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The Widow and the Judge

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Published by abtenore, 2016-11-10 12:08:38

Luke 18:1-8

The Widow and the Judge

Keywords: parables

JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

“Ignorance of Scripture is Ignorance of Christ.” + St. Jerome

COMPREHENSIVE EXEGETICAL STUDY OF
LUKE 18:1-8

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Framework: Critical Methods

Part I. Scriptural Passage
Part II. Parallel Passages
Part III. Exegetical Guide – Word by Word
Part IV. Cross References

*Topics |Themes generally addressed
* Literary Analysis
Part V. Cultural Concepts
Part VI. Biblical People
•   Images
Part VII. Biblical Events
Part VIII. Media Resources
Part IX. Music Reference to this Scriptural Passage
Part X. Sermons (associated with this passage)
Part XI. Class Sources (Levine, Herzog & Snodgrass).

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

BIBLICAL CRITICAL METHODS

•   SOURCE CRITICISM: AN IDENTIFICATION /INVESTIGATION OF SOURCE WRITTEN OR ORAL, EXTENDED
OR FRAGMENTARY, WHICH CONTRIBUTES TO THE COMPOSITION OF THE WORK/TEXT.

•   FORM CRITICISM: A CONSIDERATION OF THE FORM AND GENRE OF A TEXT IN ORDER TO (ESTABLISH
THE PARTICULAR INSTITUTIONAL AND SOCIAL SETTING, CULTURAL BACKGROUND AND INTENTION OF
THE TEXT) KNOW WHAT TYPES OF QUESTIONS CAN BE SENSIBLY ASKED OF THE TEXTS.

•   A. FORM: BEGINNING OR ENDS.

•   B. GENRES: SAGA, LAW, HYMNS, LEGEND, NOVEL, SERMON, MIRACLE STORY, ORACLE, ETC.

•   C. SETTING

•   D. INTENTION:

•   HISTORICAL AND TEXT CRITICISM:

•   INTERNAL: WORLD OF THE TEXT (PLACES, PERSONS, GESTURES, DATES, TO EVENTS, POLITICAL
SYSTEMS, ECONOMICS, DIRECT REFERENCES)

•   EXTERNAL: CONCERNS THE SITUATION THAT GAVE BIRTH TO THE TEXT (ERA, POLITICAL
POWERS, GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION, CONCERNS OF THE PEOPLE OF THAT TIME. (MORE
DIFFICULT AND PROBLEMADTIC LEVEL OF INVESTIGATION).

•   TEXT | GRAMMATICAL CRITICISM: TO DEFINE AND APPREHEND A RELIABLE TEXT ON WHICH TO WORK.

•   A. GRAMMATICAL

•   B. TRANSLATION DIFFERENCES

•   C. DIFFERENT ORDERING OF THE TEXT

•   IDEOLOGICAL/READER RESPONSE/CULTURAL CRITICISM: WHEN WE COME TO READ AND ANALYZE THE
TEXT, WE ARE COMING FROM A DIFFERENT POSITION. IT WHEN WE BRING OUR OWN PARTICULARITY
AND WE READ IT ON BEHALF OF THE “POOR” OR A SPECIAL LENSES.

•   CHURCH

•   WORK THEOLOGY

•   ETHNICITY

•   GENDER

•   SOCIAL CLASS

•   EDUCATION
•   BIBLE TRANSLATION
•   FAMILY INFLUENCE
•   LIFE CRISES

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

•   EXPLICIT/IMPLICIT POLITICAL POSITION

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

Part I. Scriptural Passage

The Parable of the…
“Persistent Widow”
“Tenacious Widow”
“Nagging Widow”

1 *Then he told them a parable about the necessity for them to

pray always without becoming weary.a He said, 2 “There was a
judge in a certain town who neither feared God nor respected any

human being. 3 And a widow in that town used to come to him
and say, ‘Render a just decision for me against my adversary.’

