, 343, 356, 363-365, Discrimination learning, 367
418, 489-490, 503 Disease, 10, 14, 26, 29, 48, 66, 70, 80, 83, 95, 105, 426, 451, 455, 459-460, 464-466, 469,
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 26 112, 124, 128, 130, 171, 201-202, 208, 481-482, 488, 494, 497
Dependence, 329, 453, 460, 462, 464-465, 467-470 210-213, 215, 231, 263, 275, 290, 300, antidepressant, 210, 232, 465, 485-486, 488-492,
substance, 453, 460, 462, 464, 467-470 314-315, 320, 400, 406-407, 414-430, 500, 502
Depolarization, 33-34, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 92, 99, 123, 432-435, 445-446, 449-450, 456, 462, 466, antipsychotic, 323, 460, 476-477, 481-483, 502
338-340, 342-343 468, 470-471, 475-477, 480, 483, 486, antiretroviral, 431
Deprenyl, 96, 104-105, 420 496-497, 500-502, 504 barbiturates, 86-87, 100, 451, 454
Depression, 14, 62, 87, 97, 124, 211, 227, 254, cardiovascular, 208, 314, 434, 445, 466 classification of, 94
320-321, 323, 332, 337, 343-344, 351, Diseases, 12-13, 15, 116, 118, 130, 281, 352, dependence, 453, 460, 462, 464-465, 469-470
366-367, 421, 443, 446, 462-463, 471, 406-407, 418-419, 421, 428-435, 438, 446, designer, 450
473-474, 483, 485-494, 499-504 449-450, 456, 458, 477-478, 500 efficacy of, 500, 502
antidepressants, 485, 489, 492, 502-503 disgust, 180, 278-282, 284, 286, 494 over-the-counter, 98, 102
chronic, 124 Disorders, 5, 13-14, 18, 50, 83-84, 88, 97, 100, prevention and, 482
clinical, 124, 367, 462-463, 487, 500-504 102-103, 124, 129-130, 132, 203-204, 207, psychoactive, 106, 461
deep brain stimulation for, 500-502 209-211, 218, 228-234, 238, 242, 264-265, psychoactive drugs, 106, 461
double, 463, 487, 490, 500 272, 281, 283, 288, 290, 292, 295, 318, 320, tolerance, 87-88, 105, 453, 455, 465-466, 470, 494
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 485-486, 499 323, 325-329, 372-373, 384, 386-387, Dyslexia, 372, 389-392, 394-398, 400-402
environment and, 321, 344 394-395, 397-398, 401-402, 405-435,
in children and adolescents, 502 437-464, 466-471, 473-504 E
rate of, 483, 486, 490, 493 diagnosis of, 124, 129, 440, 443, 484, 493
Depression (Continued), 343 genetics and, 501 Ear canal, 170, 177, 181
Deprivation, 203, 208, 212-213, 215-216, 231-233, mood disorders, 318, 483, 492, 501, 503 Eardrum, 170, 173, 177-178, 199
311, 314, 322-323, 328, 473, 485, 490-492, psychological, 83, 290, 327, 448, 467-469, 474, Early adulthood, 480
499, 501-504 480, 493, 495, 502, 504 Early childhood, 324, 441
human, 212, 231-233, 490, 501-503 universal, 290, 451, 474 Early development, 60
Depth, 106, 110-111, 141, 148, 150, 159-161, 163, Eating, 13, 22, 53, 97, 128, 191, 194, 209, 211, 219,
165, 291, 455
232-233, 277, 294-296, 300-301, 303-314,
318-329, 457-458, 479, 488, 497

509


obesity, 97, 294, 305, 309-312, 314, 318-319, EPSP, 43, 92, 334, 338, 340 optic nerve, 139-140, 142, 152
325-329 Erectile dysfunction, 103 photoreceptors, 136, 139-141, 143-145
Error, 379, 416, 474 retina, 8, 61, 67, 73, 136, 139-143, 145, 148, 152,
overeating and, 305-306, 324, 458 Errors, 164, 359, 381, 383, 389, 394, 400, 416-417
regulation of, 97, 232-233, 295, 304, 308, 328, 488 Estrogen, 239-240, 252, 255, 257, 260, 264 162-165
Eating disorders, 232-233, 295, 320, 323, 325-329 Estrous cycle, 242, 252 rods, 139-141, 143, 145, 162
anorexia nervosa, 320, 323, 325-329 Ethical issues, 1, 12, 15, 18 shape of, 143, 159, 163
bulimia, 320, 323, 325 Etiology, 29 structure and functions of, 42
dieting and, 320 Europe, 463 vitreous humor, 139
Echo, 440 Eustachian tube, 171 Eyeblink reflex, 346
Ecology, 265 Evaluation, 13, 208, 233, 265, 285, 288, 401, 483
Ectoderm, 59 F
Education, 1, 13, 15, 21, 51, 81, 107, 135, 167, 203, of self, 208
Evidence, 5, 8, 27, 61, 88, 102, 127, 129, 131, 155, Face perception, 164
235, 267, 293, 331, 371, 405, 425, 433, 437, Face recognition, 161, 385
443, 473, 496 164-166, 175-176, 180, 197, 199, 203, 208, Faces, 40-41, 54, 136-137, 152, 154-160, 163, 165,
exercise, 13, 203, 433 212, 214-216, 221, 223, 225-227, 232, 234,
health, 425, 433 237, 242, 245-252, 254-255, 258-259, 244, 256, 259, 280-284, 287, 291, 316, 333,
Elderly, 93, 447, 469 262-265, 272-274, 276, 278-279, 282, 345, 354-355, 367, 385, 391-394, 415,
frail, 93 284-285, 289, 291-292, 306, 308, 310-312, 442-443, 449, 470, 494, 502-503
Elderly people, 93, 447 320, 322-323, 326, 328, 338, 341, 345, Facial expressions, 244, 271, 279-284, 286, 288-292,
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 485-486, 499 347-348, 353, 357, 362-364, 366-367, 369, 384, 442, 476-477
Electroencephalogram (EEG), 120, 205 375, 381-382, 385-386, 389-394, 396, 398, imitation of, 290, 292
Electromagnetic radiation, 138, 143, 162 400-402, 408, 410, 412, 419, 421, 426-428, Facial hair, 240
range of, 138 430, 434, 440-441, 444, 446, 448-449, 454, Failure, 154-155, 160, 180, 207, 235, 239, 250, 297,
Electromagnetic spectrum, 138 456, 460-461, 464, 466, 469-471, 473-477, 329, 353, 378, 427, 439, 498
Electromyogram (EMG), 204-205 479-480, 482-486, 489-492, 494-496, 499, Fallopian tube, 238, 242
Electron microscope, 41, 112-113, 118, 172 501-504 Fallopian tubes, 237, 240, 242, 250
Electro-oculogram (EOG), 204-205 anecdotal evidence, 285 False memories, 368
Embryonic stem cells, 433 Evolution, 1, 3, 9-12, 18, 30, 39, 61, 66, 80, 116, 146, Families, 101, 129-130, 187-188, 319, 394, 425, 428,
Emotion, 6, 66, 72, 80, 170, 180-181, 201, 206, 165, 193-194, 215, 228, 248, 262-263, 269, 439-440, 458, 476, 492, 497, 501
267-292, 374, 378, 384-385, 398, 442, 468, 279, 304, 373, 391, 393, 402, 449 Family, 13, 94, 101, 108, 116, 130-131, 187, 190-191,
493, 503 cultural evolution, 373 193, 196, 198-201, 211, 233, 251, 260, 274,
and the brain, 468, 503 human evolution, 11-12 276, 300, 329, 333, 375, 418, 420, 444, 446,
basic, 201, 271, 292 natural selection, 1, 9-10, 12, 18, 304 474, 488, 493, 495, 497, 500
elements of, 287, 374, 384-385 natural selection in, 1 friends and, 13
face of, 280, 282, 290-291 Exceptions, 23, 74 resemblance, 196
fear as, 270 Excitatory effect, 95, 98, 218, 313, 422 same-sex, 274
James-Lange theory, 268, 284-285, 287, 289 Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), 43, 334 systems, 94, 101, 116, 191, 200, 300, 333
James-Lange theory of, 268, 285 Excitatory synapses, 31, 43, 45-46, 99, 431, 452 Farming, 316, 319
language of, 384 Excitotoxic injury, 412, 435 Fat, 84, 185, 191-192, 194, 240-241, 260, 302-303,
limbic system and, 291 Exercise, 13, 22, 140, 203, 212-213, 215, 315, 305, 308-309, 313-320, 322, 327, 411, 478
perceiving, 72 317-318, 320, 412-413, 429, 433, 445, 490, body, 84, 185, 191-192, 194, 240-241, 302-303,
sources of, 6, 181 492-493, 500, 503
Emotional memories, 66 aerobic, 318, 490 305, 308-309, 313-318, 320, 322, 327
Emotional state, 279-281, 285, 333, 384-385, 398, 483 and obesity, 315, 317, 429 Father, 6, 236-237, 251, 259-260, 417
Emotions, 6, 66, 189, 209, 254, 259, 268-270, 272, Expectations, 200, 443 Fathers, 25, 249, 256-257, 259, 263
278-290, 292, 385, 445, 483, 487 Experience, 2, 11-12, 14-15, 19, 65, 78-79, 88, 169, Fats, 192, 257, 301-303, 305, 307, 318, 324, 413, 445
as response patterns, 268-269, 278, 288 177, 189-191, 200, 204, 207, 211, 214, 248, Fatty acids, 192, 194, 200, 302-307, 312-313, 329
biological basis for, 279 252, 262, 269, 273, 279, 285-286, 288-289, Fear, 5, 180, 254, 260, 268-273, 278-282, 284-286,
conditioned emotional responses, 272, 278-279, 317, 333-334, 344, 347, 349, 365, 369, 392,
407, 439, 449, 453, 457, 462, 475, 484, 490, 288-292, 320, 347, 363, 369, 409, 446, 448,
288 497, 504 459, 468, 471, 489, 492-495
expression and recognition of, 289, 385 Experiment, 3, 7, 10, 29, 38, 78, 108, 113, 123, 127, conditioned fear response, 272-273, 446, 494
facial expressions of, 279-284, 288-290 169, 217, 321, 349, 354, 363, 376, 392, 426, Fear conditioning, 290-291, 347, 369
in facial expressions, 289 450-451, 474 amygdala in, 290-291
James-Lange theory of emotion, 285 control, 108, 113, 349, 450 Feedback, 184, 186, 190, 226-229, 242, 268, 282,
physiology and, 270, 290 designing, 108 284-287, 289, 296, 309, 335, 343, 378,
Empathy, 189, 202, 286, 290 Experimental ablation, 8-9, 107, 109, 118, 132 386-387, 391
Employees, 358 Experimental analysis of behavior, 467 Feedback loop, 343
training, 358 Experimental methods, 5 Feelings, 3, 66, 78, 183-184, 189, 249, 256, 259,
Employment, 496 Experimental psychology, 9, 292, 368 268-269, 281, 284-289, 291, 320, 409-410,
Encoding, 263, 290 Experimental research, 468-469 448, 451, 453, 462, 464-465, 474, 483, 487,
long-term, 263 experimentation, 7 493
Endocannabinoids, 101-102, 312, 314, 318, 469 Experiments, 5-6, 8-9, 14, 16, 18, 36-37, 109, 113, Female sex organs, 237, 239, 252
Endocrine glands, 47, 68, 101, 272 120, 127-128, 212, 214, 219, 242, 285, 338, Females, 113, 122, 127, 145, 198, 207, 235-237,
major, 68 341, 447, 465, 486 239-246, 249-250, 252-253, 255-260, 264,
Endocrine system, 14, 67-68, 72, 213, 215, 285, 314 Expert, 160, 165, 236 439, 442, 456, 480, 493, 495, 497
Endogenous cannabinoids, 457, 459, 463-464 Expertise, 156, 180, 391, 442 Fenestration, 171
Enkephalin, 101, 468 Explicit memory, 214, 356, 364, 369 Fenfluramine, 97, 104, 318-319
Enkephalins, 101 Exposure, 44, 61-62, 227, 237, 247, 249-250, 252, Fertilization, 235-236, 417
Entrainment, 232 258-260, 442, 446, 448-450, 458, 470, 479, Fetal alcohol syndrome, 415-417, 450, 458, 479
Enuresis, 210-211 482, 492, 503 Fetal testosterone, 442, 467
Environment, 7, 10-11, 18, 22, 24, 63-64, 97, 129-131, External ear, 170, 177, 181 Fetal tissue, 421
Extinction, 272-273, 275, 278, 289, 291-292, 453, 470, Fetus, 12, 237-238, 249, 415-417, 479
137, 139, 143-144, 148, 153, 157, 162, 494, 503-504 FFI, 234
179-180, 184-185, 190-192, 196, 205, 214, of fear, 272-273, 289, 292, 494 Fiber, 38, 61, 66-67, 112-113, 116, 174, 187, 300, 337,
217, 219, 224, 227, 273-275, 279, 285, Extrastriate cortex, 150-153, 157, 160, 163-164, 349, 391, 496-497
294-296, 304, 315-316, 321, 323, 327, 333, 344-345, 441 Field, Tiffany, 287
335-336, 344, 348, 355, 357-358, 360-362, Extreme stress, 450 Fight-or-flight response, 445, 450
365, 373, 420, 428, 447, 452, 465, 479-480 Exuberance, 484 Fish, 4, 42, 146, 212, 228, 310, 418
perceptual learning and, 336 Eye, 8, 42, 48, 61, 67, 69, 73, 75, 96, 108-109, 136, Fissure, 62-63, 141, 143, 174, 379, 387
shared, 274 139-145, 148-150, 152, 157-165, 182-184, Fissures, 62, 151, 416
weight gain and, 304 199, 204-208, 212, 221, 223, 229, 234, 236, Fitness, 248, 257, 321, 328, 413
Environmental factors, 129-130, 209, 252, 324, 448, 334, 354-355, 427, 440, 442, 477, 490, 498, Fixation, 112, 132, 143, 199, 388
460, 464, 477, 479, 483 500-501, 503 Flavor of food, 191
Environmental stressors, 461 ciliary muscles, 139, 142-143 Fluency, 376, 384, 386, 401-402
Epidemiologists, 105 cones, 139-141, 143-145, 149-150, 152, 162-163 Fluid, 7, 26-27, 29-31, 34-35, 38-40, 46-47, 52, 56-58,
Epidermis, 185-186 cornea, 139, 163, 206 71, 79, 85, 101, 127-128, 170-172, 181-184,
Epinephrine, 74, 76, 94, 97, 270-271, 445, 449-450 fovea, 139-140, 143 225, 245, 274, 294-299, 301, 324, 327, 338,
Epinephrine (adrenalin), 97 movements of, 148, 157-160, 182, 184 348-349, 407, 412, 414, 417, 430, 442, 448
Episodic memories, 348, 357, 364 Fluoxetine (Prozac), 97, 275, 485
Episodic memory, 354, 357-358 Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 240-241
Forgetting, 272

