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Published by NORHAFIZAINI BTE MD NOR Moe, 2020-07-15 02:46:45

DSKP KSSM PHYSICS (ENGLISH)

DSKP KSSM PHYSICS (ENGLISH)

Fizik

Tingkatan 4

(EDISI BAHASA INGGERIS)



Fizik

Tingkatan 4

(EDISI BAHASA INGGERIS)

Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum
APRIL 2018

Terbitan 2018

© Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia

Hak Cipta Terpelihara. Tidak dibenarkan mengeluar ulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan isi kandungan buku ini dalam apa juga
bentuk dan dengan cara apa jua sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat kebenaran
bertulis daripada Pengarah, Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, Aras 4-8, Blok E9, Parcel E, Kompleks
Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62604 Putrajaya.

CONTENT v
vi
Rukun Negara........................................................................................................................................................... vii
Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan ........................................................................................................................... viii
Definisi Kurikulum Kebangsaan .............................................................................................................................. ix
Falsafah Pendidikan Sains Kebangsaan ................................................................................................................. 1
Kata Pengantar......................................................................................................................................................... 2
Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................. 2
Aims ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2
Objective ................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Framework of the Standard Curriculum for Secondary School ............................................................................... 4
Focus ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5
6
Thoughtful Science .............................................................................................................................................. 7
Critical Thinking Skill ............................................................................................................................................ 9
Creative Thinking Skill ......................................................................................................................................... 18
Thinking Strategies .............................................................................................................................................. 20
Scientific Skills .....................................................................................................................................................
Scientific Attitueds and Noble Values ..................................................................................................................
21st Century Skills ...................................................................................................................................................

High Order Thinking Skills ....................................................................................................................................... 21
Teaching and Learning Strategies ........................................................................................................................... 22
Elements Across the Curriculum ............................................................................................................................. 28
Classroom Assesment ............................................................................................................................................. 31
Content Organisation ............................................................................................................................................... 40
43
Elementary Physics ......................................................................................................................................... 51
73
Newtonian Mechanics ..................................................................................................................................... 85
Heat ................................................................................................................................................................. 109
Waves, Light and Optics .................................................................................................................................. 113
Appendix .................................................................................................................................................................. 114
Panel of Writers ....................................................................................................................................................... 114
Panel of Translators .................................................................................................................................................
Acknowledgement ...................................................................................................................................................

RUKUN NEGARA

BAHAWASANYA Negara kita Malaysia mendukung cita-cita hendak:
Mencapai perpaduan yang lebih erat dalam kalangan seluruh masyarakatnya;

Memelihara satu cara hidup demokratik;
Mencipta satu masyarakat yang adil di mana kemakmuran negara

akan dapat dinikmati bersama secara adil dan saksama;
Menjamin satu cara hidup yang liberal terhadap tradisi-tradisi

kebudayaannya yang kaya dan berbagai corak;
Membina satu masyarakat progresif yang akan menggunakan

sains dan teknologi moden;

MAKA KAMI, rakyat Malaysia, berikrar akan menumpukan seluruh tenaga dan usaha
kami untuk mencapai cita-cita tersebut berdasarkan atas prinsip-prinsip yang berikut:

KEPERCAYAAN KEPADA TUHAN
KESETIAAN KEPADA RAJA DAN NEGARA

KELUHURAN PERLEMBAGAAN
KEDAULATAN UNDANG-UNDANG
KESOPANAN DAN KESUSILAAN

v

FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN KEBANGSAAN

“Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah lebih
memperkembangkan potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk
melahirkan insan yang seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi
dan jasmani, berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan. Usaha ini
adalah bertujuan untuk melahirkan warganegara Malaysia yang berilmu
pengetahuan, berketerampilan, berakhlak mulia, bertanggungjawab dan
berkeupayaan mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberikan sumbangan
terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga, masyarakat dan negara”

Sumber: Akta Pendidikan 1996 (Akta 550)

vi

DEFINISI KURIKULUM KEBANGSAAN

3. Kurikulum Kebangsaan
(1) Kurikulum Kebangsaan ialah suatu program pendidikan yang
termasuk kurikulum dan kegiatan kokurikulum yang merangkumi
semua pengetahuan, kemahiran, norma, nilai, unsur kebudayaan
dan kepercayaan untuk membantu perkembangan seseorang murid
dengan sepenuhnya dari segi jasmani, rohani, mental dan
emosi serta untuk menanam dan mempertingkatkan nilai moral yang
diingini dan untuk menyampaikan pengetahuan.

Sumber: Peraturan-Peraturan Pendidikan (Kurikulum Kebangsaan) 1997
[PU(A)531/97.]

vii

FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN KEBANGSAAN

“Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah lebih
memperkembangkan potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk
melahirkan insan yang seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi
dan jasmani, berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan. Usaha ini
adalah bertujuan untuk melahirkan warganegara Malaysia yang berilmu
pengetahuan, berketerampilan, berakhlak mulia, bertanggungjawab dan
berkeupayaan mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberikan sumbangan
terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga, masyarakat dan negara”

Sumber: Akta Pendidikan 1996 (Akta 550)

vi

KATA PENGANTAR

Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Menengah (KSSM) yang DSKP yang dihasilkan juga telah menyepadukan enam tunjang
dilaksanakan secara berperingkat mulai tahun 2017 akan Kerangka KSSM, mengintegrasikan pengetahuan, kemahiran dan
menggantikan Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah (KBSM) nilai, serta memasukkan secara eksplisit Kemahiran Abad Ke-21
yang mula dilaksanakan pada tahun 1989. KSSM digubal bagi dan Kemahiran Berfikir Aras Tinggi (KBAT). Penyepaduan tersebut
memenuhi keperluan dasar baharu di bawah Pelan Pembangunan dilakukan untuk melahirkan insan seimbang dan harmonis dari segi
Pendidikan Malaysia (PPPM) 2013-2025 agar kualiti kurikulum intelek, rohani, emosi dan jasmani sebagaimana tuntutan Falsafah
yang dilaksanakan di sekolah menengah setanding dengan Pendidikan Kebangsaan.
standard antarabangsa. Kurikulum berasaskan standard yang
menjadi amalan antarabangsa telah dijelmakan dalam KSSM Bagi menjayakan pelaksanaan KSSM, pengajaran dan
menerusi penggubalan Dokumen Standard Kurikulum dan pembelajaran guru perlu memberi penekanan kepada KBAT
Pentaksiran (DSKP) untuk semua mata pelajaran yang dengan memberi fokus kepada pendekatan Pembelajaran
mengandungi Standard Kandungan, Standard Pembelajaran dan Berasaskan Inkuiri dan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Projek, supaya
Standard Prestasi. murid dapat menguasai kemahiran yang diperlukan dalam abad
ke-21.
Usaha memasukkan standard pentaksiran di dalam dokumen
kurikulum telah mengubah lanskap sejarah sejak Kurikulum Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia merakamkan setinggi-tinggi
Kebangsaan dilaksanakan di bawah Sistem Pendidikan penghargaan dan ucapan terima kasih kepada semua pihak yang
Kebangsaan. Menerusinya murid dapat ditaksir secara berterusan terlibat dalam penggubalan KSSM. Semoga pelaksanaan KSSM
untuk mengenal pasti tahap penguasaannya dalam sesuatu mata akan mencapai hasrat dan matlamat Sistem Pendidikan
pelajaran, serta membolehkan guru membuat tindakan susulan Kebangsaan.
bagi mempertingkatkan pencapaian murid.
SHAZALI BIN AHMAD
Pengarah
Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum
Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia

ix



INTRODUCTION KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

As articulated in the National Education Philosophy, education in Secondary core science subject is designed to develop science
Malaysia is an on-going effort towards nurturing the potential of literacy and high order thinking skills as well as the ability to apply
individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, to develop individuals science knowledge, in decision-making and solving real-life
who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically problems among pupils.
balanced. The primary and secondary school curriculum standard
and assessment for sciences are developed with the aim of fostering Elective science subjects are aspired to sharpen and reinforce
such individuals. pupil’s knowledge and skills in STEM. These subjects enable pupils
to pursue high education with lifelong learning skills. These pupils
Moving towards a developed nation, Malaysia should create a are anticipated to pursue career in STEM and be able to actively
scientific, progressive, inventive and visionary community as well as participate in community development and nation-building.
benefiting the latest technologies. This community must be able to
contribute to the advancement of science and the sustainability of Pupils taking KSSM Physics will have the knowledge and skills to
technological civilisation. To achieve this, we need to develop enable them to solve problems and make decisions in everyday life
critical, creative, innovative and competent citizens who practice the related to Physics based on scientific attitudes and values. They will
culture of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics also be able to further their studies and undertake physics related
(STEM). career. KSSM Physics intends to develop individuals who are
dynamic, viable, fair, practice STEM culture and responsible towards
The national science curriculum encompasses core science and community and environment.
elective science subjects. The core science subject is being offered
in primary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools, while the
eective sciences are being offered in upper secondary schools such
as are Biology, Physics, Chemistry and Additional Science.

1

AIMS KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

KSSM Physics aims to develop science-literate pupils through OBJECTIVES
learning experiences in understanding the physics related concepts,
developing skills, using various strategies and applying the The KSSM Physics enables pupils to achieve the following
knowledge and skills based on scientific attitudes and values as well objectives:
as understanding the impact of science and technological 1. Strengthen interest and passion for physics.
developments in society. These pupils can communicate, make 2. Reinforce and enrich scientific knowledge, skills, attitudes and
decisions based on scientific evidences, and able to further their
education and careers in the STEM field. values in physics through scientific investigation.
3. Enhance the ability to think logically, rationally, critically and

creatively through processes of understanding and applying
physics in decision-making and problems solving.
4. Acknowledge that the knowledge of physics is temporary and
evolving.
5. Practise the usage of physics language and symbols and equip
pupils with skills in delivering phyiscs related ideas in the
relevant context.
6. Develop mindset about chemical concepts, theories and laws,
open-mindedness, objectiveness and proactiveness.
7. Realize social, economic, environmental and technological
implications in physics and caring for the environment and
society.
8. Appreciate physics and its application in helping to explain
phenomena and solve real worls problems.

2

KSSM FRAMEWORK KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

KSSM Physics is built based on six pillars, which are This integration aimed at developing human capital who is
Communication; Spiritual, Attitude and Value; Humanity; knowledgeable, competent, creative, critical, innovative and
Personal Development; Chemistry Development and Aesthetic; embraces noble values based on religion as illustrated in
and Science and Technology. The six pillars are the main Figure 1.
domain that support each other and are integrated with critical,
creative and innovative thinking.

Figure 1: KSSM Framework
3

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

1. scientific language; can evaluate and apply scientific knowledge
and skills in science and technology contextually, responsibly and
FOCUS ethically. Thoughtful science also intends to produce creative and
critical individuals that can communicate and collaborate to face
KSSM Physics focuses on thoughtful learning based on the three the challenges of the 21st century demands, in which the country’s
domains, which are knowledge, skills and values. The progress is highly dependent upon the capacity and quality of its
development of these domains will be experienced by pupils human resources.
through inquiry method in order to nurture thoughtful science
individual (Figure 2). The inquiry approach includes pupil-centred Thoughtful Learning
learning, constructivism, contextual learning, problem-based Thoughtful learning is a process of acquiring and mastering skills
learning, mastery learning as well as related strategies and and knowledge which can develop pupils mind to optimum level.
methods.
The curriculum also aims to prepare pupils to face rapid Thoughtful science can be achieved through thoughtful learning
technological development and various challenges of the 21st when pupils are actively engaged in the teaching and learning
century like The Industrial Revolution 4.0. The group of pupils that processes (T&L). In this process, the thoughtful learning activities
have gone through this curriculum will be the STEM human designed by teachers are to dig the pupils’ minds and encourage
resource who will be able to contribute towards national them to think, to conceptualize, solve problems and make wise
development. decisions. Hence, thinking skills should be practised and cultured
among pupils.
Thoughtful Science
According to Kamus Dewan (4th Edition), ‘fikrah’ or in English
language ‘thoughtful’ means the ability to think and reflect. In the
context of science curriculum, thoughtful science refers to the
quality desired to be produced by the National Science Education
System. Thoughtful science learners are those who can
understand scientific ideas and are able to communicate in

4

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Critical Thinking Skills

Critical thinking skills is the ability to evaluate an idea in a logical
and rational manner to make reasonable judgement with
justifications and reliable evidences.
A brief description of each critical thinking skills is as in Table 1:

Table 1: Critical Thinking Skills

CRITICAL DESCRIPTION
THINKING SKILLS

Attributing Identifying characteristics, features, qualities
and elements of a concept or an object.

Comparing and Finding similarities and differences based on
Contrasting criteria such as characteristics, features,
qualities and elements of objects or events.
Grouping and Separating and grouping objects or
Classifying phenomena into groups based on certain
criteria such as common characteristics or
Sequencing features.
Arranging objects and information in order
Figure 2: The Conceptual Framework for Physics Curriculum based on the quality or quantity of common
characteristics or features such as size, time,
shape or number.