4 For a long time the judge was unwilling, but eventually he
thought, ‘While it is true that I neither fear God nor respect any

human being, 5 *b because this widow keeps bothering me I shall
deliver a just decision for her lest she finally come and strike
me.’ ” 6 The Lord said, “Pay attention to what the dishonest judge

says. 7 Will not God then secure the rights of his chosen ones who
call out to him day and night? Will he be slow to answer them?

8 I tell you, he will see to it that justice is done for them speedily.
But when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on earth?” 1

SIR.  35:  10-­16  

10  Give  to  the  Most  High  as  he  has  given,  
and  as  generously  as  your  hand  has  found.  

11  For  the  Lord  is  the  one  who  repays,  
and  he  will  repay  you  sevenfold.  

12  Do  not  offer  him  a  bribe,  for  he  will  not  accept  it;;  
and  do  not  trust  to  an  unrighteous  sacrifice;;  

for  the  Lord  is  the  judge,  
and  with  him  is  no  partiality.  

13  He  will  not  show  partiality  in  the  case  of  a  poor  man;;  
and  he  will  listen  to  the  prayer  of  one  who  is  wronged.  

14  He  will  not  ignore  the  supplication  of  the  fatherless,  
nor  the  widow  when  she  pours  out  her  story.  

15  Do  not  the  tears  of  the  widow  run  down  her  cheek  
as  she  cries  out  against  him  who  has  caused  them  to  fall?  

16  He  whose  service  is  pleasing  to  the  Lord  will  be  accepted,  
and  his  prayer  will  reach  to  the  clouds.  

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

LUKE 18: 1-8 | SIRACH 35: 14-25

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

PART II. PARALLEL PASSAGES

A Harmony of the Synoptic Gospels for Historical and Critical Study
133. The Coming of the Kingdom

Lk 18:1–8

Records of the Life of Jesus
§ 113 Parable of the Widow and the Judge

Lk 18:1–5

Lk 18:6–8

Synopsis of Matthew, Mark and Luke
The Parable of the Persistent Widow

Lk 18:1–8

Synopsis of the Four Gospels
236. The Parable of the Unjust Judge

Lk 18:1–8

Eusebian Canons
Luke §214

Lk 18:1–14

A Harmony of the Gospels
121. Two Parables on Prayer (The Importunate Widow, The Pharisee and the Publican)
Lk 18:1–14

Literary Analysis

Luke 1:80–24:53 Narrative, Gospel
17:20–18:30 Narrative, Pronouncement
17:20–18:14 Inquiry
1–5 Parable
6–8 Saying, Apocalyptic

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

PART III. WORD BY WORD ANALYSIS

Ἔλεγεν δὲ παραβολὴν αὐτοῖς πρὸς τὸ δεῖν Then Jesus told them a parable about their

πάντοτε προσεύχεσθαι αὐτοὺς καὶ μὴ need to pray always and not to lose heart |

ἐγκακεῖν, | NRSVCE NT RI NRSVCE

Ἔλεγεν Elegen Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose heart.
λέγω legō say; tell

verb, imperfect, active, indicative, third person, singular
Sense: to say (express) – to express in words.
Louw-Nida to say, to talk, to tell, to speak
LTW to say, tell; to order.
DBL Greek speak; name; call; give meaning; imply; so to speak

δὲ de Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose heart.
δέ de now; and; but

conjunction, logical connective
Louw-Nida and, and then
DBL Greek and; and then; but

LEH LXX Lexicon and; but; rather; on the one hand … on the other hand …; but also, but even; and
(even); and also, but also

παραβολὴν parabolēn Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose heart.
παραβολή parabolē parable

noun, accusative, singular, feminine
Sense: parable (Jesus) – a figurative narrative in which the duties of men or the spiritual matters of
God are portrayed (in a simple and often rustic manner); especially concerning the nature and history
of God’s kingdom.
Louw-Nida parable, figure, allegory, figure of speech
DBL Greek parable; archetype; proverb
TDNT