510


Form perception, 136, 144, 154, 160 Gestural language, 387 Hearing loss, 171
Fovea, 139-140, 143, 146-147 Girls, 236, 239, 250, 252, 260, 264, 322, 326, 440, Heart, 6, 8, 28, 73-74, 77, 86, 108, 132, 205, 213, 269,
Fractures, 188, 320, 414
Fraternal twins, 129, 251 443, 467 271-272, 284, 286, 297, 306, 318, 324, 411,
Free nerve endings, 185, 187, 190, 195 puberty in, 252 413, 415, 430-431, 445-446, 450, 457, 484,
Frequency, 3, 108-109, 116, 118, 136, 138, 143, Glands, 47, 67-68, 71, 73-75, 97, 101, 237-242, 249, 493
disease, 213, 415, 430, 445-446, 450
147-151, 153, 161, 163-164, 170-171, 257, 271-272, 300, 429, 445-447 Heart attacks, 318, 413, 446
173-178, 181-182, 205, 213, 250, 253, 264, Glaucoma, 102 Heart disease, 450
337, 343, 346, 348, 362, 368, 410, 427, 439, Glia, 26, 36, 49-50, 56, 59-60, 62, 113, 302 Hebb, Donald, 334
449, 452, 467, 470, 477, 502 Glial cell, 26-27, 61 Hemispheres, 3-4, 7, 19, 59, 62, 64-65, 67, 70, 212,
place coding of, 173, 175 Glucagon, 301-304, 324, 328 216, 250, 275, 288, 310, 374, 398, 408, 413,
Freud, Sigmund, 229 Glucocorticoids, 445-447, 449-450, 466 416
Friends, 13, 108, 137, 158, 194, 260, 274, 276, 279, Glycogen, 27, 50, 216, 223, 232, 301-304, 324 Heredity, 129, 131, 211, 251-252, 274, 315, 319, 322,
345, 392, 407, 439, 483 Goals, 1, 5, 87, 198, 351 418, 438, 460, 464, 466, 480, 498, 503
Fritsch, Gustav, 8 Gonadotropins, 240-242 physical traits, 131
Frontal association areas, 501 Goose bumps, 74 Heritability, 129, 131, 315, 441, 444, 460, 473, 475,
Frontal lobe, 62-65, 72, 159, 282-283, 290, 347, 366, Grammar, 376, 384, 401 477, 484, 492
374-375, 381-383, 386, 388, 398, 414, 496, Graphs, 33, 178, 217, 384, 444 adoption studies, 129, 131, 475
500, 502, 504 Grasping, 159-161, 163-165, 287, 378, 383-384 and twin studies, 444, 475
mirror neurons, 282, 383, 386 Greeks, Ancient, 6 of autism, 441
Frontal lobes, 64, 198, 272, 275, 348, 366, 374, 383, Grey matter, 502 of obesity, 129, 315
407, 417, 421, 474-475, 480-481, 496, 498 Group, 28, 53, 66-67, 86, 97, 99, 110, 113, 125, 132, Heroin, 83, 85, 87, 101, 103-104, 128, 169, 199, 329,
damage to, 64, 275, 366, 374, 383, 407, 421, 496 439, 451-456, 459-462, 464-465, 467,
motor cortex, 64, 348, 383, 421 141, 174, 181, 187, 195, 217, 219, 226, 470-471
Frowning, 286 245-246, 248-249, 253, 265, 273-274, 277, withdrawal from, 87, 439, 464
FSH, 240-242, 252 304, 344, 349, 361, 393, 413, 423, 433, 435, Herpes simplex, 429, 431
Function words, 375-377, 385 441-442, 445, 449, 463, 491, 496 Hertz, 170
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan, experimental, 97, 113, 132, 349, 423, 433, 435 Heterosexual couples, 248, 256
125 Group therapy, 449 Hierarchy, 151, 160, 447
Functional MRI (fMRI), 122 Groups, 61, 66, 71, 74, 88, 113, 120, 124, 162, 181, High school, 322
Functionalism, 1, 9 192, 217, 245, 264-265, 270, 277, 279-280, Hindbrain, 52, 59-60, 69-70, 72-73, 79, 310, 328
Functionality, 393 315, 328, 389, 395, 413, 460, 477 medulla, 60, 69-70, 73, 79, 310
Fundamental frequency, 170, 176-177 joining, 74 reticular formation, 69-70, 73
Fusiform face area (FFA), 155-156, 160, 442 performance of, 120 Hippocampal region, 361, 365
future, 10, 12-13, 48, 53, 162, 189, 229, 249, 264, Growth, 11-12, 59, 62, 68, 71, 238, 240-242, 248, 262, Hippocampus, 53, 61-62, 66-67, 72, 92, 95, 101-102,
319, 395, 444, 448, 470, 482, 504 305, 327, 329, 341, 344, 367, 407, 414, 433, 110, 156, 196, 198, 214-215, 217, 233, 246,
441, 443, 446, 450, 487 270, 290, 332, 336-337, 341, 349, 351-353,
G brain development, 12, 59, 450 356-370, 383, 410, 424, 429-431, 435, 447,
Guilt, 229, 320, 440, 483 450, 456, 460, 464, 489-490
Galantamine, 426 Gustatory cortex, 193-194, 346 amnesia and, 332, 352
Galen, 6, 19 Gustatory system, 193, 200 and neurogenesis, 490
Gallbladder, 74, 307, 317 in memory, 214, 353, 362, 365, 460
Gamma-aminobutyric acid, 98-99 H long-term potentiation and, 332, 337, 351
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 98 neurogenesis in, 61-62, 363-364, 368, 490
Gastric bypass surgery, 305, 326, 329 habit formation, 368 History, 5-6, 9, 13, 19, 53, 89, 198, 291-292, 299, 328,
Gender, 164, 236-237, 239, 241, 249, 260-261, Habitats, 11 352, 383, 393, 395, 400, 418, 420, 454, 485,
Hair, 74, 155, 168, 171-173, 175-176, 181-185, 488, 490, 493, 499
264-265, 290, 385, 468 of psychology, 5, 9, 291
aggression, 265 199-202, 240-241, 321, 497-498 Hitzig, Eduard, 8
development and, 236, 264 types of, 172, 181, 184-185, 240 HIV-associated dementia, 430
differences, 237, 249, 261, 385, 468 Hair follicles, 74 Homeostatic mechanisms, 453
sexuality, 236, 265 Hallucinations, 96, 126, 208-212, 215, 229, 410, 420, Homosexuality, 249-252, 262, 264-265
Gender differences, 261, 468 Homosexuals, 249, 251-252
in brain, 261 446, 474-475, 477 Honeybees, 138
Gender differences in, 261, 468 Hallucinogenic drugs, 98, 455, 460 Horizontal cells, 140, 143, 146
Gene therapy, 145-146, 165, 422-423, 428, 434-435 Hallucinogens, 454, 460, 469 Hormones, 12-14, 21, 25, 47, 49, 68-69, 85, 88, 97,
General anesthetics, 84 100-101, 113, 115, 122-123, 127, 137, 228,
Generalization, 5-6, 8, 18 LSD, 454 235-237, 239-242, 244-245, 247-249, 252,
Generalizations, 6, 8, 162 Happiness, 180, 279-282, 284, 286, 288 255-259, 261-265, 270-272, 300-301, 311,
Generative, 434 322, 324, 329, 346, 445, 450
Genes, 10-12, 26, 43, 60, 121, 124-125, 129-131, 133, children and, 279 adrenal, 97, 240-241, 249, 264, 270-271, 300-301,
flow, 281
145, 192-193, 196, 198, 225-226, 228, 236, physiological changes, 288 346, 445, 450
245, 248, 251-252, 257, 273, 292, 315-316, Harmonics, 176 and body weight, 329
319, 329, 394, 410, 417, 423, 425, 429, 443, Head trauma, 128, 496 and sexual orientation, 236, 249, 252, 265
448, 468, 475-476, 484, 500, 504 Headphones, 386 stress, 88, 271-272, 346, 445, 450
candidate, 329, 476 Health, 12, 14, 22, 30, 50, 101, 105, 112, 130, 202, Hospitalization, 454
disorders of, 417 chronic, 454
dominant, 11, 423, 475 208, 233, 289, 314, 316-317, 319, 414-415, Hospitals, 413
Genetic disorders, 228, 238 418, 420, 425, 433, 438, 440, 444-446, Hostility, 498
Genetic engineering, 131, 417 448-450, 455-457, 459, 462, 465-466, 468, Howard, J., 197, 201
Genetic factors, 107, 129-131, 216, 251, 322, 385, 471, 504 HPA axis, 289, 466
410, 417, 441, 448, 477, 492, 499, 502 and weight, 316 Hubel, David, 147
developmental, 385, 410, 417, 499 mental, 14, 101, 130, 289, 415, 440, 448, 459, 468, Hue, 138, 140-141, 143-144, 162, 166, 170
homosexuality and, 251 Hues, 138, 145, 153
molecular, 130, 502 471, 504 Human anterograde amnesia, 332, 352
Genetic predisposition, 322, 448 Health care, 415 Human development, 402
Genetics, 10, 14, 131, 166, 196, 201, 231-232, 264, Hearing, 75, 162, 171, 173, 175, 178, 180-181, Human evolution, 11-12
315, 328-329, 401, 434, 460, 468, 470-471, Human immunodeficiency virus, 430, 433
500-501, 503-504 201-202, 209, 211, 281, 373-374, 378, 380, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 430
abnormalities, 471 382-384, 386, 391, 407 Human nervous system, 2, 5, 23, 55, 59, 262
genes, 10, 131, 196, 315, 329, 468, 500, 504 aid, 178 peripheral nervous system (PNS), 23, 55
impulsivity and, 468 audition, 171, 173, 175, 178, 180-181, 201-202, Human sexual behavior, 235, 247, 262
mechanisms of, 232, 328, 401 Human sexuality, 236
of alcoholism, 470 281 Humor, 28, 139, 222, 400
of depression, 500-501, 503-504 auditory nerve, 171, 173, 175 Hunger, 219-222, 294, 296, 301, 304-314, 316-321,
of natural selection, 10 auditory system, 178, 180-181, 201
genocide, 448 basilar membrane, 171, 173, 175, 181 323-325
Genomes, 130 cochlea, 171, 173, 175, 181 Hyperactivity, 325, 438-439, 443-444, 466-467, 471,
Genomics, 401, 501 ear, 171, 175, 178, 181, 201
Genotypes, 129 eardrum, 173, 178 480, 482, 488
Germany, 291 impaired, 162 Hypercomplex cells, 147
impairment of, 180
inner ear, 171, 175, 181
loss, 162, 171, 180, 386
middle ear, 171
organ of Corti, 171, 173, 181
sound localization, 175, 178
sound waves, 171, 173, 175
timbre, 178, 181