5

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

CRITICAL DESCRIPTION Creative Thinking Skills
THINKING SKILLS
Creative thinking skill is the ability to produce or create something
Prioritising Arranging objects or information in order based new and valuable by using genuine imaginative skill and
unconventional thinking. A brief description of each creative
on their importance or urgency. thinking skill is as in Table 2.

Analysing Processing information by breaking it down into Table 2: Creative Thinking Skills
smaller parts in order to deeply and thoroughly
Detecting Bias understand them in details and their CREATIVE DESCRIPTION
Evaluating interrelationship. THINKING

Making Identify/ Investigate views or opinions that have SKILLS
Conclusion the tendency to support or oppose something.
Generating Ideas Prompting thoughts or opinions related to
Assessing considerations and decisions using something.
knowledge, experiences, skills, values and
giving justification. Relating Making connections in certain situations or
events to find relationship between a
Making a statement about the outcomes of an structure or pattern.
investigation based on a hypothesis.

Making Inference Making initial conclusion and explaining an
event using data collection and past
experiences.

6

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

CREATIVE DESCRIPTION CREATIVE DESCRIPTION
THINKING THINKING
Forecasting an event based on conjencture can be tested to determine its
SKILLS observations and previous experiences or SKILLS validity.
Predicting collected data.
Developing Forming an understanding about a
Making Making general statement about certain Analogy complex or abstract concept by relating it
Generalisation matter from a group of observations on to simple or concrete concept with similar
samples or some information from that Inventing characteristics.
group.
Producing something new or modifying
Visualising Forming perception or making mental something which is already in existence to
images about a particular idea, concept, overcome problems in a systematic
Synthesising situation or vision. manner.

Developing Combining separate elements to produce Thinking Strategy
Hypothesis an overall picture in the form of writing,
drawing or artefact. Thinking strategy is structured and focused high-level thinking
which involves critical and creative thinking and reasoning skills in
Making a general statement about the every steps taken to achieve the intended goal or solution to a
relationship between the manipulated problem. Description of each thinking strategy is as in Table 3.
variable and responding variable to explain
an observation or event. This statement or

7

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Table 3: Thinking Strategy Thinking Skills

THINKING DESCRIPTION
STRATEGY

Conceptualising Making generalisations towards building a Critical Creative
Making Decision
Problem Solving meaning, concept or model based on  Attributing  Generating idea
 Comparing and  Relating
inter-related specific common  Making
contrasting
characteristics.  Grouping and inferences
 Predicting
Selecting the best solution from several classifying Reasoning  Developing
alternatives based on specific criteria to  Sequencing
achieve the intended aims.  Prioritising hypothesis
 Analysing  Synthesising
Finding the right solutions in a systematic  Detecting bias  Making
manner for situations that are uncertain or  Evaluating
challenging or unanticipated difficulties.  Making generalisations
 Visualising
conclusion  Developing

analogy
 Inventing

Table 3 shows an overall picture of the thinking skills and thinking Thinking Strategies
strategies. Further information on thinking skills and thinking
strategies(TSTS) can be found in Buku Panduan Penerapan  Conceptualising
Kemahiran Berfikir dan Strategi Berfikir dalam Pengajaran dan  Making decision
Pembelajaran Sains (Curriculum Development Centre, 1999).  Problem solving

Figure 3: TSTS Model in KSSM Physics

8

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Scientific Skills Table 4: Science Process Skills

KSSM Physics emphasizes on inquiry and problem solving. In the SCIENCE DESCRIPTION
process of inquiry and solving problem, scientific skills and thinking PROCESS SKILLS
skills are used. Scientific skills are important skills used during
scientific activities such as conducting experiments and projects. Observing Using the senses of sight, hearing,
touch, taste or smell to gather
Scientific skills consist of science process skills and manipulative
skills. information about objects and

Science Process Skills phenomena.

Science Process Skills (SPS) are skills required in the process of Classifying Using observations to group objects or
finding solutions to a problem or making decisions in a systematic phenomena according to similarities and
manner. SPS are mental processes which promote critical, differences.
creative, analytical and systematic thinking. Mastery of SPS
together with attitude and appropriate knowledge to guarantee the Measuring and Making quantitative observations using
ability of pupils to think effectively. Thus, good command of SPS Using Numbers numbers and tools with standard units
with positive attitude and sound knowledge will ensure effective to ensure an accurate measurement.
thinking among pupils. Table 4 describes each of the SPS.
Inferring Using collected data or past
experiences to draw conclusions and
make explanations of events.

Predicting Making forecast about future events
based on observations and previous
experiences or collected data.

9

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

SCIENCE DESCRIPTIONS SCIENCE DESCRIPTIONS
PROCESS SKILLS PROCESS SKILLS

Communicating Using words or graphic symbols such as Hypothesising Making a general statement about the
tables, graphs, diagrams or models to relationship between the manipulated and
explain actions, objects or events. responding variable to explain an
observation or event. This statement or
Using Space- Describing changes in parameter such as conjecture can be tested to determine its
Time Relationship location, direction, shape, size, volume, validity.
weight or mass with time.
Planning and conducting an investigation
Interpreting Data Giving rational explanations about an object, Experimenting under controlled conditions to test a
event or pattern derived from collected data. hypothesis, collecting and interpreting data
until a conclusion can be obtained.

Defining Giving meaning to a concept by describing Manipulative Skills
Operationally what must be done and what should be Manipulative skills are psychomotor skills that enable pupils to
observed. carry out practical works in science. It involves the development of
Controlling hand-eye coordination. These manipulative skills are:
Variables Managing manipulated variable, responding
variable and fixed variable. In a scientific  Use and handle science apparatus and substances
investigation, the manipulated variable is correctly.
changed to observe its relationship with the
responding variable. At the same time, the  Handle specimens correctly and carefully.
other variables are kept the same.  Draw specimens, apparatus and substances accurately
 Clean science apparatus correctly
 Store science apparatus and substances correctly and

safely.