αὐτοῖς autois Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose heart.
αὐτός autos he

pronoun, personal, third person, dative, plural, masculine
Louw-Nida he, him, she, her, it, they, them
DBL Greek same; he, she, it; self
LEH LXX Lexicon self; id.; he, she, it; him, her, it; of him, of her, of it; even he; the same; at the same
place, together; together; in (just) the same way; at the same rate

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

πρὸς pros Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose heart.
πρός pros to

preposition
Louw-Nida for the purpose of, for the sake of, in order to
DBL Greek to; against; at; among; about; with; for; according to; toward; at the time; to the point of;
with regard to
TDNT

δεῖν dein Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose heart.
δεῖ dei must; it is necessary

verb, present, active, infinitive
Sense: to be obligatory – to be required by obligation, compulsion, or convention.
Louw-Nida should, ought, to have to do
DBL Greek it is necessary; should
TDNT

πάντοτε pantote Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose heart.
πάντοτε pantote always; at all times

adverb
Sense: always – at all times; all the time and on every occasion.
Louw-Nida always, at all times, on every occasion
DBL Greek always
LEH LXX Lexicon always, at all times

προσεύχεσθαι proseuchesthai Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose
heart.

προσεύχομαι proseuchomai pray

verb, present, either middle or passive, infinitive
Sense: to pray (petition) – to petition God (or a deity) to do something.
Louw-Nida to pray, to speak to God, to ask God for, prayer
DBL Greek pray
TDNT

αὐτοὺς autous Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose heart.
αὐτός autos he

pronoun, personal, third person, accusative, plural, masculine {PAGE }
Louw-Nida he, him, she, her, it, they, them

BÁEZ, S.J.


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

DBL Greek same; he, she, it; self
LEH LXX Lexicon self; id.; he, she, it; him, her, it; of him, of her, of it; even he; the same; at the same
place, together; together; in (just) the same way; at the same rate

καὶ kai Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose heart.
καί kai and

conjunction, logical connective
Louw-Nida and
DBL Greek and; and then; also; yet
LEH LXX Lexicon and; id.; and especially; and then, and so; and yet, and in spite of that,
nevertheless; also, likewise; but; or; hope of life; as well … as …, both … and …

μὴ mē Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose heart.
μή mē not

adverb, negative
Louw-Nida not
DBL Greek not; marker of a question; so that not
LEH LXX Lexicon not; that you will not die; do not seek death in the error of your life; of the unclean
cattle; nothing, no; surely Job does not worship God for nothing?, does Job worship God for nothing?;
fearing that he would die; he that believes in him shall by no means be ashamed

ἐγκακεῖν enkakein Then Jesus told them a parable about their need to pray always and not to lose heart.
ἐγκακέω enkakeō be discouraged

verb, present, active, infinitive
Sense: to be disheartened – to be or become discouraged or disheartened; lose spirit.
Louw-Nida to become discouraged, to lose heart, to give up
DBL Greek become discouraged
TDNT
Luke 18:2

λέγων·∙ Κριτής τις ἦν ἔν τινι πόλει τὸν θεὸν He said, “In a certain city there was a judge
μὴ φοβούμενος καὶ ἄνθρωπον μὴ
who neither feared God nor had respect for

ἐντρεπόμενος. | NRSVCE NT RI people. | NRSVCE

λέγων legōn He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for
people.

λέγω legō say; tell

verb, present, active, participle, singular, nominative, masculine {PAGE }
Sense: to say (express) – to express in words.
Louw-Nida to say, to talk, to tell, to speak
LTW to say, tell; to order.

BÁEZ, S.J.