511


Hyperpolarization, 33-34, 41, 43, 92, 123 Inhibitory neurotransmitters, 43, 103 Language areas, 378, 400
Hypertension, 317-318, 425, 468 Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP), 43 Language development, 440
Hypnagogic hallucinations, 208-211, 229 Inhibitory synapses, 30-31, 45-47, 99, 410 Language learning, 394
Hypnosis, 189, 288, 290-291 Injuries, 188, 191, 289, 408, 410, 414-415, 425, 458, Language production, 402
Latent content, 229
induction, 290 486, 497 Lateral fissure, 62-63, 174, 379, 387
Hypnotics, 232 Inner ear, 67, 77, 170-171, 175, 181-182 Lateral geniculate nucleus, 67, 141-142, 152, 162,
Hypocretin, 209, 211, 218, 232-233, 310, 326, 328, Innervation, 234, 502
Insight, 18, 189 344, 389
469 Instrumental (operant) conditioning, 347 Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), 141-142
Hypofrontality, 454, 480-481, 483 Insular cortex, 63, 186, 189-191, 193, 199, 201, 468, Lateral hypothalamus, 193, 209, 218, 220-221, 223,
Hypoglycemia, 305
Hypothalamus, 60, 66-69, 72, 79, 85, 98, 102, 113, 494 225, 230, 234, 271, 275, 278, 310-314, 319,
Insurance, 474 324, 326
115, 121, 127, 142-143, 193-196, 198, 209, Integration, 21, 45-47, 67, 113, 270, 291, 363 Lateralization, 19, 372, 374, 399
217-223, 225, 228, 230, 232, 234, 239-242, Intellectual abilities, 11, 228, 423 Law, 8, 21, 38, 292
251, 253, 255-256, 261-262, 264-265, Intellectual ability, 333, 498 Learning, 1, 3, 5, 14-16, 21, 23, 61, 63, 66, 72, 92, 94,
270-273, 275, 278, 288, 292, 294, 298-299, Intelligence, 205, 231, 269, 385, 439 99, 103, 130, 149, 154, 199, 203, 212,
308, 310-314, 319, 324-327, 346, 429, 445, 214-215, 229, 233-234, 270-272, 278, 280,
447, 462, 471, 492 genetics, 231 282, 286, 291, 331-370, 376, 381, 383, 389,
fight-or-flight response, 445 music, 385 392-394, 402, 407, 431, 433, 438, 443,
in sexual orientation, 251 musical, 385 446-447, 449, 452, 475, 503
leptin and, 319 native, 269 active, 16, 103, 212, 229, 270, 272, 282, 334,
pituitary gland and, 242, 256 tests, 205
suprachiasmatic nucleus of, 492 verbal, 269 339-340, 342-343, 345, 349, 358, 360,
ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), 127 Interneuron, 22, 31-32 383, 402, 431, 433
Hypotheses, 162, 249, 482, 500-501 Interpretations, 292 associative, 338-340, 343, 351, 366-367, 369-370
Hypothesis, 61, 123, 127, 203, 215, 251, 262, 279, Interventions, 453, 469 by observing, 278, 291
282, 284, 309, 326, 334, 346, 353, 377, 401, selective, 469 classical conditioning and, 334
442-444, 449, 468, 473, 476, 478-480, 482, Interviews, 260 hippocampus in, 332, 361, 367-368, 370
487-488, 491-492, 498-501, 504 Intestines, 30, 47, 75, 84, 103, 303, 306-309, 317, 324 impairment of, 392
forming, 479 Intonation, 202, 281, 378, 384, 387 latent, 229
Intoxication, 101, 453, 455, 459, 464 neural basis of, 280, 282, 286, 347, 402, 452
I Ion, 21, 34-37, 39, 41-43, 46-47, 49, 87, 89-91, 93, 99, nonassociative, 338
prepared, 280
Identical twins, 129, 251, 326, 392 123, 172, 175, 185, 190, 193, 312, 338-340, rote, 15
Identification, 4, 154, 164, 188, 262, 264, 280, 327, 410, 482, 503 Learning disabilities, 443
Ion channels, 21, 36-37, 39, 41-43, 46-47, 49, 87, Left visual field, 77, 389
329, 402 89-91, 93, 123, 175, 185, 190, 339, 410 Leptin, 309, 312-316, 318-320, 324-325, 327, 329
Identity, 130, 160, 178-179, 185, 236, 260, 264, 385, Ion transporters, 123 Lesion method, 118
Ions, 34-39, 41-43, 49, 89-90, 99, 123, 185, 190, 192, Leucotome, 498
401 194, 338-340, 342-344, 424 Level of activation, 345, 463
diffusion, 401 Iproniazid, 485, 500 Lewis, M., 291
Illness, 14, 29, 89, 211, 213, 328, 449, 468, 478, 486, Ipsilateral hemisphere, 54 LH, 221-222, 226, 240-242, 252, 445
IPSP, 43, 92 Life span, 192
496, 500-502, 504 IQ, 416, 496 Life stress, 467
Illusion, 16, 78 Isolates, 39, 379 Lifestyle, 269, 314, 316, 328, 412, 425
Imagery, 78 Isolation, 23, 201, 234, 265, 279, 401 Lifestyles, 249
Images, 7, 108, 122, 139, 143, 148, 151, 155-156, Lifetime prevalence, 493, 503
J Light, 7-8, 22, 28, 32-33, 38, 112-115, 118, 121,
158, 184, 193, 227, 229, 257, 283, 305, 320, 123-128, 133, 136, 138-141, 143-148,
341, 345-346, 368, 417, 457, 481 Japan, 395 151-153, 158, 162, 165, 170, 188, 191,
Imagination, 288, 329 Japanese, 191, 390-391, 395, 397, 401 224-225, 227-228, 230-231, 273, 279, 345,
Imitation, 280-281, 286-288, 290, 292, 401 Jet lag, 203, 227-228, 231 407, 410, 478, 485, 492, 499, 503-504
learning by, 280 Job, 5, 15, 22, 170, 204, 260, 276, 439 eye and, 136, 140-141, 143
Immediate memory, 333, 353, 369 Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 292 visible, 114, 138, 151
Immune system, 28-30, 48, 93, 98, 102, 114, 210, Judgment, 275-277, 290-291, 423, 464, 466 wavelengths of, 123, 138-139, 144
251-252, 426-430, 438, 446, 449-450, 466, Judgments, 54, 179, 269, 275-278, 284, 288, 291 Limbic cortex, 64-67, 72, 156, 196, 337, 349, 351,
478 356-357, 366, 454, 496
brain and, 28-30, 114, 426-427, 429 visual, 179, 284 Linkage analysis, 501
Immunizations, 443 Links, 129, 172-173, 384
Implicit memories, 355 K Lipids, 82, 85, 92, 101, 103, 105, 305
Implicit memory, 214, 355 Listening, 2, 180, 281, 285, 378, 385, 387, 400
Impulsivity, 443-444, 468 K complexes, 205, 207, 213 Lithium, 485, 487, 489, 492, 499, 501-503
Incidence, 129, 209, 211, 249, 251, 263, 314-315, Kelly, J., 327 for bipolar disorder, 487
318-320, 322-323, 410-411, 427, 439, Kindling, 431, 435 Little brain, 70
442-443, 446, 461, 475-479, 485, 493, 495 Kinesthesia, 184, 188 Lobotomies, 498
India, 96, 100 Kisspeptin, 240-241, 264 Location of sounds, 179
Individual differences, 162, 425 Knockout mice, 231, 469 Locomotion, 217, 223
Industrialized countries, 105 Knowledge, 6-7, 11, 14-16, 18, 64, 154, 290, 292, 368, Locus, 97, 217-221, 223, 230-231, 271, 311, 319, 424,
Infancy, 131, 165, 440 434, 445, 469, 500, 503
perception in, 165 370, 373, 389, 395, 397, 475, 504 of gene, 434
Infants, 93, 180, 202, 213, 241, 245, 258-259, 280, aspects of, 14, 395 Logic, 276
286-287, 291, 385, 439-440, 478 declarative, 290 Logical thought, 96
nervous system, 93, 213, 286-287, 291 Krank, 470 Longitudinal study, 469
perception, 180, 202, 291, 385 Long-term care, 446
inferences, 116, 118, 124, 162, 275 L Long-term memory, 214, 353, 357, 365, 367, 369, 444
making, 162 explicit memory, 214, 369
Inferior colliculus, 70, 174 Labeling, 114-116 semantic memory, 357, 369
Infertility, 446, 450 Labia majora, 239 Long-term memory storage, 357
Information, 2, 4-5, 7, 10-11, 15-17, 22-25, 30-31, 33, Labia minora, 239 Long-term potentiation, 332, 337-343, 347, 349, 351,
38-39, 55, 62-65, 67, 69, 71-74, 77-78, 80, Laborit, Henri, 476 363, 366-370, 493
87, 92, 108, 113, 115-118, 120-122, 128, Lange, Carl, 284 Long-term potentiation (LTP), 337
130, 132, 136-143, 146-153, 157-164, 166, Language, 5-6, 12, 18, 170, 180, 232, 250, 269, 280, Loss, 8, 101, 105, 122, 148, 153, 157, 160, 162, 171,
168, 170, 172-177, 181-194, 196-200, 205, 176, 179-180, 186, 188, 206, 208, 213, 215,
214-215, 219, 225, 228, 236-237, 242, 245, 290-291, 315, 372-375, 378-381, 383-384, 222, 231-233, 242, 265, 284, 296-301, 308,
253, 255-256, 261, 270-271, 274-275, 281, 386-387, 391-403, 407, 411, 440, 468 314, 316-318, 320-321, 324-328, 358, 369,
284, 306, 309-310, 313, 319, 333, 344-348, and evolution, 12, 18 386, 388, 397, 409, 411-412, 415, 420,
351-353, 355-358, 360-366, 370, 374, figurative, 380, 384, 386-387 423-424, 428, 430, 446, 448-450, 454, 469,
376-377, 379, 381-385, 387-391, 394-395, grammar, 384, 401 477, 480, 483, 486-487
397-398, 417, 444, 478 nonhuman, 380, 394, 397 Loudness, 170, 176
processing, 23, 80, 92, 146, 152, 161, 163-164, phonology, 395, 401 Love, 209, 254, 262, 274, 384, 439
phonology of, 395
166, 205, 397 processes and, 379
sources of, 120, 162, 181, 242, 346 scientific, 5, 12, 18
Information processing, 80 semantics, 391, 401-402
Inheritance, 1, 9, 417, 501 sign language, 170, 383-384, 387, 401-402
Inhibitory inputs, 219 Language acquisition, 401