10

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Relationship between Science Process Skills and Thinking Skills SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS DESCRIPTION

Accomplishment in Science Process Skills require pupils to master Making Inferences Relating
the related thinking skills. Table 5 shows these relationships. Comparing and contrasting
Analysing
Table 5: Relationship between Science Process Skills and Making Inferences
Thinking Skills

Predicting Relating
Visualising

SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS DESCRIPTION

Observing Attributing Using Space - Time Sequencing
Classifying Comparing and contrasting Relationship Prioritising
Relating Interpreting data
Comparing and contrasting
Attributing Defining operationally Analysing
Comparing and contrasting Detecting bias
Grouping and classifying Making conclusion
Making Generalisation
Measuring and Using Relating Evaluating
Numbers Comparing and contrasting
Relating
Developing analogy
Visualising
Analysing

11

SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS DESCRIPTION KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Controlling variables Attributing Teaching and Learning based on Thinking Skills and Scientific
Hypothesising Comparing and contrasting Skills
Relating
Analysing KSSM Physics emphasizes thoughtful learning based on thinking
skills and scientific skills. In this curriculum, the intended Learning
Attributing Standard (LS) is written by integrating the aspired knowledge and
Relating skills for pupils to acquire and master. Teachers should emphasize
Comparing and contrasting on the acquisition and proficiency of pupils’ knowledge and skills
Generating ideas along with attitudes and scientific values in T&L.
Developing hypothesis
Predicting The embedding of SPS in KSSM Physics has somewhat fulfills the
Synthesising aspirations of 21st century education and indirectly encourages and
uplifts the development of pupils’ high order thinking skills.

Experimenting All thinking skills
Communication All thinking skills

12

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Science Process Skills Standard

The Science Process Skills Standard is a general recommended The science process skills at level 1 and 2 stated in the Learning
and specific accomplishment which must be met by pupils in each Standard which must mastered as a basis for further study at the
level of schooling. Each statement refers to the minimum standard secondary level as shown in Table 6.
of pupils achievement based on schooling levels and cognitive
development.

Table 6: Science Process Skills Standard

SCIENCE Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
(Year 1-3) (Year 4 – 6) (Form 1 – 3) (Form 4 – 5)
NO PROCESS
SKILLS  Use sensory organs
involved to make
1 Observing observation about  Use sensory organs to  Make relevant and  Make observation
phenomena or
changes that occur. make observation precise observation qualitatively and

qualitatively and qualitatively and quantitatively to make

quantitatively with quantitatively to generalization based

appropriate tools to identify trends or on trends or

describe the sequences on objects sequences.

phenomena or or phenomena.  Present advance

changes that occur.  Use correct tools findings analytically.

skillfully to make

observations.

13

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

SCIENCE Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
(Year 1-3) (Year 4 – 6) (Form 1 – 3) (Form 4 – 5)
NO PROCESS
SKILLS

2 Classifying  Collect/segregate  Compare/identify the  Compare/identify the  Identify characteristics

evidences/data/objects similarities and similarities and used to segregate,

/phenomena based on differences based on differences to choose and explain in

observed given categories based determine the criteria detail about objects or

characteristics. on common of category for the studied

characteristics. evidence/ data/ phenomena.

objects/ studied

phenomena

3 Measuring and  Measure using correct  Measure using correct  Measure using  Show ways to measure
Using
Numbers tools and standard techniques, tools with correct techniques using tools and

units. standard units. and tools with standard units with

standard units and correct techniques and

record systematically record in tables

and completely. systematically and

 Convert basic completely.

quantity units  Use complex derived

correctly. units correctly.

 Use correct derived

units.

4 Inferring  State a reasonable  Make reasonable pre-  Make more than one  Generate multiple
explanation for an assumption for an
observation. observation using the reasonable early possibilities to explain a
information given.
conclusions for an complex situation.

incident or an  Explain the relation and

14

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

SCIENCE Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
(Year 1-3) (Year 4 – 6) (Form 1 – 3) (Form 4 – 5)
NO PROCESS
SKILLS observation using trends between
information given. manipulated and
responding variables in
an investigation.

5 Predicting  Describe a possibility  Make a reasonable  Perform simple  Perform simple
development or trend development or trend
for an incident or data. prediction about an analysis based on analysis based on
obtained data to obtained data to
incident based on predict the future of predict the future of an
an object or object or phenomena.
observations, past phenomena.
 Test the prediction
experiences or data. made.

6 Communicating  Record ideas or  Record and present  Present experimental  Present experimental
information in any ideas and information findings and findings and
form. systematically in observation data in observation data in
suitable form. various form such as various complex form
simple graphics, using graphics,
pictures or tables. pictures or tables to
show the relationship
between the
associated patterns.

15

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

SCIENCE Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
(Year 1-3) (Year 4 – 6) (Form 1 – 3) (Form 4 – 5)
NO PROCESS
SKILLS  Arrange a
phenomenon or
7 Using Space incident  Arrange a  Use, analyse and
Time chronologically. phenomenon or interpret numbers and
Relationship incident numerical relationship
chronologically. efficiently when solving
problems and
 Interpret and explain conducting
the meaning of investigations.
mathematical
relations.

8 Interpreting Data  Choose relevant ideas  Give rational  Analyse data and
about objects, explanations by suggest ways to
(Not stated explicitly in incidents or patterns in interpolating and improve.
the Learning Standard) data to come up with extrapolating the
an explanation. collected data.  Detect and explain
9 Defining anomaly in collected
Operationally  Describes an  Describes the most sets of data.
interpretation by appropriate
stating what is being interpretation of a  Describe the
done and observed in concept by stating interpretation made
a specific aspects of a what is being done about the selection of
situation. and observed in a tools or methods of
situation. what is being
observed.

16

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

SCIENCE Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
(Year 1-3) (Year 4 – 6) (Form 1 – 3) (Form 4 – 5)
NO PROCESS
SKILLS

10 Controlling  Determine the  Determine all types of  Change the fixed
Variables responding and
constant variables variable, which are variable to the
after the manipulated
variable is determined responding variables, manipulated variable
in an investigation.
manipulated variables and state the new

and fixed variables. responding variable.

11 Hypothesising  Make a general  Make a relationship  Explain an expected
statement that can be
tested about the between the result from the
relationship between
the variables in an manipulated variable designed scientific
investigation.
and the responding investigation.

(Not stated explicitly in the variable to build a
Learning Standard)
hypothesis which can

be tested.

12 Experimenting  Carry out experiment,  Carry out experiment,  Trigger new question
collect data, interpret build hypothesis, and plan an experiment
data and make design methods and to test new hypothesis
conclusions to test the determine appropriate from the question.
hypothesis and write apparatus, collect
report. data, analyse,
summarise and write
report.

17

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Scientific Attitudes And Noble Values

Science learning experiences can inculcate scientific attitudes and  Preservere and determined.
noble values in pupils. These attitudes and values are instilled  Ready to repeat experiments.
through the following:  Do the task wholeheartedly.
 Ready to accept critics and challanges.
1. Interest and curious about the environment.  Strive to overcome problems and challenges.
 Seek information from teachers, friends or other people.
 Do own reading. 5. Systematic, confident and ethical.
 Collect materials or specimens for research purposes.  Conduct activities orderly and timely.
 Carry out own research.  Arrange tools and materials in order.
 Optimistic about the task.
2. Honest and accurate in recording and validating data.  Brave and ready to venture something new.
 Describe and record real observations.  Dare to defend something done.
 Record information objectively (not affected by feelings of
illusions) 6. Collaborate.
 Explain information rationally.  Help friends and teachers.
 Cite the sources of used information.  Carry out activities and experiments together.
 Selflessness.
3. Flexible and open-minded.  Fair and equitable.
 Accept others’ opinions.
 Agree tp cogent evidence.
 Be open-mided.