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

DBL Greek speak; name; call; give meaning; imply; so to speak

Κριτής Kritēs He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for people.
κριτής kritēs judge

noun, nominative, singular, masculine
Sense: judge – a public official authorized to decide questions brought before a court of justice.
Louw-Nida judge
LTW
DBL Greek a judge

τις tis He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for people.
τὶς tis someone; anyone; some

adjective, nominative, singular, masculine
Louw-Nida someone, something, anyone, a, anything
DBL Greek someone, something; someone important
LEH LXX Lexicon who; id.; what; who, what sort of person; what, what sort of thing; how; why;
wherefore; would that

ἦν ēn He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for people.
εἰμί eimi be

verb, imperfect, active, indicative, third person, singular
Sense: to be (somewhere) – to occupy a certain position or area; be somewhere.
Louw-Nida to be
DBL Greek be; be identical; exist; happen; be in a place; be possible; belong; represent
TDNT

ἔν en He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for people.
ἐν en in

preposition

Louw-Nida inside, within, in
DBL Greek in; among; on; at; into; in union with; with; with regard to; of; to; by; because; so that;
when; during
TDNT

τινι tini He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for people.
τὶς tis someone; anyone; some

adjective, dative, singular, feminine {PAGE }
Louw-Nida someone, something, anyone, a, anything
DBL Greek someone, something; someone important

BÁEZ, S.J.


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

LEH LXX Lexicon who; id.; what; who, what sort of person; what, what sort of thing; how; why;
wherefore; would that

πόλει polei He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for people.
πόλις polis city; town

noun, dative, singular, feminine
Sense: urban area – any urban area constituting a city, town, village, or the like.
Louw-Nida city, town
DBL Greek town; city; inhabitants of city; city treasurer
TDNT

θεὸν theon He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for people.
θεός theos God

noun, accusative, singular, masculine
Louw-Nida God
LTW deity; god; goddess; God.
DBL Greek God; god; goddess

μὴ mē He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for people.
μή mē not

adverb, negative
Louw-Nida not
DBL Greek not; marker of a question; so that not
LEH LXX Lexicon not; that you will not die; do not seek death in the error of your life; of the unclean
cattle; nothing, no; surely Job does not worship God for nothing?, does Job worship God for nothing?;
fearing that he would die; he that believes in him shall by no means be ashamed

φοβούμενος phoboumenos He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had
respect for people.

φοβέω phobeō fear; be afraid

verb, present, either middle or passive, participle, singular, nominative, masculine
Sense: to fear (reverence) – to regard with feelings of respect and reverence; consider hallowed or
exalted or be in awe of.
Louw-Nida to fear, to show great reverence for, to show great respect for
LTW to fear, be afraid.
DBL Greek be afraid; respect; worship

καὶ kai He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for people.
καί kai and

conjunction, logical connective

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

Louw-Nida and
DBL Greek and; and then; also; yet
LEH LXX Lexicon and; id.; and especially; and then, and so; and yet, and in spite of that,
nevertheless; also, likewise; but; or; hope of life; as well … as …, both … and …

ἄνθρωπον anthrōpon He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for
people.

ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos man

noun, accusative, singular, masculine
Sense: person – a human being; sometimes referred to collectively as people.
Louw-Nida person, human being, individual; people, persons, mankind
LTW man, human being, humanity.
DBL Greek human being; man; husband

μὴ mē He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had respect for people.
μή mē not

adverb, negative
Louw-Nida not
DBL Greek not; marker of a question; so that not
LEH LXX Lexicon not; that you will not die; do not seek death in the error of your life; of the unclean
cattle; nothing, no; surely Job does not worship God for nothing?, does Job worship God for nothing?;
fearing that he would die; he that believes in him shall by no means be ashamed

ἐντρεπόμενος entrepomenos He said, “In a certain city there was a judge who neither feared God nor had
respect for people.

ἐντρέπω entrepō respect; have
regard for

verb, present, passive, participle, singular, nominative, masculine
Sense: to show deference – to respect (someone) by acknowledging greater status or honor than
oneself.
Louw-Nida to respect, to show respect
DBL Greek make ashamed; respect
IGEL
Luke 18:3

χήρα δὲ ἦν ἐν τῇ πόλει ἐκείνῃ καὶ ἤρχετο In that city there was a widow who kept
πρὸς αὐτὸν λέγουσα·∙ Ἐκδίκησόν με ἀπὸ coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice
τοῦ ἀντιδίκου μου. | NRSVCE NT RI against my opponent.’ | NRSVCE

χήρα chēra In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice
against my opponent.’