512


LTP, 337, 339-344, 347, 351, 364, 368 recall, 333, 352, 354, 359, 365 Moral dilemma, 276-277, 279
Lucid dream, 207 recognition and, 411 Moral dilemmas, 276-278
Luteinizing hormone (LH), 240-241, 445 rehearsal, 333, 353, 382 Morality, 504
retrieval of, 345-346, 352, 357, 369, 377 Morris water maze, 359-360, 362-363, 365, 447
M short-term, 102, 353, 356, 364, 382, 444, 446, 450 Mothers, 25, 249, 251, 258-259, 442, 478, 490
storage of, 348, 367
Macroelectrodes, 120, 124-125, 132 structural, 99, 231, 337, 344, 353, 359, 366, 368, age of, 251
Macromolecule, 26 Motion, 6, 19, 34, 157-158, 160-161, 164-166, 170,
Mad cow disease, 213, 418, 428 504
Magnetoencephalography, 120, 124-125 Memory capacity, 12, 179 181, 183-184, 345, 368
Magnetoencephalography (MEG), 120, 125 Memory consolidation, 214, 231, 233-234, 362, 365 visual perception of, 165
Magnification, 113, 118 Memory loss, 423, 446, 486 Motion sickness, 183-184
Major depression, 485, 490-491, 499, 502 men, 57, 94, 103, 235, 237, 241-242, 244, 246-252, Motivation, 66, 72, 156, 160, 220, 265, 304, 309, 311,
Major depressive disorder, 476, 483-485, 490-492,
254-257, 260-263, 265, 314, 316, 318, 314, 328, 369, 373, 444, 468, 471, 475, 501
501 320-322, 326-327, 349, 354, 375, 385, 408, controlled, 328, 475
Major depressive disorder (MDD), 483 423, 427, 430, 448, 483, 493 Motives, 19
Maladaptive behaviors, 210 attraction in, 247 Motor area, 79, 348, 422-423
Male sex organs, 237, 239 sexual maturation, 235, 261 Motor association cortex, 64-65, 347, 356, 383, 395,
Males, 113, 121-122, 144-145, 198, 206-207, 235-241, Menstrual cycle, 242, 244, 246-248, 252, 262,
264-265 434
243-246, 248, 250-260, 262, 274, 439, Menstrual synchrony, 264 Motor cortex, 8, 63-65, 67, 69, 80, 210, 222, 282-283,
442-443, 456, 480, 493, 495 Menstruation, 242, 252
Mammary glands, 257 Mental disorders, 5, 14, 18, 97, 124, 129-130, 292, 348, 375, 379, 383, 386-387, 395, 402,
Management, 234, 385, 413 434, 467, 474, 476, 482, 495, 498, 500-501 408-410, 413, 415, 421-422, 429
MAO-B, 96, 104, 420 anxiety disorders, 14, 97, 476, 482, 495, 498, Motor development, 295
Mapping, 174, 234, 265, 289, 385, 400-403, 435, 468 Motor neuron, 22, 31-32, 73, 334, 400, 434
Marijuana, 46, 84, 101-102, 312, 314, 318, 323, 451, 500-501 Motor neurons, 22, 31-32, 39, 69, 74, 114-115, 206,
459-460, 463, 465-466, 469 autism, 467, 476 208, 210, 222-223, 254-256, 310, 334, 427,
Marriage, 26 common, 14, 476, 495 429, 431
Masculine traits, 442 diagnosing, 474 Motor skills, 353
Mathematics, 148, 393 diagnosis, 124, 129, 495 Movement, 5-6, 8, 18-19, 22, 26, 33-34, 37, 57, 59,
Mating, 10, 67, 69, 198, 236, 253, 255-256, 259, functional, 130, 292, 501 63, 65-66, 69, 72-74, 79, 88, 92, 94-95, 109,
263-265 organic, 434 116-117, 122, 136, 139, 141, 146-152,
Matrix, 26-27 schizophrenia, 14, 129, 474, 476, 482, 495, 498, 156-161, 163, 165-166, 172, 175, 177,
Matrix, The, 27 181-185, 188, 190-191, 204, 229, 234, 243,
Maze learning, 349 500-501 269, 279, 282-284, 286, 297-298, 311, 314,
Mean, 5, 14, 54, 84, 87, 131, 148, 156, 169, 180, 204, Mental health, 101, 440, 448, 459 334-336, 340, 342, 344-345, 351, 354-355,
260, 269, 280, 284, 287, 304, 354, 361, 373, Mental health professionals, 440 368, 378, 383, 402, 407, 413-415, 419, 422,
380, 392, 417, 449, 463, 474, 477, 482, 485, Mental illness, 468, 486, 501, 504 429-430, 435, 501, 503
491 of eye, 141, 157, 159-161, 163, 165, 182
Meaning of words, 377-378, 381 criteria for, 501 Movies, 158
Meanings, 8, 109, 281, 357, 372, 379-383, 385, 387, treatment of, 468, 486, 504 MRI scanners, 118, 122
400 Mental retardation, 415-417, 439, 458 mRNA, 131, 227, 264, 326, 329, 342-343
in reading, 400 mild, 415, 458 MSG, 191, 193
Measurement, 21, 122, 125, 132, 232, 262, 290, 338, moderate, 417 Multiple sclerosis, 28-29, 388-389, 401, 406, 427-429,
442 profound, 415 432-433, 435
Measurements, 111, 205 severe, 416-417 Multiple sclerosis (MS), 427
Mechanoreceptors, 185, 187, 190-191 Mental states, 467 Muscle, 5, 7, 22, 24, 31-32, 36, 41, 44, 47-48, 69, 71,
Media, 171-172 Mesolimbic dopamine system, 456, 501 74, 84, 93, 100, 108, 139, 175, 184,
Medications, 100, 203, 208, 318, 323, 431, 477, 490, Metaphor, 17, 402 204-208, 282, 284, 286, 301-302, 315, 409,
494 Methadone, 452, 461-462, 464, 466 446, 450
antipsychotic drugs, 477 Methods, 3, 5, 9, 14, 18, 42, 79, 107-133, 143, 210, ciliary, 139
for obesity, 318 Music, 2, 8, 156, 170, 179-181, 201-202, 273, 285,
Medicine, 3, 7, 15, 80, 94, 96, 128, 200, 231, 233-234, 217-218, 262, 317, 333, 337, 396-397, 438, 290, 373, 385, 484
262-263, 326-328, 400, 413, 433-435, 463, 441, 462, 482, 494, 498 Musical ability, 180
468-471, 480, 500, 503-504 Methylphenidate (Ritalin), 96, 210, 443, 466 Mutations, 10, 12, 30, 107, 130-131, 133, 191, 225,
MEG, 120, 125, 386 Microelectrode, 32-33, 119-120, 149, 338 227, 316, 319, 420, 425, 434, 441, 470, 476
Melanocyte, 312-313, 319 Microelectrodes, 33, 119, 124-125, 132, 143, 153, 206, Myasthenia gravis, 48, 93
memories, 3-4, 64-66, 92, 95, 153, 162, 194, 198, 361, 413, 496 Myelin sheaths, 27-28, 49, 427-428
204-205, 214, 219, 229, 233, 275, 332-333, Microglia, 26, 29-30, 424 Myelinated fibers, 186
336, 343-346, 348, 351-358, 362-366, Microstimulation, 164, 370 Myelinization, 416
368-369, 374-377, 379-380, 383, 386-388, Middle ear, 170-171, 199
396, 398, 410, 428, 486 Military, 454 N
Memorizing, 15 Milnacipran, 485
Memory, 2, 6, 12, 14, 17, 53, 66, 99, 102, 119, 154, Milner, Peter, 349 Naloxone, 101, 104, 198, 461
156, 179, 200, 205, 210-211, 213-215, 231, Mirror neurons, 282, 284, 286-287, 378-379, 383, Naltrexone, 459, 463-471
233-234, 256, 264, 272, 289, 331-370, 377, 386-387 Nanometers, 113, 138
382, 384, 396, 400-401, 407, 411, 423-424, Mitochondria, 25-26, 30, 35, 40, 93, 105, 118, 148, Naps, 204, 232
426, 444, 446-447, 450, 460, 464, 475, 486, 150, 427, 476, 502 Nasal passage, 245
489, 493-494, 503-504 Modafinil, 210-211, 218, 232 National Institute of Mental Health, 101, 459
attention and, 213, 215, 444 Modalities, 169, 193-194, 231, 344 National Institute on Aging, 425
consolidation, 205, 214, 231, 233-234, 332, 353, Model, 4, 7, 9, 17-18, 32, 48, 165, 197, 200, 220, 231, National Sleep Foundation, 230
233, 329, 334-335, 346, 353, 369, 383, 390, Natural phenomena, 2, 8, 18
356-357, 362-363, 365, 370 399, 402, 431, 433, 435, 453, 474, 476, 503 Natural selection, 1, 9-10, 12, 18, 257, 304, 306, 319,
consolidation of, 205, 214, 332, 356, 362-363, 365, Modeling, 17, 369
Moebius syndrome, 282 394
370 Monkeys, 6, 105, 145-146, 153, 157, 159-161, 164, Negative reinforcement, 452-453, 458, 464
explicit, 214, 355-356, 364, 369 248, 250, 265, 271, 273-274, 278, 345, 348, Negative symptom, 475
field, 14, 337-343, 351, 356, 362-363, 365, 446, 368-369, 447, 456, 459, 481, 483, 501 Neglect, 53, 77-78, 80
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, 485 Neocortex, 64-65, 80, 205-206, 217, 270, 311, 319,
486 Monoamines, 82, 89, 94-96, 103, 105, 232, 487-488
hippocampus, 53, 66, 102, 156, 214-215, 233, 332, Monogamous, 247-248, 256, 259, 263, 265 351, 356-357, 424
Monogamy, 256 Neonates, 290, 402
336-337, 341, 349, 351-353, 356-370, Monosodium glutamate, 191 Neostigmine, 93, 104
424, 447, 450, 460, 464, 489 Monosodium glutamate (MSG), 191 Nerve fibers, 3, 7, 24-25, 74, 429
implicit, 214, 355, 369, 401 Mood, 97, 227, 246, 263, 265, 273, 283, 286-287, 291, Nerves, 6-9, 23-25, 30, 48, 52, 55-58, 67, 71, 73-75,
knowledge, 6, 14, 154, 368, 370, 475, 504 318, 320-321, 323, 409, 415, 433, 450, 483,
long-term potentiation, 332, 337-343, 347, 349, 485, 488, 490-492, 501-503 77, 79, 139-142, 169, 183, 188, 192-194,
351, 363, 366-370, 493 Mood disorders, 318, 483, 492, 501, 503 282, 285, 408, 429-431
long-term potentiation (LTP), 337 bipolar, 483, 492 cranial, 52, 55-58, 73-75, 77, 79, 140, 183, 188,
marijuana and, 460 major depressive disorder, 483, 492, 501
phonological processing in, 400-401 norepinephrine and, 492 192-194, 408, 429-430
physiological basis of, 332, 366 Moods, 252, 285 optic, 7, 67, 75, 139-142
procedural memory, 234, 367 menstrual cycle, 252 spinal, 23-24, 30, 52, 55-58, 71, 73-75, 77, 79, 183,
prospective, 503
188, 285, 429, 431
Nervous breakdown, 2
Nervous system, 2, 5-7, 9, 11-12, 14-15, 17-18, 21-50,

51-80, 83-85, 87-90, 92-93, 97-103, 107,

513


139, 173, 184, 188, 213, 215, 228, 242, 262, 427, 429, 431 Olfactory epithelium, 195, 198, 201-202, 247
269, 272, 285-287, 289-291, 302-304, 311, myelinization of, 416 Olfactory mucosa, 195, 198
319, 333, 335-336, 368, 409, 412-413, 416, networks, 231, 291, 365 Olfactory nerve, 74
427, 429-430, 432-435, 445, 450, 459, 466, olfactory neurons, 196 Olfactory neurons, 196
493, 501 postsynaptic neurons, 337, 343 Olfactory receptor cells, 195-197
action potentials, 21, 38-39, 41, 45, 48-49, 98 redundancy, 262 Olfactory receptors, 74, 195-196, 198, 261
autonomic, 52, 67, 74-77, 79, 88, 92, 97, 213, 215, refractory period, 241 Olfactory system, 4, 168, 194-195, 199-202, 245-247,
REM-ON, 221-223, 230
269, 272, 285-287, 289-291, 311, 409, sensory neurons, 22, 32, 39, 61, 328, 334 252, 275, 278
445, 450, 466, 493 synapses of, 338 Oligodendrocytes, 26-30, 38-39, 408
central nervous system (CNS), 23, 30, 55, 58 Neuropeptide Y (NPY), 311, 319 Operant chamber, 335
components, 41, 49, 62, 67, 69, 92, 269, 272, 289, Neuropeptides, 219, 319, 326 Operant conditioning, 335
445, 466 Neuroplasticity, 432, 468
excitation of, 409 Neuroscience, 1, 3-16, 18-19, 21, 50, 51, 53, 61, 80, reinforcement, 335
major divisions of, 55, 62, 68, 70, 77 reinforcers, 335
major parts of, 59, 66 81, 83, 107-109, 118, 133, 135, 149, Skinner box, 335
myelin, 23-30, 38-39, 49, 62, 427, 429, 435 155-157, 159-160, 164-166, 167, 176, Opioid receptors, 202
parts of, 5, 7, 9, 15, 21, 24, 27, 29, 44, 58-59, 61, 178-179, 193-194, 197, 199-202, 203, 214, Opsin, 141, 143, 145-146, 233
63-67, 70, 73, 77, 99, 101-103, 215, 272, 217, 230-234, 235, 245, 262-265, 267, Optic chiasm, 67-68, 142, 225
287 289-292, 293, 299, 326-329, 331, 333, 341, Optic disk, 139-140
PNS, 23, 29-30, 38, 55, 57-58 345, 360, 367-370, 371, 384, 392, 400-402, Optic nerve, 139-140, 142, 152
spinal cord, 23-24, 28-32, 44, 52, 54-60, 65-66, 69, 405, 433-435, 437, 442, 451, 454, 467-471, Orbicularis oculi, 282, 284
71-75, 77, 79, 92, 99-100, 184, 188, 228, 473, 500-504 Orbital prefrontal cortex, 366
285, 287, 289, 291, 311, 319, 427, 429 behavior, 1, 3, 5-10, 12, 14-16, 18, 83, 107-109, Orexin, 209, 211, 216, 218-220, 222, 229, 231-234,
sympathetic, 74-77, 79, 97, 228, 269, 285,
302-304, 319, 445, 450 118, 133, 160, 164, 166, 193-194, 310-314, 318-319, 324-326, 328, 458, 464
synaptic transmission, 30, 40, 47-48, 89, 103, 368 201-202, 203, 217, 231, 233-234, 235, Organ of Corti, 171-173, 181
Neural basis, 243, 262, 268, 280, 282, 286, 292, 347, 245, 262-265, 289-290, 292, 293, 299, Organic mental disorders, 434
387, 402, 441, 452 326-329, 333, 442, 451, 454, 467-471, Organization, 80, 113, 136, 149-150, 154, 162,
of learning, 286, 452 501-502
Neural circuits, 11, 31, 69, 83, 101, 118, 124-126, 148, clinical, 231, 233-234, 262-263, 290, 326-329, 367, 164-165, 202, 233, 261, 263-264, 284, 289,
153, 177, 180, 204-205, 244-245, 252, 257, 400-401, 433-434, 454, 467-470, 500-504 292, 332, 355, 368, 385, 395, 403, 456
273, 284, 286, 288-289, 300, 310-313, 333, Neuroscientists, 2-3, 6, 8, 14-15, 18, 24, 84, 92, 101, Orgasm, 76, 207, 241, 243, 250, 254-255, 257, 263
335-336, 343, 345, 347, 349-352, 363, 114, 124, 130-132, 191, 343, 346 Orientation, 111, 116-117, 136, 147, 149-151, 153,
374-375, 377, 380, 386-387, 410, 444, 465, Neurosurgery, 205, 291-292, 369, 400, 402, 433-434, 161, 163, 165, 181-183, 235-236, 247,
475, 494, 502-503 469, 496 249-252, 260, 262, 264-265
Neural connections, 107, 113-114, 118, 160, 179, 225, Neurotransmitter receptors, 114, 487 Ossicles, 170-171, 181
247 Neurotransmitters, 27, 40-47, 49, 82-83, 87, 89-92, Osteoporosis, 320
Neural firing, 181, 298, 363, 432 94-96, 98, 101, 103, 105, 123, 125-129, Oval window, 170-171, 173-174, 181
Neural networks, 326, 365 137-138, 216-217, 256-257, 310, 312, 325, Overtones, 176-177, 181
Neural pathways, 164, 193, 347 351, 449, 485 Ovulation, 237, 240-242, 247-248, 252, 262, 265
Neural plasticity, 432 New England Journal of Medicine, 128, 262, 326, 400, Owls, 10
Neural processes, 363 435, 468-469, 503
Neural signals, 137 Newborn, 11, 59, 110, 180, 201, 257, 259, 286, P
Neural tube, 59, 62, 72 363-364, 367, 385, 416, 489
Neurobiology, 164-166, 200-202, 215, 231-232, 234, competent, 257 Pacinian corpuscle, 185
264, 290-292, 327-328, 341, 367-368, 401, Newborn babies, 110, 286, 416 Pacinian corpuscles, 185, 190
434, 467, 469 Nicotine, 84-85, 89, 93, 102, 104, 128, 318, 438, Pain, 24, 29, 31-32, 47, 69, 75, 79-80, 83, 86-87, 89,
of addiction, 467 450-452, 454, 456-458, 460-471
Neurofibrillary tangles, 424, 429 Night terrors, 210-211, 229 92, 94, 97, 101, 108, 168-169, 184-191, 195,
Neurogenesis, 61-62, 246, 264, 363-364, 366, Night vision, 124 198-202, 211, 270, 327, 335, 430, 448,
368-369, 418, 428, 435, 473, 487, 489-490, Nitric oxide, 102-104, 341, 344, 368 450-451, 467, 492
492, 503 Nitrous oxide, 102, 454 expectations of, 200
Neuroimaging, 164, 166, 282, 329, 400-401, 434, 468, NMDA receptor, 99, 104, 338-339, 342-343, 369-370, insensitivity to, 191
470, 488, 503-504 426, 451, 455, 463, 466, 469 phantom, 189, 191, 201
Neuromodulator, 47, 91, 102, 128-129, 216, 230, 442, NMDA receptors, 99-100, 332, 338-340, 342-343, 347, sense of, 191, 198
445 349, 351, 366, 452, 459, 464, 481, 483 somatic, 24
Neuromodulators, 21, 47, 49, 82-83, 90, 92, 101, 103, Nocturnal emissions, 207 Pain perception, 86, 191, 199
105, 123, 125-126, 128-129, 137 Nodes of Ranvier, 38-39 Panic, 473, 493-494, 497-500, 502-503
Neurons, 11, 17, 21-27, 29-32, 36, 39-40, 44-47, Noise, 211, 272, 398, 407, 446, 453 Panic attacks, 493-494, 497-498, 502
49-50, 56, 59-70, 72-75, 77, 80, 82-83, Nondeclarative memories, 214, 229, 332, 354-355, Panic disorder, 473, 493-494, 497, 499-500, 503
86-87, 89, 91-92, 94-103, 105, 107, 109-115, 362, 365 treatments for, 499
118-129, 132-133, 136-141, 143, 145-150, Nondeclarative memory, 214, 355 Pantothenic acid, 93
152-154, 157-159, 163-165, 169, 172, Norepinephrine (NE), 97, 104 Papillae, 185, 192
174-177, 181, 183-184, 188, 192-193, Nutrition, 130, 326-327, 482 Paradoxical sleep, 206
195-196, 198, 202, 203, 205-206, 208-211, Parahippocampal gyrus, 163, 358
215-223, 225-234, 240-241, 246-247, O Parasympathetic branch, 77, 92, 269
253-259, 262, 264-265, 270-272, 274, 278, Paraventricular nucleus, 228, 271, 311-314, 319, 325,
282, 284, 286-287, 291, 298-302, 304, 306, Ob mouse, 309, 316 328, 445, 447
308-314, 316, 319-320, 324-325, 327-329, Obesity, 14, 97, 129, 208, 294, 305, 309-312, 314-319, Parenting, 465
334, 337-338, 340-341, 343, 345-351, 353, Parents, 129-131, 236, 241, 249-250, 260, 264, 295,
356, 358, 360-370, 375, 378-379, 383, 325-329, 425, 429 300, 333, 359, 385, 392, 402, 439-441, 443,
386-387, 403, 408-409, 412, 414, 416, diet, 305, 309, 316, 318-319, 329 475, 477, 483
418-424, 426-434, 444-447, 452, 454-455, losing weight, 316 adoptive, 129-131
457-461, 464, 468-471, 476-477, 480-481, Object perception, 154, 158 single, 236, 385, 392, 402, 475
483, 487, 489, 494, 496 Observation, 7, 118-119, 205, 212, 216, 282-283, 288, Paresis, 282-284, 289, 291-292
action potential, 21, 23-24, 30-31, 36, 39, 44-47, Paroxetine (Paxil), 485
49, 95-96, 334, 340 348, 400-401, 487 Pathological gambling, 454
afferent, 73-74, 77, 107, 115, 118, 132, 174-175, direct, 400-401 Pattern perception, 17
183, 192, 309, 487 Obsessions, 14, 321, 494-496, 498, 501 Pattern recognition, 178
afferent (sensory), 74 Obsessive thoughts, 496 Pavlovian conditioning, 470
classes of, 94, 460, 487 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 494 PCP, 99, 451-452, 454-455, 480-481, 483
connections between, 25, 136, 139, 141, 184, 223, Obstructive sleep apnea, 233-234 peers, 250, 442
254, 334, 347, 350-351, 483, 489 Occlusion, 411, 413, 415 Peptide YY, 326, 328-329
efferent, 73-75, 77, 92, 107, 114-115, 118, 132, OCEAN, 35, 295 Peptide YY3-36, 307, 320
183-184, 225, 255, 264, 356, 364 Odorant molecules, 195, 197-198 Peptides, 47, 82, 100-101, 103, 105, 114, 126, 128,
efferent (motor), 74 Odors, 4, 22, 61, 168, 194, 196-198, 201, 245, 247, 133, 199, 256-257, 303, 310-314, 316,
memories and, 362, 368, 387 319-320, 326, 328, 428-429
motor neurons, 22, 31-32, 39, 69, 74, 114-115, 206, 251-252, 271, 346 Perception, 6, 17, 19, 59, 64, 77, 86, 102, 116, 120,
208, 210, 222-223, 254-256, 310, 334, OFC, 464 136, 140-141, 144, 147-148, 150-161,
Olfactory bulb, 54, 61, 74, 195-198, 202, 245-246, 163-166, 168, 170, 174, 176, 178-181,
184-185, 188-189, 191-192, 196, 199-202,
252, 254-255, 263, 363-364, 369 225, 228, 262, 273, 281-282, 288, 291, 298,
Olfactory bulbs, 61, 74, 196, 198, 245 334-336, 344-347, 359, 365-366, 378,
Olfactory cilia, 195-196 384-386, 391, 398, 400, 402, 411, 423, 442,
Olfactory cortex, 195-198