4. Diligent and persistent when carrying out a task.

18

7. Be responsible for the safety of oneself, others, and the KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4
environment.
 Take care of oneself and friends’ safety. 12. Realise that science as a means to understand nature.
 Preserve and conserve the environment.  Express how science is used to solve problems.
 State the implications of using science to solve a problem or
8. Compasionate. issue.
 Love all living things.  Communicate through correct scientific language.
 Be prudent and respectful.
The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally
9. Appreciate the contributions of science and technology. occurs through the following stages:
 Use the creation of science and technology wisely.
 Utilise public facilities created by science and technology  Aware and understand the importance and the need of
responsibly. scientific

10. Thankful to God. attitudes and noble values.
 Always be satisfied with the gift of God.  Focus on these attitudes and noble values.
 Use the gift of God wisely.  Internalise and practise these scientific attitudes and
 Be thankful to God.
noble values.
11. Appreciate and practise clean and healthy living.
 Maintain cleanliness and good health. Sound lesson plan is required for effective inculcation of scientific
 Always be conscious of personal hygiene and clean attitudes and noble values during teaching and learning. Thus,
environment. before planning each lesson, teachers should examine the
Learning Standard, including Performance Standard fto foster
scientific attitudes and noble values in the lesson.

19

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

21st CENTURY SKILLS PUPILS’ PROFILE DESCRIPTION

One of the aspirations in KSSM is to develop pupils with 21st and make ethical decisions. Think
century skills, while focusing on thinking skills as well as life and about learning and about being
career skills strongly rooted in noble values and practices. 21st learners themselves. Generate
century skills aim to prepare pupils with the characteristics questions and are receptive towards
specified in Table 7: Pupils’ Profile. These features enable them to perspective, values and individual
compete globally. Achieving CS and LS in KSSM Physics traditions and society. Confident and
contributes to the acquisition of 21st century skills among pupils. creative in handling new learning
areas.

Table 7: Pupils’ Profile Team Player Cooperate effectively and
PUPILS’ PROFILE harmoniously with others. Share
DESCRIPTION collective responsibility while
respecting and appreciating the
Resilient Able to face and overcome difficulties contributions of each member in the
and challenges with wisdom, team. Acquire interpersonal skills
confidence, tolerance and empathy. through collaborative activities, which
in turn mould pupils into better
Communicator Able to voice out and express their leaders and team members.
thoughts, ideas and information
confidently and creatively in verbal Curious Develop natural curiosity to explore
and written, using multi-media and strategies and new ideas. Learn skills
technology. that are needed to carry out inquiry
and research, as well as display
Thinker Able to think critically, creatively and
innovatively; solve complex problems

20

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

PUPILS’ PROFILE DESCRIPTION HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS

Principled independent learning traits. Enjoy Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) is explicitly stated in the
Informative continuous life-long learning curriculum to encourage teachers to incorporate them in teaching
experiences. and learning, hence stimulating structured and focused thinking
Caring/ Concern Honest and have integrity, equity with among pupils. Descriptions of the focused four levels of HOTS are
Patriotic just and respect for individuals, shown in Table 8.
groups and community. Responsible
for their actions, and as well as the Table 8: Thinking Levels in HOTS
consequences.
Knowledgeable, have wide, deep and THINKING LEVEL DESCRIPTIONS
balanced understanding across Applying Using knowledge, skills and
various disciplines. Explore and gain
knowledge on local and global issues values to take actions in
effectively and efficiently. Understand
ethical issues/ laws related to the different situations.
information gained.
Show empathy, compassion and Analysing Breaking down information into
respect towards the needs and
feelings of others. Committed to serve smaller parts to enhance
the society and ensure sustainability
of the environments. understanding and make
Portray love, support and respect
towards the country. relationship between the parts.

Evaluating Making considerations and

decisions using knowledge,

skills, values and experiences

as well as justifications.

Creating Generating ideas, products or

methods and innovatively.

21

HOTS are the ability to apply knowledge, skills and values in KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4
reasoning and reflecting to solve problems, make decisions, to
innovate and create something. HOTS include critical thinking, TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES
creative thinking, reasoning and thinking strategy.
Teaching and learning strategies in KSSM Physics emphasise on
Critical thinking skill is the ability to evaluate an idea in a logical thoughtful learning. Thoughtful learning is a process that helps
and rational manner to make a reasonable judgement with pupils acquire knowledge and master skills which assist them to
justifications and reliable evidences. develop their minds to optimum level. Thoughtful learning
Creative thinking skill is the ability to produce or create can take place through various learning approaches such as
something new and valuable by using genuine imaginative skill inquiry, constructivism, science, technology and society, contextual
and unconventional thinking. learning and mastery learning space. Learning activities should
Reasoning skill is the ability of an individual to consider and therefore be geared towards activating pupils’ critical and creative
evaluate logically and rationally. thinking skills and not be confined to routine methods. Pupils
Thinking strategy is a way of thinking that is structured and should be made explicitly aware of the thinking skills and thinking
focused to solve problems. strategies which are employed in their learning.

HOTS can be applied in classrooms through activities in the form More higher order questions and problems posed to pupils
of reasoning, inquiry learning, problem solving and projects. encourages them to enhance their critical and creative thinking
Teachers and pupils need to use thinking tools such as thinking skills. Pupils actively involved in the teaching and learning where
maps and mind maps, including high level questioning to stimulate the acquisition of knowledge, mastery of skills and inculcation of
thinking processes among pupils. scientific attitudes and noble values are integrated.

The learning approaches that can be applied by teachers in the
classroom are as follows:

22

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Inquiry Approach  Learning is the result from pupils’ own effort.
 Learning occurs when pupils restructure their ideas through
Inquiry approach emphasises learning through experiences.
Inquiry generally means to find information, to relating original ideas to new ones.
question and to investigate a phenomenon. Discovery is the main  Pupils have the opportunities to cooperate, share ideas and
characteristic of inquiry. Learning through discovery occurs when
the main concepts and principles of science are investigated and experiences and reflect on their learning.
discovered by pupils themselves. Through activities such as
experiments, pupils investigate a phenomenon and draw Contextual Learning
conclusions by themselves. Teachers then lead pupils to
understand the science concepts through the results of the inquiry. Contextual learning is a method of instruction that enables pupils
Thinking skills and scientific skills are thus developed further to apply new knowledge and skills to real-life situations. In this
during the inquiry process. However, the inquiry approach may not context pupils do not just obtain knowledge theoretically, but
be suitable for all teaching and learning situations. Sometimes, it allowing pupils to make connections and make relevance of
may be more appropriate for teachers to present concepts and science learning with their lives. A contextual approach is used
principles directly or through guided inquiry. when pupils learn through investigation similar to inquiry approach.