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

χήρα chēra widow

noun, nominative, singular, feminine
Sense: widow – a woman whose husband is dead.
Louw-Nida widow
LTW
DBL Greek widow

δὲ de
δέ de now; and; but

conjunction, logical connective
Louw-Nida and, and then
DBL Greek and; and then; but

LEH LXX Lexicon and; but; rather; on the one hand … on the other hand …; but also, but even; and
(even); and also, but also

ἦν ēn In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice against my
opponent.’

εἰμί eimi be

verb, imperfect, active, indicative, third person, singular
Sense: to be (somewhere) – to occupy a certain position or area; be somewhere.
Louw-Nida to be
DBL Greek be; be identical; exist; happen; be in a place; be possible; belong; represent
TDNT

ἐν en In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice against my
opponent.’

ἐν en in

preposition
Louw-Nida inside, within, in
DBL Greek in; among; on; at; into; in union with; with; with regard to; of; to; by; because; so that;
when; during
TDNT

πόλει polei In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice against my
opponent.’

πόλις polis city; town

noun, dative, singular, feminine {PAGE }
Sense: urban area – any urban area constituting a city, town, village, or the like.
Louw-Nida city, town

BÁEZ, S.J.


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

DBL Greek town; city; inhabitants of city; city treasurer
TDNT

ἐκείνῃ ekeinē In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice against my
opponent.’

ἐκεῖνος ekeinos that; that one

pronoun, demonstrative, dative, singular, feminine
Louw-Nida that, that one
DBL Greek that; those
LEH LXX Lexicon that (… there); that person, that thing; afterwards; from that time; the nearer … the
more remote …, those … the others …; that; Ezel?

καὶ kai
καί kai and

conjunction, logical connective
Louw-Nida and
DBL Greek and; and then; also; yet
LEH LXX Lexicon and; id.; and especially; and then, and so; and yet, and in spite of that,
nevertheless; also, likewise; but; or; hope of life; as well … as …, both … and …

ἤρχετο ērcheto In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice against
my opponent.’

ἔρχομαι erchomai come; arrive

verb, imperfect, either middle or passive, indicative, third person, singular
Sense: to come – to move toward, travel toward, or approach something or somebody; whether
physically or as an abstract location.
Louw-Nida to come, coming
DBL Greek go, come; come; become; happen to
TDNT

πρὸς pros In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice against my
opponent.’

πρός pros to

preposition
Louw-Nida to
DBL Greek to; against; at; among; about; with; for; according to; toward; at the time; to the point of;
with regard to

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

TDNT

αὐτὸν auton In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice against my
opponent.’

αὐτός autos he

pronoun, personal, third person, accusative, singular, masculine
Louw-Nida he, him, she, her, it, they, them
DBL Greek same; he, she, it; self
LEH LXX Lexicon self; id.; he, she, it; him, her, it; of him, of her, of it; even he; the same; at the same
place, together; together; in (just) the same way; at the same rate

λέγουσα legousa In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice against
my opponent.’

λέγω legō say; tell

verb, present, active, participle, singular, nominative, feminine
Sense: to say (express) – to express in words.
Louw-Nida to say, to talk, to tell, to speak
LTW to say, tell; to order.
DBL Greek speak; name; call; give meaning; imply; so to speak

Ἐκδίκησόν Ekdikēson In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice
against my opponent.’

ἐκδικέω ekdikeō grant justice;
vindicate

verb, aorist, active, imperative, second person, singular
Sense: to exact justice – to punish (someone) according to what is due or just (in another’s behalf).
Louw-Nida to give someone justice
LTW
DBL Greek give justice; take revenge; punish

με me In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice against my
opponent.’

ἐγώ egō I; we

pronoun, personal, first person, accusative, singular
Louw-Nida I, I indeed
DBL Greek I; me; we; us; our
TDNT

ἀπὸ apo In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice against my
opponent.’