514


444, 467, 475 346, 367, 373-374, 438, 445, 461, 469, 471, Prevalence, 129, 231-232, 315, 448, 454-455, 483,
alterations in, 164, 344 474, 477, 482 493, 503
body size, 59 of eating, 326, 328
brain activation during, 384 of stress, 438, 445 of PTSD, 448
distance, 59, 148, 150-151, 157, 159, 384 Physostigmine, 48, 89 Prevention, 315, 323, 326, 426, 482, 502
motion perception, 158, 161, 165-166 Pigments, 130, 144, 165
of color, 136, 141, 144, 152-153, 160-161, 166 Piloerection, 74 of obesity, 315, 326
of depth, 148, 159-161, 163 Pinna, 170, 177, 181 Primary auditory cortex, 62-63, 65, 67, 174-175,
of form, 136, 141, 152-154, 158, 160-161, 165, 185 Pituitary gland, 60, 66-69, 142, 239-242, 252, 256,
of motion, 157, 160-161, 184 258, 261, 300, 311, 408, 445, 450 180-181, 199, 379-380, 387, 402
of time, 17, 102, 148 Pituitary hormones, 68-69 Primary colors, 145-146
olfactory, 19, 168, 192, 196, 199-202, 475 Pixels, 145 Primary control, 225
pain, 86, 168, 184-185, 188-189, 191, 199-202, Place cells, 332, 358, 360-362, 365-367 Primary motor cortex, 8, 63-65, 67, 282-283, 348, 375,
Placebo, 82, 88, 105, 110, 169, 198-199, 202, 246,
335, 467 248, 258, 318, 327-328, 412-414, 427, 435, 379, 386-387, 395, 408-410, 413, 422, 429
set and, 228 458, 460, 462-463, 486, 488-490, 494, 497, Primary sensory cortex, 63-64
social perception, 262, 402, 442, 467 500 Primary sex characteristics, 239
visual cortex and, 161 treatment, 248, 318, 327-328, 412-414, 427, 435, Primary somatosensory cortex, 62-63, 65, 77,
Perceptual memories, 346, 348
Perceptual memory, 345 460, 462-463, 486, 488-490, 494, 497, 188-191, 348, 422
Perceptual systems, 184, 273, 336 500 Primary visual cortex, 62-65, 67, 141-142, 147-149,
Percodan, 101 Placebo effects, 82, 88, 105, 202, 462
Peripheral nervous system (PNS), 23, 30, 55, 57-58 Placebo therapy, 414 152, 162, 164-165, 201, 344-345, 388-389
nerves, 23, 30, 55, 57-58 Plasticity, 99, 332, 337, 340, 343, 347, 349, 351, Priming, 244, 252, 255, 257, 265, 340
Peripheral vision, 143 366-369, 393, 402, 420, 432, 447, 467, 469 Princeton University, 124
Permeability, 36, 39, 192 of the brain, 343, 347, 349, 366, 368, 393 Prion, 406, 418-419, 421, 426-429, 434-435
Person, 3-8, 13, 27, 32, 48, 63, 78-79, 84-85, 87-88, Play, 2, 42, 59, 68, 92, 102-103, 113, 126, 129-130, Problem solving, 95, 205, 475
144, 146, 152, 157, 159, 175, 186-187, 193, Problems, 13-14, 17, 28, 108, 116, 165, 203, 207-208,
93-95, 116, 120-122, 124-125, 127, 130, 205, 211, 214-217, 221-222, 229-230, 236,
132, 137, 142, 148, 154-158, 162, 169-170, 243, 247, 249-252, 256, 258-260, 264, 270, 210-211, 215, 227, 274, 276, 288, 319, 359,
175, 180, 184, 186, 189, 204-206, 208-211, 272, 274, 282, 288, 308, 310-312, 319, 377, 382, 384, 394, 396, 434, 447, 492, 496
214-216, 223, 227, 229, 236-239, 241-242, 322-323, 326, 339-341, 343, 347, 349, 351, Processing, 23, 80, 92, 146, 152, 161, 163-166,
249-252, 260, 273, 276-280, 282, 284-286, 362, 365-366, 374, 378, 382-383, 391, 397, 201-202, 205, 234, 292, 367, 396-397,
288, 302, 317-318, 325, 344, 348, 351-353, 418, 425-426, 428, 440, 442-444, 448, 400-403, 502-503
355, 358-359, 363, 373-375, 377-379, 381, 452-453, 457-462, 464, 476, 478, 481, 484, Processing capacity, 92
383-390, 394, 396-397, 409-410, 414-415, 493-494, 498 Projection, 67, 123, 158, 225, 264, 270, 278, 311, 350,
417, 420, 423, 425, 427, 429-431, 440, 442, fighting, 216, 229, 274 476
444-446, 448-449, 452-455, 458, 460, 462, Polygamous, 256, 259, 265 Prolactin, 68, 241, 258-259, 261-263
464-466, 471, 474-475, 483, 486, 490-494, Polygraphs, 132 Proprioception, 184-185, 188
498 Polymorphisms, 231, 435 Prosopagnosia, 154-155, 160, 164, 166, 385
described, 5, 32, 48, 79, 85, 120, 127, 132, 154, Popularity, 455 Protanopia, 145-146
Population, 10, 93, 102, 180, 207, 232, 269, 314-315, Protein synthesis, 98, 303, 342, 344, 363, 365, 368,
208-209, 214, 229, 249, 260, 276, 279, 321, 327, 329, 338, 374, 385, 392, 423, 431, 370
286, 288, 348, 352-353, 355, 375, 377, 439, 454, 456, 460-461, 464, 474, 477-478, Proust, Marcel, 194, 198
379, 383-385, 387-388, 397, 410, 415, 480, 482, 484, 487 Proximity, 42, 262
417, 427, 440, 452, 494 Positive correlation, 442 Prozac, 97, 275, 485
Personality, 129, 276, 278, 290-292, 333, 464, 474, Positive symptom, 474-475 Psychiatry, 80, 230-232, 262-263, 274, 290-292,
498 Posterior language area, 379-381, 383, 386-387, 398 326-329, 369, 400, 402, 433-434, 448, 455,
structure of, 333 Posterior pituitary gland, 68-69, 256, 300, 311 459, 467-471, 478, 481, 487, 491, 493-494,
studies of, 278 Postsynaptic neuron, 40, 45, 47, 49, 334, 338, 366 500-504
traits, 129, 498 Postsynaptic neurons, 337, 343 Psychoactive drugs, 106, 461
Personality traits, 129, 498 Postsynaptic potential, 40, 43-45, 47, 49, 91, 334, 338, cocaine, 461
Perspective, 80, 148, 215, 262, 468 340 opiates, 461
atmospheric, 148 Postsynaptic potentials, 21, 33, 40, 42-49, 89-90, 94, Psychoanalyst, 229
Perspectives, 200, 434 98, 100, 102, 105, 119-120, 126, 337-338, Psychological Bulletin, 164, 504
pets, 13 485 Psychological disorders, 495
Phagocytes, 29-30 Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 448 Psychologists, 5, 9, 138, 161, 322, 334-335, 353, 355,
Phantom limb, 189, 191 Potentiate, 337 397, 498
Phantom limb phenomenon, 191 Poverty, 422, 475 developmental, 353, 397
Pharmaceutical companies, 14, 48, 319 Power, 285, 475, 498 school, 322
Pharmacotherapy, 326, 469-470 Practice, 6, 15, 132, 162, 214, 223, 231, 248, 348-349, types of, 353, 397
Phencyclidine (PCP), 451 354, 368, 401, 418, 495 Psychology, 5, 9, 14-15, 18, 108, 165, 202, 232,
Phenylketonuria (PKU), 416 Prader-Willi syndrome, 324, 328-329 262-264, 290-292, 329, 368, 471
Phobia, 485, 493 Prefrontal lobotomies, 498 applied, 5
specific, 485 Pregnancy, 100, 130, 198, 242, 245, 252, 258-259, clinical, 262-263, 290, 329
Phobias, 14, 279 262, 415-416, 441-442, 458, 478-479, 482, experimental, 5, 9, 108, 165, 291-292, 368
social, 14, 279 485, 504 field of, 15
Phobic disorder, 493 thalidomide, 441 functionalism, 9
Phoneme, 402 tobacco, 479, 504 research in, 292
Phonetic reading, 372, 389-391, 394, 397 Prenatal androgens, 249, 252, 442 women in, 263
Phonological awareness, 394 Prenatal development, 10, 237, 242, 441, 443, 465, Psychopathy, 292
Phonological dyslexia, 372, 389-391, 397 480, 500 Psychopharmacologists, 85, 87
Phonological loop, 382 chromosomes, 10, 237 Psychopharmacology, 81-106, 231, 291, 328, 460,
Phonology, 390, 395, 401 drugs, 465, 480, 500 467-468, 470-471, 501-504
Photons, 121 fetus, 237 Psychophysics, 164-165, 201
Photopigment, 140-141, 143, 146, 162, 225, 492 Prenatal environment, 130, 479 Psychosis, 446, 477, 500-502
Photopigments, 140-141, 144-145, 165, 225 Prenatal period, 11 Psychosurgery, 496-497, 504
Photoreceptor layer, 141, 162 Preoptic area, 219, 223, 230, 232, 234, 253-256, Psychotherapy, 483, 487
Photoreceptors, 124, 133, 136, 139-141, 143-146, 258-259, 261-265, 349, 455, 464 Puberty, 239-240, 245, 250, 252, 260, 264-265, 322,
225, 228, 230-231 Pressure, 7, 21-22, 34-37, 39, 43, 53, 57, 73, 96, 102, 480-481, 483
Phototherapy, 485, 492, 499, 503-504 132, 170-171, 177-178, 181, 184-185, beginning of, 240
Phrases, 16, 384, 475 187-189, 199, 213, 250-251, 271-272, Pubic hair, 240
Physical development, 236 297-301, 346, 411-412, 414, 445-446, Punctuation, 384
Physical events, 137 449-450, 488 Punishers, 335
Physical fitness, 413 sound, 22, 170-171, 177-178, 181, 199, 271-272, Punishment, 408
Physical health, 448 346 Pure tones, 175
Physical traits, 131 Presynaptic membrane, 40-41, 44, 47, 89-90, 101, Pure word deafness, 281, 284, 372, 377-380,
Physiological psychologist, 14 420 386-388, 398, 402
Physiology, 5-10, 12, 14-16, 18, 68, 106, 108, 113, Presynaptic neuron, 49
131, 143, 147, 164-165, 170, 187, 201-202, Preterm birth, 326 Q
231-234, 235, 244-247, 252, 257, 262-265,
270, 290, 296, 308, 318, 326-329, 332-333, Quiet sleep, 206