Constructivism Mastery Learning

Constructivism is a learning theory which suggests that learners Mastery learning ensures all pupils acquire and master the
construct their own knowledge and understanding of the world intended learning objectives. This approach is
through experiences and reflecting on those experiences. The based on the principle that pupils are able to learn if given the
important elements of constructivisme are: opportunities. Pupils should be allowed to learn at their own pace,
with the incorporation of remedial and enrichment activities as part
 Teachers have to consider pupils’ prior knowledge. of the teaching-learning process.

23

Problem/ Project Based Learning KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Problem/ project based learning (PBL) is a student-centered For effective PBL, the provided issue of problem should;
pedagogy where pupils learn through prompting solving issues/  encourage pupils to understand the concept clearly an deeply.
problems. The issues or problems are provided by teachers.  Require pupils to justify and support their decisions.
Teachers can provide issues, problems or projects from various  meet the intended and previous related content/ learning
sources such as newspapers, magazines, journals, books,
textbooks, and cartoons, videos, television, films and others to suit standards.
the teaching and learning.  Be suitable to the capabilities of the pupils to ensure they can
Real world and relevant problem or project is used as a platform to
encourage pupils to the intended the concepts and principles. PBL work together to complete the task.
promotes the development of critical thinking skills, problem  Be open and captivating enough to motivate and enhance
solving abilities, and communication skills.
pupils’ interest.
PBL provides students the opportunity to work in a team,
collaborate on inquiring and evaluating research materials, STEM APPROACH
analysing data, justifying and making decision, and nurturing life- STEM approach is the teaching and learning (T&L) method
long learning among pupils. which applies integrated knowledge, skills and values of
STEM through inquiry, problem solving or project in the
context of daily life, environmentand, as well as local and
global community, as shown in Diagram 4.

24

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

5. Using mathematical thinking and computational thinking,
6. Developing explanations and designing solutions,
7. Engaging in debates and discussion based on evidence,

and
8. Acquiring information, evaluating and communicating about

the information.

Computational thinking is a cognitive process involved in
formulating problems and solutions which can be represented in a
form that can be effectively executed by humans and/ or
computers. Computational thinking helps pupils to solve complex
problems easily through organizing, analysing and presenting data
or ideas in a logical and systematic way.

Diagram 4: STEM Teaching and Learning Approach Varied T&L activties can elevate pupils’ interest towards
science. Interesting science lessons will motivate pupils to study
STEM T&L which is contextual and authentic can encourage which will then show favourable influence on their performance.
in depth learning amongst pupils. Pupils can work in groups or The T&L activities should correspond to the intended curriculum
individually based on the nature of the T&L activities. The STEM content, pupils’ ability and multiple intelligences, as well as
practices that are encouraged during STEM T&L are as follows: resources and facilities available.

1. Questioning and identifying problems,
2. Developing and using models,
3. Planning and carrying out investigations,
4. Analyzing and interpreting data,

25

Some T&L activities encouraged in science are as follows: KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Scientific Investigation/ Experiment Diagram 5: Steps to carry out anscientific investigation/ experiment

A scientific investigation/ experiment is commonly used in science
lessons. The hypothesis is tested by pupils through an
investigation to discover certain scientific concepts of principle.
Carrying out scientific investigation/ experiment encourages pupils
to cultivate thnking skills, science process skills and manipulative
skills.

In general, the procedures to conduct a scientific investigation/
experiment are shown in Diagram 5.

With the introduction of KSSM Physics, pupils are given the
opportunity to design scientific investigation/ experiments beside
the usual teacher-guided scientific investigations/ experiments.
Pupils are expected to plan and design the experiment, collect and
analyse data, interpret and display results, and finally share and
present their report and findings.

26

Simulation KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Simulation is an activity that imitates the real situation. Simulations Visits and Use of External Resources
can be carried out through role-play, games or using model. In
role-playing, pupil act out a particular role spontaneously based on Science learning is not limited to schools only. Science learning
a certain pre-determined conditions. Whereas in gaming, pupils is can take place at the zoos, museums, science centers, research
required to follow procedures. Pupil plays games in order to learn a institutes, mangrove swamps and factories too. Visits to such
particular principle or to understand the process of decision places can make learning more effective, fun and meaningful.
making. While in modelling, an object/ replica is used to represent Learning through visits can be impacted by careful planning. To
the real thing/ process. Pupils will be able to visualise the actual optimise learning, students must carry out activities or perform
situation, thus understand the concepts and principles to be assignments during the visit and held discussion after the visit.
learned.
The Use of Technology
Project
Technology is a highly effective and powerful tool to increase
Activities carried out by individuals or groups of students to interest in science learning. Through the use of technologies such
achieve certain goals. Project takes a long time and usually reach as television, radio, video, computers and the internet, science
out with the formal learning time. Pupils’ reports, artifacts or other T&L can be more exciting and effective. Animation and computer
forms of project outcomes need to be presented to teachers and simulation can be used as an effective tool to learn difficult and
fellow pupils. Project work promotes problem solving skills, time abstract science concepts. Computer simulations and animation
management skills and self-study. can also be displayed in the form of coursewareor through website.
Software applications such as word processors, graphic
presentation software and electronic spreadsheets are valuable
tools that can be employed to analyse and present data.

27

The use of other technologies such as data loggers and KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4
computerized user interface in experiments and projects can be of
effective assistants in science teaching and learning. ELEMENTS ACROSS THE CURRICULUM

Good management of activities and two-ways interactions between Elements Across Curriculum is a set of value-added elements
teacher-pupils and pupils-pupils during T&L further liberate their applied in the teaching and learning process other than those
thinking skills to a higher level. specified in the standard content. The application of these
elements is aimed at strengthening the human capital skills and
competency besides preparing pupils for the challenges of the
present and the future. The elements are explained below:

1. Language
 Using correct instruction language in all subjects.
 Emphasising promunication correct sentences structure,
grammar and terminologies in T&L in order to assist pupils
to communicate effectively and organise their thoughts
clearly and systematically.

2. Environmental Sustainability Awareness
 Developing awareness, nurturing the love and care for the
environment through teaching and learning.
 Promoting knowledge and awareness on the importance of
the environmental ethics and sustainability for pupils to
appriciate.

28

3. Noble Values KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4
 Instilling noble values in all subjects to ensure that pupils
are aware of their importance and gradually practice them. 5. Patriotism
 Practising noble values which encompass the aspects of  Nurturing patriotism in all subjects, extracurricular activities
spirituality, humanity and citizenship in relation to pupils’ and community services,
daily life.  Developing the spirit of love for the country as
well as encouraging the feelings of ‘truly proud to be
4. Science and Technology Malaysians’ amongst pupils.
 Raising the pupils’ interest in the science and technology
to improve scientific and technological literacy. 6. Creativity and Innovation
 Using technology in teaching and learning can contribute  Giving time and opportunity in all subjects for pupils to be
and assist efficient and effective learning. creative and innovative through extracting and generating
 Integration of science and technology in the or creating new/ original ideas.
teaching and learning enhances knowledge, skills and  Exploiting and fostering pupils’ creativity and
values in all subjects for examples: innovativeness to see and realise their full potential.
 Integrating elements of creativity and innovation in teaching
(i) knowledge of science and technology principles, and learning to ensure human capital meet the challenges
concepts and facts related to science and technology; of 21st Century.

(ii) Process skills (process of thought and specific
manipulative skills);

(iii) Scientific attitudes and values
(iv) Technological knowledge and skills.

29

7. Entrepreneurship KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4
 Incorporating the characteristics and practices of
enterpreneurship, gradually shaping a culture amongst 9. Global Sustainability
pupils,  Discussing Global Sustainability directly or indirectly in
 Fostering entrepreneured characteristics through activities related subjects, prompt and develop sustainable thinking
which promote diligence, honesty, trustworthiness and (responsive towards the environment, being responsible,
responsibility as well as developing creative and innovative creative and resourceful) with the concept of living within
mindset to drive ideas into the economy. global resources without damaging its present or future
environment,
8. Information and Communication Technology (ICT)  Educating global sustainability prepares pupils to face
 Incorperating information and communication technology challenges on complex interconnected global issues.
(ICT) in the lessons to ensure pupils have the ability to
apply and strengthen their basic knowledge and skills in 10. Financial Education
ICT,  Incorporating Financial Education to build future
 Uitilizing ICT to motivate pupils to be creative, stimulates generations who are financial literate, capable of making
interesting and fun T&L and improve the quality of learning, wise financial decisions and practise ethical financial
 Integrating ICT in teaching appropriate topics to further management and skills.
enhance pupils’ understanding of the content subject.  Exploring financial management and skills directly or
indirectly in T&L through topics related to finance e.g
simple and compound interest, foreign exchange,
budgeting credit-debit, saving and financial safety.
 Simulating financial management activities to prepare
pupils with knowledge, skills and values which are relevant
and useful to their living.

30

CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Classroom Assessment is the process of obtaining information on • Take into consideration the various levels of knowledge and
student development planned, implemented and reported by the skills learned.
teacher concerned. This process is ongoing to enable teachers to
determine the Student Mastery Level. • Allow pupils to show various learning capabilities.
• Assess the pupil's mastery level on Learning Standard and
Classroom Assesment can be implemented by teachers
formatively and summatively. Assessment is formatively Performance Standards.
implemented at the same time with the T&L process, while • Follow up actions for recovery and consolidation purposes.
summative assessments are implemented at the end of a learning
unit, term, semester or year. Teachers should plan, construct Performance Standard of KSSM Physics
valuation items or instruments, administer, examine, record and
report levels of mastery based on DSKP. Classroom Assesment for KSSM Physics is evaluated from three
main domains which are knowledge, skills and affective domains
In order to ensure that assessments help to improve the ability (for nobles values).
and mastery of the pupils, the teacher should implement the
assessments that have the following characteristics: Knowledge and science process skills integrated in learning area
are assessed based on the stated Performance Standards (PS).
 Use various assessment methods such as observation, oral and PS aims to gauge the achievement of students mastering the
writing. specific knowledge, skills and values. Assessment of scientific
skills can be carried out continuously, periodically or in clusters
• Use various assessment strategies that can be implemented by throughout the year. Therefore, it is important for teachers to use
teachers and pupils. professional judgment in determining the pupils’ performance
levels. There are 6 performance levels with their general
descriptors shown in Table 9.

31

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Table 9 : General Descriptors of Performance Level in Science All the investigations/ experiments/ activities listed in each theme
subjects for KSSM Physics in Table 10 are COMPULSORY. Investigations / experiments /
activities are conducted using inquiry approach.
PERFORMANCE
LEVEL DESCRIPTORS Table 10: List of Investigations/ Experiments/ Activities in each
1
2 Recall knowledge and basic skills of Theme
3 science.
4 Understand the knowledge and skills of TEMA EKSPERIMEN
science and explain the understanding.
5 Apply knowledge and science skills to carry ELEMENTARY 1.2.3 Carry out scientific investigation and
out simple tasks. PHYSICS 2.3.2 write a complete report for the Simple
6 Analyze information about knowledge and Pendulum Experiment.
science skills in the context of problem NEWTONIAN Experiment to determine the value of
solving. MECHANICS gravitational acceleration.
Evaluate to make judgement about the
science knowledge and skills in context 2.4.2 Experiment to find the relationship
problem solving and decision-making to between inertia and mass.
carrying out a task.
Invent by applying the knowledge and skills 4.2.3 Experiment to determine:
in context problem solving and decision-
making or carrying out an assignment in a (i) the specific heat capacity of water
new situation creatively and innovatively, (ii) the specific heat capacity of
giving due consideration to the social
values/ economy/ culture of the community. aluminium

HEAT 4.3.3 Experiment to determine:
4.4.2 (i) specific latent heat, f of fusion of
Teachers can refer to Appendix to view the relationship between
the key verbs of each Performance Level in Performance ice.
Standards and verbs in the Learning Standard with examples of (ii) specific latent heat of evaporation,
student activity that can be implemented.
v of water
Experiment to determine the
relationship between the pressure and
volume of a fixed mass of gas at
constant temperature.

32

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

TEMA EKSPERIMEN Reporting on scientific skills assessments is done twice a year.
Table 11 can be used as guidance on making professional
WAVES, LIGHT 4.4.3 Experiment to determine the judgment for the reporting.
AND OPTICS relationship between the volume and
temperature of a fixed mass of gas at Table 11: General Descriptions of Performance Level in
constant pressure. Scientific Skills for KSSM Physics

4.4.4 Experiment to determine the PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTORS
6.1.4 relationship between the pressure and LEVEL
temperature of a fixed mass of gas at
constant volume.  Poorly planned scientific investigation.
Experiment to determine the refractive

index, n for glass block or perspex.