R

Race, 380
Rape, 448

515


Rapid cycling, 484 226, 229-234, 242, 249, 252, 256-257, 259, 317-319, 324, 326, 328
Rapid eye movement sleep, 503 262-265, 268, 270-275, 278-279, 282-283, Satiety signals, 221-222, 307, 309-311, 313, 318, 328
Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, 234 286, 288, 290-292, 294-295, 298, 305, Saturation, 138, 143, 162, 170
Ratio schedules, 470 309-310, 318, 323, 325-329, 332-333, 337, Scent, 194, 202
Rational thought, 476 340, 342, 344, 349, 352-353, 356, 364-365, Schedules of reinforcement, 470
Reading, 4, 16, 53, 64-65, 89-90, 109, 113, 137, 154, 367-369, 372, 375, 378, 397, 400-403, 406, Schizophrenia, 14, 96, 129, 444, 454-455, 464,
412-413, 417-418, 420, 423, 425-427, 431,
323, 372-373, 378, 380, 386-387, 389-398, 433-434, 438, 442-443, 446-447, 449, 461, 470-471, 473-504
400-402, 442-443 465-471, 474, 476-479, 482, 486-487, 489, criteria for, 474, 501
phonetic reading, 372, 389-391, 394, 397 494, 500-504 disorganized, 474, 476
whole-word, 372, 389-394, 397-398 and genomics, 501 dopamine and, 96, 471
writing and, 372, 396 basic research, 13 epidemiology of, 482, 501-502
Reading difficulties, 389 cross-cultural, 268, 292 frequency of, 477
Reality, 214-215, 358, 369, 474-475, 483 experimental methods, 5 neuroscience and, 14, 501, 504
Reasoning, 15-16, 35, 421 experiments in, 109 origins of, 14
good, 15 hypotheses and, 482 symptoms, 96, 444, 454, 464, 470, 473-477,
Receptive field, 143-147, 185 longitudinal, 173, 329, 469
Receptive fields, 142, 145, 147, 164, 360-362 on depression, 504 479-483, 485-499, 503-504
Receptor cell, 137, 195-197 on memory, 214, 256 symptoms of, 96, 444, 454, 473-477, 479-483,
Receptor cells, 139, 170-171, 182, 192, 195-197, 247 psychotherapy, 487
Receptor molecules, 98, 195-198 sex, 113, 115, 122-123, 127, 165, 202, 242, 249, 485-492, 494-499, 503
Receptors, 21, 41-49, 60, 69, 73-74, 82-83, 87-91, School, 2, 28, 169, 252, 274, 295, 315, 322, 357, 407,
93-94, 96-105, 107, 109-110, 112, 114, 122, 252, 257, 262-265, 274, 323, 349
125-128, 133, 137-138, 140, 143-144, 170, use of animals in, 13, 19 410, 443, 479, 496
172, 182-187, 190-202, 209, 216, 218, 220, with animals, 1, 12-15, 18, 242, 446 Schooling, 496
226, 228, 234, 238-239, 241, 245, 250, Research methods, 3, 18, 79, 107-109, 115, 118, 122, Schwann cells, 27, 29-30, 38, 49, 408
254-257, 259, 261-262, 297, 302, 305-308, Science, 5-7, 13-14, 78, 80, 106, 117, 120, 133,
311-314, 316, 318-319, 323-325, 329, 332, 125, 128-129, 131
338-340, 342-344, 347, 349, 351, 366-367, Reserpine, 89, 95-96, 104, 488 164-165, 189-190, 200-202, 205, 225-226,
369-370, 421-422, 424, 433, 445, 448, 452, Resistance, 10, 316, 319, 328 231-234, 262-265, 275, 289-292, 299, 316,
455-464, 467-469, 476, 481-483, 485, 487, Respiratory system, 215 326-329, 337-338, 340, 361-362, 368-370,
494, 497, 501 Response, 4-5, 29, 32, 80, 83, 86, 88, 113-114, 383, 401-402, 419, 433-435, 458, 467,
Recognition, 16, 66, 154-156, 160-161, 164-165, 176, 470-471, 500-504
178-181, 188, 196-197, 200-202, 268-269, 120-121, 137, 140, 143-148, 152-153, Scientific American, 201, 369, 434, 504
273, 280-284, 288-292, 328, 344-345, 353, 155-156, 164, 168-169, 173, 175-176, Scientific method, 16
372, 374, 377-378, 380, 385-387, 389-394, 179-180, 183, 198, 212, 215, 225, 228, 232, Sclera, 139
397-398, 401-402, 411, 442, 450, 468 240, 243, 246-247, 251-252, 255, 262, 265, SCN, 225-228
in speech comprehension, 374, 378 268-269, 271-273, 278-279, 281, 283-286, Scrapie, 418-419, 428, 435
process, 16, 176, 180, 197, 280, 353, 380, 288-289, 291-292, 304, 306-307, 310-311, Scrotum, 238-240, 249
322-323, 326, 329, 332-336, 338, 343, Seasonal affective disorder, 473, 491-492, 503-504
389-394, 397 345-348, 350-357, 359-360, 363-366, 381, Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), 491
Recollection, 355, 365 401, 416, 435, 438, 442-453, 457-458, 460, Secondary visual cortex, 163
Reconsolidation, 363, 365-366, 368 465-466, 471, 475, 486-487, 494, 500, Secondhand smoke, 479
Reconstruction, 260, 341, 382 503-504 Sedatives, 460, 469
Recovery, 113, 119, 213, 329, 401, 407, 412-413, 415, conditioned, 271-273, 278-279, 288, 291, 332, 334, Seizures, 3, 100, 120, 288, 408-411, 415-416, 429,
431-433, 459, 464, 469, 485-487
428, 491 346-347, 354, 446, 465, 471, 494, 504 Selective breeding, 274
Recreational drugs, 451 conditioned compensatory, 465 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 254
Recurrence, 108, 470 conditioned emotional, 271-273, 278-279, 288, Self, 1, 3, 5, 12, 22, 74, 88, 112, 169, 188, 198, 202,
Recycling, 101, 113, 257, 393 208, 234, 249, 273, 290, 320, 327, 343, 369,
Reflex, 6, 21, 31-32, 39, 47, 201, 243, 264, 272, 334, 332, 346-347 378, 435, 439, 443, 448, 453, 455-457,
Responsiveness, 153, 179, 181, 190, 248, 258, 265, 459-460, 467-468, 470-471, 484, 491, 503
346 Self-esteem, 443
Reflexes, 6, 8, 32, 69, 73, 144, 157, 254, 256, 427 427, 444-445, 468 self-image, 169
Refractory period, 241, 243 Resting potential, 33, 37, 43, 339 Self-monitoring, 378
Regression, 440 Restoration, 203, 213, 412 Semantic memories, 332, 357, 364
Rehearsal, 333, 353, 382 Retention, 300, 353-354, 362, 366 Semantic memory, 357-358, 369
Reinforcement, 95, 101, 128, 199, 256, 258-259, 309, Reticulum, 69 Semantics, 391, 401-402
Retina, 8, 61, 67, 73, 124, 136, 139-143, 145-146, Semicircular canal, 181-183
318, 332, 335, 347-351, 451-453, 455-456, Semicircular canals, 181-184, 199
458-459, 461-462, 464-466, 470, 476-477, 148, 151-152, 162-165, 225, 228, 230, 233, Sensation, 4, 63, 108, 138, 157, 182, 185-187,
482, 487 345 189-191, 200, 285, 297-299, 301, 304, 409
continuous, 456 receptor cells, 139 adaptation, 185
extinction, 453, 470 Retinal disparity, 136, 147-151, 161, 163 chemical senses, 182, 185-187, 189-191, 200
internal, 348, 470 Retinal ganglion cells, 141, 145-146, 163, 165, kinesthetic, 190
partial, 461, 464-466, 482 231-232 of pain, 187, 189-191
Reinforcers, 258, 335, 349, 351, 366, 452, 456 Retinal images, 148 senses, 63, 182, 185-187, 189-191, 200
Relapse, 322, 438, 451, 453-454, 457, 466, 486, 488, Retrieval, 47, 345-346, 352, 357, 362, 368-369, 377 sight, 304
504 Retrograde amnesia, 352, 357, 364, 369 temperature, 185-187, 190-191
Relationships, 143, 214, 247-249, 256, 263, 296, 336, Reuptake, 44, 47, 49, 82, 89-91, 96-98, 101, 104-105, touch, 185-186, 190-191
356, 364-365, 380, 440, 495 127, 254, 274, 278, 302, 427, 443, 451, transduction, 185, 190
heterosexual, 248, 256, 263 455-456, 463-464, 476, 485, 487, 492, 494, vestibular, 182, 409
homosexual, 249, 256, 263 497, 499 vision, 108, 138, 157
Relative size, 297, 477 inhibiting, 98, 254, 278, 497 Sensations, 7, 28, 53, 176, 184, 186, 188-189, 192,
Relaxation, 77, 83, 87, 100, 204, 207, 413, 453 Reward, 101, 292, 328-329, 367-368, 469 195, 198, 229, 286, 301, 307, 415, 462,
Religious beliefs, 13 Rewards, 276, 368 464-465
REM sleep, 92, 119, 126, 203-215, 217-218, 220-223, Rhodopsin, 141 Senses, 6, 63, 167-168, 170-202, 263, 327, 475
229-234, 362, 365, 473, 490-492, 499, 504 Rhyme, 384, 475 chemical, 167-168, 170-202, 263, 327
cycles of, 207, 221 Ribosomes, 103 cold, 186, 188-190
REM sleep behavior disorder, 203, 210-211, 222, 231, Right visual field, 78, 158, 388-389, 397 magnetic, 202, 263
234 Risk factors, 412, 425, 429, 434, 448, 469, 504 of the skin, 168, 184-185, 187, 190
Remembering, 16, 23, 63-64, 159, 207, 333, 336, RNA, 112, 131, 227, 342, 429-430, 433, 481 warmth, 184-190
354-355, 358, 376, 383, 397, 424 Roles, 6, 129, 152, 201, 214, 252, 289, 347, 433, 466, Sensitive period, 482
Remission, 429, 486-487, 492, 500 502 Sensitivity, 47, 69, 83, 86, 124, 145, 147, 149-150,
for depression, 487, 492, 500 Rote learning, 15 152-153, 164, 169, 175-176, 179, 184-185,
REM-ON neurons, 221-222 Round window, 171, 173 187-188, 193-194, 198, 207, 228, 263,
Renin, 300-301 Rubber hand illusion, 78 287-288, 298, 307, 309, 312, 400, 410, 442,
Replication, 501, 504 445, 453, 459, 461, 487, 502
Representations, 286, 391, 402 S Sensory association cortex, 64, 333, 345-347, 379,
Representative samples, 360 398
Research, 1, 3, 5-6, 8-9, 12-15, 18-19, 53, 79, 85, 87, Saccadic eye movements, 159-161 Sensory cortex, 63-64
89, 95, 98, 101, 107-131, 133, 142, 146-147, Saccule, 182-183 Sensory feedback, 284-285
149, 152, 162, 164-166, 169, 173, 186, 189, Sadness, 180, 279-280, 282, 284, 286, 288, 487 Sensory nerves, 6
201-202, 203-205, 209, 214-215, 218, 221, Safety, 86, 88, 105, 121, 277, 326, 422, 434, 500 Sensory neuron, 22, 31-32
Sample, 111, 273, 329, 353, 375, 454, 460, 503
Samples, 138, 246, 249, 360, 478
Satiety, 220-222, 294, 296, 298-299, 301, 307-315,

516


Sensory neurons, 22, 32, 39, 61, 328, 334 types of, 11 Species-typical behaviors, 67, 69, 72-73, 92, 254, 273,
Sensory receptors, 73, 137-138, 170, 183-184, 245 Sleep, 5, 14, 22, 69, 71, 73, 92, 97-98, 100, 102, 278, 495, 498
Sensory system, 64, 125, 336
Sensory transduction, 137 119-120, 124, 126, 203-234, 310, 328, 362, Specific nerve energies, 7, 9
Sentences, 15, 281, 333, 383-387, 395, 400-401 365, 369, 409, 451-452, 473, 484-485, Speech, 4, 8, 11, 64-65, 109, 170, 175, 180, 202, 281,
490-492, 499, 501-504
meaning, 281, 384-385, 387 cycle, 206, 208, 217-220, 224-226, 228, 230-234, 348, 372-388, 390-391, 394-395, 398,
Separation, 398 400-403, 413, 475, 484
Serotonin, 89, 92, 94, 96-98, 103-104, 211, 216-218, 328, 492 comprehension and production, 374, 377, 386
NREM, 232 impairment, 180, 202, 400
232, 254, 273-275, 278-279, 290, 292, 319, paradoxical, 206 inner, 64-65, 170, 175, 403
323, 326, 369, 451, 485, 487-488, 492, 494, rhythms, 92, 203-228, 230-234, 473, 484, 490-492, Speech perception, 378, 385-386, 400, 402
497, 499-500 Sperm production, 248
and obsessive-compulsive disorder, 97 499 Spin, 116
anorexia nervosa and, 323 rhythms of, 92, 204, 220, 224-228, 492 Spinal column, 23, 71
Set, 6-7, 17, 28, 58, 66, 70, 109, 111, 119, 126, 130, sleep spindles, 205, 207, 213 Spinal cord, 23-24, 28-32, 44, 52, 54-60, 65-66, 69,
139, 141, 147, 159, 162, 170, 179, 181, 222, slow-wave, 203-207, 210-221, 223-224, 229, 362, 71-75, 77, 79, 86, 92, 99-100, 183-184,
224-229, 231, 237, 277, 279, 284-285, 188-189, 191, 208, 222-223, 228, 253-256,
295-297, 301, 306, 310, 322, 324, 337, 348, 365, 490-491 285, 287, 289, 291, 310-311, 319, 327, 427,
353, 358, 417, 479, 484 why we sleep, 205 429, 431
Set point, 295-296, 301, 324 Sleep cycle, 230 Spinal nerves, 52, 55-57, 71, 73-74, 77, 188
Severe mental retardation, 416-417 Sleep cycles, 219, 225 Spines, 26, 40, 339-344, 346-347, 366-367, 481
Sex, 10, 47, 68, 113, 115, 122-123, 127, 158, 165, Sleep debt, 216, 219 Split brain, 4-5
202, 235-244, 246-250, 252, 257, 260-265, Sleep deprivation, 203, 208, 212-213, 215-216, studies of, 5
274, 321, 323, 349, 445, 484 Split brains, 1, 3
determination of, 237 232-233, 473, 485, 490-492, 499, 501-504 Split-brain operation, 3-5, 18
sexual orientation, 235-236, 247, 249-250, 252, signs of, 212-213, 490, 501 SRY gene, 237, 241
Sleep disorders, 203, 207, 209, 218, 229-232, 234 State of arousal, 204
260, 262, 264-265 narcolepsy, 203, 209, 218, 229, 231-232, 234 Status, 11, 18, 261-262, 264, 273, 276, 410, 439,
Sex chromosomes, 236, 238, 241, 261 Sleep patterns, 230, 233 464-465, 495
Sex differences, 250, 262 Sleep spindles, 205, 207, 213 Stem cells, 59, 61, 363-365, 408, 414, 428-429, 433
Sex discrimination, 265 Sleeplessness, 217 embryonic, 59, 433
Sex drive, 241, 252 Slow wave sleep, 233, 502 Stereopsis, 148, 159-161, 163, 165-166
Sex hormones, 68, 113, 115, 122-123, 127, 236-237, Slow-wave sleep, 203-207, 210-221, 223-224, 229, Stereoscopic vision, 148
Stereotaxic apparatus, 110-112, 114, 118, 132
239-240, 242, 247-249, 257 362, 365, 490-491 Stereotaxic surgery, 107, 109-113, 118-119, 124, 127,
Sexual activity, 121, 128, 243, 247-248, 253, 262 Smell, 4, 61, 75, 191, 200, 202, 229, 246, 270, 304, 422
Sexual behavior, 14, 113, 115-116, 121-122, 127, Sterilization, 426
306, 333, 457 Stimulants, 210-211, 233, 460, 469
235-236, 242-248, 252-259, 261-265 thalamus and, 200 amphetamine, 211
pheromones in, 235, 252, 262, 265 Smell and taste, 202 dependence and, 469
Sexual behaviors, 252 Smith, D., 467 nicotine, 460, 469
Sexual development, 235-237, 239, 241, 261 Smith, G., 329 Stimuli, 6, 24, 31, 33-34, 69, 73, 77-78, 80, 92, 95,
Sexual intercourse, 229, 247 Smoking, 85, 318, 412, 450, 454-460, 462-464, 120, 124, 137, 143-144, 147, 151, 153-155,
Sexual maturation, 235, 239-240, 261 157-158, 160-161, 164, 168, 170, 174-177,
Sexual motivation, 265 468-471, 478 179, 184-187, 189-191, 193, 198-199, 206,
Sexual orientation, 235-236, 247, 249-252, 260, 262, mothers, 478 212, 214, 217, 222, 244, 256, 258-259, 261,
quitting, 457 263, 270-271, 273, 278, 282, 288, 298, 306,
264-265 Smoking cessation, 458, 469-470 312, 332-336, 344-346, 348-351, 354-355,
Sexuality, 236, 248, 265, 484 Sociability, 442, 479 359-361, 364-366, 376, 392, 394, 442-447,
Shading, 206 Social, 3, 12, 14, 130, 156, 164, 180, 236, 248-250, 450-455, 458, 460, 462, 464-466, 475-476,
Shadow, 113, 177 487
Shaping, 386 256, 262-263, 269, 274-276, 279, 282, appetitive, 334-335, 350, 451, 464
Shared environment, 274 288-291, 294, 304, 322-324, 344, 373, 402, discriminative, 350
Shift work, 203, 227-228, 231 439-440, 442-443, 447-448, 455, 458, Stimulus, 4-6, 10, 31, 33-34, 37-39, 77-78, 119, 125,
Shivering, 285 464-465, 467-468, 471, 473-475, 479, 482, 136-138, 143, 147-149, 154, 162, 168, 170,
Shock treatment, 500 485, 493, 495, 499-500, 503 177, 185, 187-190, 192, 195, 200, 224, 237,
Short-term memory, 102, 353, 356, 364, 382, 444 Social adjustment, 479 245, 264, 271-273, 279, 291, 301, 305,
Social behavior, 14, 249, 269, 276, 289, 373, 467, 482 332-336, 338, 345-350, 352-356, 359-360,
phonological, 382 Social development, 440 363-366, 386, 431, 451-453, 458, 464-465,
Shyness, 131, 498 Social exchange, 373 491
Siblings, 441, 470 Social interest, 164 generalization, 5-6
Side effects, 48, 86-88, 96, 105, 128, 229, 312, Social neuroscience, 291 neutral, 190, 271, 336, 346
Social perception, 262, 402, 442, 467 Stirrup, 170
318-319, 420-421, 463, 485, 496, 498 Social psychology, 290-291 Storage, 27, 82, 89-91, 95, 104-105, 302, 348, 357,
Sight, 5, 64, 78, 115, 154, 156, 158, 229, 247-248, Social relationships, 440 367, 416
Social situations, 180, 275-276, 288, 493 Strabismus, 324
259, 270, 280, 304, 306, 335, 350, 377, 381, Social smiles, 282 Stress, 22, 62, 88, 212, 271-272, 289, 346, 374, 378,
389-392, 442, 456, 465 Social status, 495 384-385, 387, 424, 437-464, 466-471, 499
Sildenafil, 103 Social support, 471 during pregnancy, 441-442, 458
Similarity, 53, 110, 129, 131, 153, 251, 383 Socialization, 236, 264 extreme, 374, 442-443, 448, 450, 467
Simple cells, 147 Sociobiology, 265 friends, 439
Sine waves, 148, 176-177 Socioeconomic status, 439 job, 22, 439
Single episode, 410 Sodium ions, 34-38, 42 mortality, 470
Single-unit recording, 119 Soma (cell body), 23-24, 30 response, 88, 212, 271-272, 289, 346, 438,
Situation, 219, 224, 269, 271-272, 278, 283-285, Somatic nervous system, 74, 77
287-288, 335-336, 344, 347-348, 444-446, Somatosensation, 64, 188, 281 442-453, 457-458, 460, 466, 471
448, 451, 453, 458, 464 Sound, 22, 64, 148, 168, 170-181, 199-200, 206, 247, responses, 271-272, 346, 438, 443-446, 450, 464,
situations, 180, 189, 198, 209, 219, 269-270, 272, 270-272, 333, 344-346, 351, 373, 378-380,
275-276, 278-280, 284-285, 287-288, 333, 384, 389-391, 394, 396, 398, 400, 402 466, 470
344, 443-447, 450, 454, 457, 493 pitch of, 170, 176, 384, 398 traumatic, 448, 469-470
Size, 11-12, 23, 26, 36-40, 45, 59, 62, 67, 72, 74, 113, timbre of, 177-178, 181 Stress response, 212, 289, 438, 444-447, 449-450,
120, 139, 141-143, 147-149, 151-152, 154, Sound localization, 174-175, 178
156, 159-160, 165, 181, 185, 188, 222, 251, Sound pressure, 177 466
253, 259, 262, 269, 297-298, 300, 302, Sound waves, 22, 148, 170-177, 200 Stressors, 461, 469
308-309, 314, 338, 341, 343, 357, 384, 411, Sounds, 7, 11, 162, 168, 170-171, 174-181, 186, 194,
423, 441, 447, 450, 477, 482, 496 215, 271, 279-280, 318, 333, 345-346, 352, chronic, 469
judgments, 269 373, 375-378, 380-382, 384-386, 389-392, Stress-related hormones, 271-272
Skin, 24, 29, 48, 61, 74, 76-77, 84-85, 88, 93, 95, 111, 394-396, 398, 402, 416, 491 Stretch receptors, 184
168, 175, 184-188, 190, 199, 204-206, 228, place coding and, 174 Striate cortex, 136, 141-143, 146-153, 157, 160-165,
244, 286, 295, 302, 309-310, 324, 412, 462, Source, 6, 8, 13, 25, 31-32, 43, 94, 117, 120, 138-139,
466, 478, 497 153, 158, 168, 170, 174, 176-178, 181, 184, 344, 388
Skin color, 478 191, 223-224, 303, 326, 374, 386, 408, 411, Strokes, 8, 13, 62, 78, 318, 373, 393, 411-413, 415,
Skin senses, 184 431-433, 451, 453
Skull, 11-12, 23, 54-56, 63, 110-111, 116, 119-120, Spatial memory, 332, 351, 357-358, 364, 368 423, 432
122-124, 127, 139, 195, 290, 338, 414, 416, Spatial perception, 156, 359, 365, 384 students, 18, 28-29, 137, 194, 288, 315, 322, 380,
432, 486 Spatial resolution, 120, 152
Skulls, 11-12, 119 Species-typical behavior, 334 395, 449, 494-495

517


Study skills, 16 467, 470 Transduction, 136-137, 140-141, 168, 172-173, 185,
Studying, 2-3, 9, 15-16, 33, 107, 116, 119, 143, 162, Tests, 108, 145, 205, 285, 358, 366, 423, 431, 442, 190, 192, 196, 201-202, 265