6.1.6 Experiment to determine refractive  Inappropriate materials and apparatus
index of a medium using real depth and
apparent depth. used in the scientific investigation.
1  No data collected and recorded.
6.4.1 Experiment to:
(i) Investigate the relationship between  No or unclear explanation of the scientific

object distance, u and image investigation.
distance, v for a convex lens.
(ii) Determine the focal length of a thin  Plan the correct strategy and procedure in
lens using lens formula:
the scientific investigation with guidance.

1 1 1  Use suitable material and apparatus.
f uv
 Collect and record incomplete or irrelevant

2 data.
 Make an interpretation and conclusion not

based on the collected data.

33

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTORS PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTORS
LEVEL LEVEL scientific investigation.

 Plan and carry out the correct strategy and

procedure in the scientific investigation  Write a complete report on the scientific

with guidance. investigation

 Use correct material and apparatus.  Carry out a scientific investigation and

 Collect and record relevant data. writing a complete report.

3  Organize data in numerical or visual form  Collect, organize and present data in
with some error.
numerical or visual form well.

 Make an interpretation and conclusion  Interpret data and make conclusions
5
based on the collected data.
accurately with scientific reasoning.

 Write an incomplete scientific investigation  Identify the trend, pattern and relevant

report. data.

 Plan and carry out the correct strategy and

procedure in the scientific investigation.  Justify the outcome of the scientific
investigation relating to theory, principle
 Handle and use the correct material and and law of science in the reporting.

apparatus to get an accurate result.  Evaluate and suggest ways to improve to
6 the scientific investigation methods and
 Collect relevant data and record in a
4 further inquiry investigation if needed.
 Discuss the validity of the data and
suitable format.
suggest ways to improve the method of
 Organize the data in the numerical or data collection.

visual form with no error.

 Interpret the data and make an accurate

conclusion based on the aim of the

34

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Assessment of scientific attitudes and values can be implemented PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTORS
throughout the year. Table 12 can be used as guide for teachers LEVEL
in making a professional judgment.
Pupil is able to:

Table 12: General Interpretation of the Performance Level in  state how science is used to solve
Scientific Attitudes and Values of KSSM Physics problems.

PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTORS  state the implication of using science to
LEVEL 3 solve problems or certain issues.

Pupil is not able to:  use limited scientific language to
communicate.
 state how science is used to solve
problems.  document a few sources of information
used.
1  state the implication of using science to
solve problems or certain issues. Pupil is able to:

 use scientific language to communicate  determine how science is used to solve
problems or certain issues.
 document the source of information used.
 determine the implication of using science
Pupil is less able to: 4 to solve problems or certain issues.

 state how science is used to solve  always use sufficient scientific language to
problems. communicate.

2  state the implication of using science to  document parts of the sources of
solve problems or certain issues. information used.

 use scientific language to communicate Pupil is able to:
 Summarise how science is used to solve
 document the source of information used. 5

specific problems or issues.

35

PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTORS KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4
LEVEL
Overall Performance Level
 Summarise the implications of a particular
Overall Performance Level of KSSM Physics is to be determined
problem or issue. at the end of each year. This Overall Performance Level includes
aspects of knowledge, skills and values. Teachers need to assess
 Always use scientific language to pupils collectively and holistically by looking at all aspects of the
learning process. Teachers’ professional judgment should be
communicate well. employed in all assessment processes, particularly in determining
the overall performance level. Professional judgments can be
 Document almost all sources of made based on knowledge and experience of teachers, teacher-
pupil interactions, and discussions with committee members of
information used. relevant departments. Table 13 shows the overall performance
level descriptors of KSSM Physics.
Pupil is able to:
 Summarise how science is used to solve

problems or certain issues.
 Discuss and analyse the implication of

using science to solve problems or certain
6 issues.

 Consistently use the correct scientific
language to communicate clearly and
accurately.

 Document all the sources of information.
 Become a role model to other pupils.

36

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

Table 13: Descriptors of the overall performance level of KSSM

Physics

PERFORMANCE DESCRIPTORS
LEVEL

1 Pupils know basic knowledge, skills or
(Know) values in Physics.

2 Pupils know and understand basic
(Know and knowledge, skills and values in Physics.
understand)

3 Pupils know, understand and apply basic
(Know, understand
knowledge, skills and values in Physics.
and do)

4 Pupils know, understand and apply
(Know, understand knowledge, skills and values in a
and carry out in a competent mannerly procedure in
civilised manner) Physics.

5 Pupils know, understand and apply
(Know, understand knowledge, skills and values in new
situations with excellent commendable
and do with procedure in Physics.
commendable

praise)

6 Pupils know, understand and apply
(Know, understand knowledge, skills and values in new
and carry out in an situations with exceptional exemplary
exemplary manner) procedure in Physics.

37

KSSM PHYSICS FORM 4

CONTENT ORGANISATION

Form 4 and Form 5 Physics KSSM consist of seven themes: The recommended minimum teaching hours for KSSM Physics is
Elementary Physics, Newtonian Mechanics, Heat, Wave, Light and 96 hours per year as stipulated in Surat Pekeliling Ikhtisas
Optics, Electric and Electromagnetism, Applied Physics and Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia Bilangan 9 Tahun 2016.
Modern Physics. Each theme is divided into several areas of
learning as shown in Table 14. The Learning Area in each theme describes the span of
development, knowledge, skills and values through its Content
Table 14: Themes and Learning Areas in Physics Standard and Learning Standard. The Content Standard has one
or more Learning Standards which collectively form a concept or
Learning Areas idea based on the Learning Area.

Themes T&L needs to be holistic and integrated in order to deliver the
scientific concept or principle from a few Learning Standards to
Form 4 Form 5 suit pupils’ ability.

Elementary 1.0 Measurement 1.0 Force and Teachers need to examine Content Standards, Learning
Physics Motion II Standards and Standard Performance during the intended T&L
Newtonian 2.0 Force and Motion activities. Teachers need to prepare activities which would
Mechanics 3.0 Gravitation 2.0 Pressure actively prompt pupils to exercise their analytical, critical,
innovative and creative thinking.
Heat 4.0 Heat

Waves, Light and 5.0 Waves
Optics 6.0 Light and Optics

Electric and 3.0 Electric
Electromagnetism 4.0 Electromagnetism
Applied Physics 5.0 Electronic
Modern Physics 6.0 Nuclear Physics
7.0 Quantum Physics

40


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