205, 232, 257, 288, 334, 374, 383, 442 480, 494, 498 sound vibrations, 173
Subcutaneous fat, 185 group, 423, 442 Transformation, 418, 428
Substance abuse, 437-464, 466-471, 478, 493 personality, 498 Transition, 205, 219, 221, 227, 435
Thalamus, 60, 66-67, 69-70, 72, 79, 97, 117, 141, 152, Transitions, 495
counselors, 439 Transmitter substances, 94, 302, 485
Substance abuse disorders, 437-464, 466-471, 493 174-175, 188-189, 191, 193-196, 198-200, Transplants, 226, 421, 428
Substance use, 467 212, 215, 217-218, 225, 233-234, 270, 275, Trauma, 128, 322, 326, 414, 469-471, 496-497
Substantia nigra, 69-70, 73, 95, 101, 105, 350, 278, 283, 299-300, 311, 319, 344, 347-348, Traumatic brain injury (TBI), 414
421-423, 429 Treatment, 12, 15, 48, 83, 85, 93, 97, 124, 180, 200,
419-422, 428 and smell, 200
Subvocal articulation, 378 Thalidomide, 441, 443 231-233, 241, 244-245, 248, 254, 278, 286,
Suicide, 211, 260, 292, 318, 320-321, 328, 419, 430, Theories, 144, 287, 323, 402, 500 294, 308, 316, 318-319, 322-323, 325-329,
Theory, 7-10, 12, 18, 80, 144, 229, 233, 268, 284-287, 406, 410-415, 419-421, 423, 425-431,
483-485, 492, 500 289, 292, 401, 467, 504 434-435, 443-444, 447, 459-465, 467-470,
lithium and, 485 Therapies, 417, 427-428, 453, 464 473, 482-483, 485-492, 494, 496-497,
Suicides, 291, 484 drug, 427-428, 453, 464 499-504
Sulcus, 62-64, 72, 157-160, 163, 165, 175, 282, 441 Therapist, 373 access to, 322-323
Superior colliculus, 70, 144, 157 Therapy, 83, 105, 145-146, 165, 275, 291, 318, 322, biological treatments, 473, 485, 492, 499
Supporting cell, 171, 183, 195 328, 386, 402, 413-415, 420, 422-423, 428, evolution of, 12, 248
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), 225 430-431, 433-435, 438, 449, 461-462, 466, for opiate addiction, 461
Surface dyslexia, 372, 389-392, 396-397, 401 469, 471, 485-486, 494, 496-504 of OCD, 496-497
Surgery, 3, 12, 71, 94, 96, 107-113, 116, 118-120, behavioral, 83, 291, 414, 431, 433, 438, 469, 497, of sleepwalking, 232
of traumatic brain injury, 415
124-125, 127, 132, 145, 180, 234, 249, 281, 502-503 Treatment of mental disorders, 97
284-285, 305, 317, 319, 326, 328-329, 333, change in, 318, 423, 449 Trichotillomania, 497
345, 352, 359, 392-393, 410-411, 415, exposure, 449, 503 Trichromats, 145
421-422, 431, 434, 457, 462, 474, 487, 496, family, 420, 497, 500 Tritanopia, 145-146
498 men and, 318, 322 Twin studies, 107, 129, 131, 133, 251-252, 315, 322,
bariatric, 317, 319, 326, 329 Thermoreceptors, 186 441, 444, 448, 450, 460-461, 475, 493, 497
Surprise, 4, 13, 180, 199, 259, 280, 284, 286, 383, Theta activity, 204-205, 207 of homosexuality, 251
400 Theta waves, 206 Twin study, 232, 327, 470
Survey, 230, 315, 501 Thinking, 2, 7, 125, 187, 205, 248, 272, 276-278, Twinning, 479
Survival, 61, 67, 212-213, 269, 272, 304, 408, 426, Twins, 129-131, 242, 251, 274, 326, 392, 394, 441,
493 304-305, 333, 348, 365, 378, 380, 383, 400, 469, 479-480, 483-484, 492, 495-496, 500
Sweet taste, 194, 327 409, 448, 474-476 dizygotic, 129, 131, 242, 251, 274, 394, 441, 484,
SWS, 214, 217, 221-222, 226, 490-492 concepts, 380
Symbols, 229, 384, 391-393, 397-398, 400 thinking about, 2, 125, 248, 276-278, 304-305, 378, 496
Sympathetic branch, 77, 269, 445, 450 identical twins, 129, 251, 326, 392
Sympathetic nervous system, 74, 228, 302-304, 319, 380, 383, 448 monozygotic, 129-131, 251, 274, 394, 441,
445 Thomas, A., 471
Symptoms, 22, 28-29, 48, 66, 83, 87-88, 95-96, 98, Thought, 2, 5-6, 9, 12, 15, 30, 39, 47, 88, 96, 105, 479-480, 483-484, 495, 500
102, 105, 112, 124, 126, 128, 204, 208-213, Tympanic membrane, 170-171, 181
229, 269, 273, 283-284, 320-323, 325, 357, 108, 118, 125, 128, 131, 137, 143, 146, 150,
365-366, 372, 376, 378, 380-382, 386-388, 161, 169, 181, 184, 191, 194, 198, 206-207, U
390, 393, 406-407, 409-410, 412, 415-416, 209, 211, 214-215, 223, 228, 241, 252, 259,
419-423, 426-430, 432, 435, 438-441, 269, 276-277, 279, 284-285, 287-288, 301, Ulcers, 227, 271, 446-447
443-444, 446, 448-450, 453-454, 461-462, 309, 319, 321, 323, 336, 344, 346, 349, 351, Umami, 191, 193-194, 199, 201
464-466, 470, 473-477, 479-483, 485-499, 355, 363, 365, 369, 387, 396-397, 407, 415, Unconditional stimulus, 334, 336, 346
503-504 417, 420, 443, 445, 450, 465, 474-477, 483, Unconscious, 94, 229, 286, 409, 415
Synapse, 23, 25, 40-41, 43, 46-47, 67, 75, 99, 113, 492, 494, 498, 500 Unilateral neglect, 53, 77-78, 80
174, 183, 334, 338-340, 344, 346, 366, 369, concepts, 105, 279, 288, 387, 465, 498 United States, 230, 314-319, 408, 411, 414, 454, 456,
471, 504 critical, 191, 252, 349, 351, 397, 415, 417, 494
Synapses, 21, 23-25, 27, 30-31, 39-41, 43-49, 61, 67, incoherent, 474 461, 474, 495
74-75, 89, 92-93, 99-100, 115, 119, 121, judgments, 269, 276-277, 284, 288 smoking in, 456
126, 130, 138, 140, 172, 174, 184, 188, 192, Thought disorder, 474, 500 Utricle, 182-183
196, 198, 222, 228, 254, 273, 334, 337-344, Thought disorders, 288, 474-475, 477
346-347, 350, 368-369, 410, 430-431, 452, Threshold, 33, 37, 39, 45-46, 49, 98, 176, 187, 190, V
469, 476, 480, 482, 487, 494 339, 486
excitatory, 24, 30-31, 43, 45-47, 49, 89, 92, 99, excitation, 33, 37, 39, 45-46, 49, 98, 339 Vaccination, 329, 429
for pain, 187 Vagus nerve, 74-75, 306-307, 309, 328, 485, 487-488,
254, 334, 337-338, 340, 350, 368, 431, Thymus gland, 449-450
452, 487 Timbre, 168, 170, 176-178, 181 492, 499-500
Synaptic connections, 25, 47, 72, 115, 162, 219, 226, Time, 2, 5-7, 9-12, 14, 16-17, 22, 29, 33-34, 37-39, Vagus nerve stimulation, 485, 487-488, 492, 499-500
228, 336, 338, 341, 345-346 45-46, 48, 57, 60, 68, 78, 83-85, 87-88, 92, Variable, 38, 248, 295-296, 301, 309, 324, 360, 367,
Synaptic plasticity, 99, 332, 337, 340, 343, 347, 349, 102-103, 110, 112, 119-120, 123, 128, 130,
351, 366, 369, 420, 447, 467, 469 132, 144, 146, 148, 156, 163, 169, 181, 199, 444, 478, 493
Synaptic vesicle, 40-41, 44, 50, 420, 501 204-206, 208-210, 212-213, 215-216, independent, 367
Synaptogenesis, 369 218-222, 224, 226-228, 236, 242-248, 250, Variables, 129, 288, 296, 308, 425
Synchrony, 78, 173, 176, 207, 264 256-260, 274, 278-280, 287, 296-299, 301, Variations, 38, 111, 249, 315, 344, 464, 493
Synergistic effects, 265 303-305, 307, 312, 317, 321-324, 333-334, Vegetables, 191, 345
338-341, 343-345, 348-350, 352, 354-358, Venezuela, 130
T 360, 363-367, 373, 386, 392, 396, 407, 410, Ventral stream, 136, 152-156, 159-161, 163, 165, 179,
413, 417, 419-420, 424, 426-427, 429-431,
Taste, 63, 74-75, 84, 131, 168, 187, 191-194, 196, 439, 442-443, 446, 449, 452-453, 457, 344-346, 348, 391, 403
199-202, 229, 310, 312, 327 460-464, 466, 478, 480-481, 485-487, Ventromedial hypothalamus, 127, 310
489-491, 493, 495, 498 Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), 127
buds, 168, 192 tobacco products, 456, 464 Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), 272, 275
qualities, 168, 191, 194 Tolerance, 87-88, 105, 276, 453, 455, 465-468, 470, Verbs, 375, 383, 387, 400
Taste cells, 192 494 Vertebral column, 55, 71-74
Taylor, S., 470 of alcohol, 455 Vervet monkeys, 250, 447
Tay-Sachs disease, 416-417 Touch, 24, 29, 59, 64, 75, 79, 115, 137, 154, 168, 172, Vestibular apparatus, 168, 181-182, 335
Tectorial membrane, 171-172, 181 184-186, 188, 190-191, 199, 201, 346, 393, Vestibular sacs, 181-184, 199
Television, 33, 131, 138, 145, 260, 333, 373, 492 495 Vestibular system, 168-169, 172, 181-182, 184, 199
Temporal resolution, 120, 122, 125, 152 Tourists, 277 Vicarious experience, 189
Terminal button, 23-25, 40-41, 43-44, 46-47, 49, Toxins, 92, 105, 194, 415, 417, 420, 428, 480 Victims, 13, 469
Tracts, 67, 72, 116, 196, 198, 497 Violence, 274-275, 277-278, 291, 448, 458
90-91, 93, 95-96, 101, 113, 334, 340-343 Training, 13, 15, 61, 180-181, 210, 214-215, 271-272, Visible spectrum, 138
Terminal buttons, 23-27, 30-31, 33, 39-41, 45-47, 49, 327, 334, 345, 354, 358, 362-363, 365, 413, Vision, 8, 11, 18, 24, 28, 75, 108-109, 124, 135-166,
426, 474
60, 68, 75, 77, 89, 92-96, 101-103, 105, Traits, 1, 9-10, 129-131, 274, 442, 498 169, 179, 183, 281, 345, 388, 402
114-115, 118-119, 121, 126-127, 184, 196, Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 124, 158, bipolar neurons, 24, 183
274, 312, 341, 344, 346, 349-350, 456, 464, 382, 449, 486, 488, 499 blind spot, 139-140
485 color constancy, 153, 160-161, 166
Test scores, 425 eye, 8, 75, 108-109, 136, 139-145, 148-150, 152,
Testosterone, 47, 237-238, 240-241, 243-245,
248-249, 252, 254, 256, 260-264, 442, 445, 157-165, 183
eye movements, 75, 108-109, 142, 157, 159-165,

518


183 427, 448, 450, 456, 458, 478, 483, 493, 503
eyes, 11, 136-139, 143-144, 149-150, 155-157, Word deafness, 281, 284, 372, 377-380, 386-388,

159, 162 398, 402
form perception, 136, 144, 154, 160 Words, 3, 16-17, 34, 88, 109-110, 114, 116, 122, 137,
ganglion cells, 136, 139-148, 152, 163-165
hue, 138, 140-141, 143-144, 162, 166 162, 177, 209, 214-216, 237, 244, 269,
impaired, 137, 156, 162, 164 271-272, 278-284, 286, 304, 316, 333, 340,
iris, 139, 142 348, 355, 357, 362, 372-398, 401-403, 412,
lens, 109, 139, 142-143, 145, 157 424, 442, 455, 475, 495
light, 8, 28, 124, 136, 138-141, 143-148, 151-153, rhyming, 384
Work, 12, 14-15, 17, 22, 32, 83, 92, 119, 126, 137,
158, 162, 165, 345 170, 175, 183, 203-204, 227-228, 231, 243,
light and, 136, 139, 143-145, 147-148, 152 290, 297, 304, 314, 316, 319, 333, 348, 377,
night, 124, 142-143 408, 410, 420, 439, 443-446, 457-458, 484,
optic disk, 139-140 490, 495, 500
pupil, 139, 142 choice of, 439
stereoscopic, 148 Working memory, 200, 400, 444
theories of color, 144 Workplace, 456
visual acuity, 145, 153-154 World, 2, 5-6, 14, 65, 77, 93, 102, 108, 138, 142, 145,
visual cortex, 141-142, 146-149, 151-152, 159-166, 147, 183, 224, 233, 276, 279, 289, 328, 380,
392-393, 418, 440, 451, 456, 458, 474, 483,
179, 281, 345, 388 485
visual pathway, 142 World Health Organization, 456
visual pathways, 164 Worry, 88, 108, 285, 493
visual system, 136, 139, 143, 151-154, 158-160, Wrinkles, 93
Writing disorder, 395-397
162-163, 281 Written language, 383, 387, 393-394, 399
what we see, 281
Visual acuity, 145, 153-154 X
Visual agnosia, 154, 156, 158-160, 188, 391, 407
Visual area, 158, 164, 166, 370 X-rays, 116, 118, 121, 138
Visual association cortex, 64-65, 124, 136, 146,
Y
149-155, 158-161, 163, 174, 181, 188, 281,
334, 344-346, 352, 377, 383, 388, 391, 393, Y chromosomes, 236
441-442 Young adulthood, 480, 495, 499
Visual cortex, 62-65, 67, 141-142, 146-149, 151-152, Young men and women, 322
159-166, 179, 201, 281, 344-345, 388-389 Young people, 480, 492
anatomy, 146, 159-160, 162, 165 Young, Thomas, 144
Visual cues, 359, 467
Visual field, 77-78, 142-143, 146-150, 153, 157-158, Z
161, 166, 388-389, 397
Visual fields, 142, 164 Zeitgebers, 203, 224, 227-228, 491
Visual imagery, 78
Visual pathways, 164
Visual perception, 17, 140, 147, 150, 161, 163, 165,
225, 228, 282, 344-345
Visual processing, 152, 164, 166
Visual recognition, 289, 353
Visual stimulation, 7, 148
Visual system, 62, 68-69, 73-74, 136, 139, 143,
151-154, 158-160, 162-163, 174, 182, 225,
229, 281, 391, 393-394, 407
and color, 136, 154, 160
wavelengths of light, 139
Vitamin A, 141
Vitamin D, 478, 482, 500
Vitreous humor, 139
Vocal cords, 215, 375
Voice, 22, 53, 64, 137, 155, 170, 180, 239-240, 247,
281, 283-284, 345, 373-374, 377-378,
384-387, 400
Voice recognition, 385
Voluntary movements, 92, 283
Vomeronasal organ, 196, 245-247, 252-254, 261,
263-264

W

Wakefulness cycle, 232
Wavelength, 114-115, 123, 126-128, 138, 143,

145-146, 148, 153, 162
Wavelengths, 123, 138-139, 144-146, 152
Wavelengths of light, 123, 139, 144
Weight, 11, 57, 86-88, 183-184, 188, 195, 243, 257,

295, 302, 304-306, 308-309, 311-312,
314-323, 325-329, 458, 462, 464, 469, 491
bulimia nervosa, 320, 323, 325
metabolism, 302, 305-306, 308-309, 311-312,

314-316, 318-319, 323, 325-329
Weight-loss programs, 318
Well-being, 189, 232, 256
White light, 145
Whole-word reading, 389-394, 397
Wiesel, Torsten, 147
Withdrawal, 21, 31-32, 39, 47, 87-88, 99, 105, 189,

198, 346, 439, 453, 459, 461, 463-464, 466,
469, 471, 475, 494
Withdrawal reflex, 21, 31-32, 39, 47, 346
Withdrawal symptoms, 87-88, 453, 461, 464, 466, 494
and addiction, 464
Women, 94, 189, 198, 202, 235, 237, 241-242, 244,
246-252, 255, 257, 259-263, 265, 314, 316,
320, 322-323, 325, 327, 329, 349, 385, 415,

519


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