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

ἀπό apo from

preposition
Louw-Nida because of
DBL Greek from; of; by; since; because of; upon
LEH LXX Lexicon from, away from; away from, far from; from, of; from; from, after; beyond; from,
by; from, by, because of, by reason of; toward; before, because of; of a value of, worth; man and
woman; of old; from the time, since

ἀντιδίκου antidikou In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice
against my opponent.’

ἀντίδικος antidikos opponent;
accuser; plaintiff

noun, genitive, singular, masculine
Sense: plaintiff (accuser) – the antagonistic and accusing party in litigation; especially understood as a
hostile enemy.
Louw-Nida accuser, plaintiff
DBL Greek accuser; adversary
TDNT

μου mou In that city there was a widow who kept coming to him and saying, ‘Grant me justice against my
opponent.’

ἐγώ egō I; we

pronoun, personal, first person, genitive, singular
Louw-Nida I, I indeed
DBL Greek I; me; we; us; our
TDNT
Luke 18:4

καὶ οὐκ ἤθελεν ἐπὶ χρόνον, μετὰ ταῦτα δὲ For a while he refused; but later he said to

εἶπεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ·∙ Εἰ καὶ τὸν θεὸν οὐ himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and

φοβοῦμαι οὐδὲ ἄνθρωπον ἐντρέπομαι, | no respect for anyone, | NRSVCE

NRSVCE NT RI

καὶ kai
καί kai and

conjunction, logical connective
Louw-Nida and
DBL Greek and; and then; also; yet

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

LEH LXX Lexicon and; id.; and especially; and then, and so; and yet, and in spite of that,
nevertheless; also, likewise; but; or; hope of life; as well … as …, both … and …

οὐκ ouk For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no respect for
anyone,

οὐ ou not

adverb, negative
Louw-Nida not
DBL Greek not; marker of a question
LEH LXX Lexicon not; you do not remember the words; they have provoked me to jealousy with that
which is not God; you shall not eat of any tree in the garden; not only … but also …; nobody, no; not
so; therefore; to him; how

ἤθελεν ēthelen For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no
respect for anyone,

θέλω thelō wish; want

verb, imperfect, active, indicative, third person, singular
Sense: to be willing – to be or become inclined or disposed to something; often used of tasks.
Louw-Nida to desire, to want, to wish
LTW
DBL Greek purpose; desire; enjoy; be of an opinion

ἐπὶ epi For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no respect for
anyone,

ἐπί epi upon; on

preposition
Louw-Nida during, in the course of, within, for
DBL Greek upon; at; among; before; toward; onto; to; by; against; for; and; over; because of; in order
to; concerning; in view of; up to; when; during
LEH LXX Lexicon on, upon; above; at, near; by, on the basis of; about, concerning; in the time of,
under; in; at, on; during; over; against; at, near, by; to, in addition to; on the basis of; at, because of,
from, with; at, in, at the time of, during; upon; on, upon, to, over; to, toward; in, on, for, toward; for;
for, over a period of; at the last; and they said to the one that had charge of all his things; truly; grace
upon grace; affliction upon affliction; after the name of; further; longer, too long; together; to a great
extent, carefully; on the earth; the fruits of the earth; on, over; yoke

χρόνον chronon For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no
respect for anyone,

χρόνος chronos time

noun, accusative, singular, masculine {PAGE }
Sense: time (definite) – a period of time marked by specific attributes or activities.

BÁEZ, S.J.


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

Louw-Nida time, period of time
LTW
DBL Greek time; occasion; since all time

μετὰ meta For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no respect
for anyone,

μετά meta with; after

preposition
Louw-Nida after
DBL Greek with; against; after; among; beyond
LEH LXX Lexicon with; with, in company of; (sth) in the presence of, beside; with, together with;
with, against; in dealings with, to; accompanied by, with, in; with, by aid of, by using; in return for, in
exchange for; after, behind, subsequent to; after this, behind; there is none besides me; with a harlot;
though (you) play the harlot; people

ταῦτα tauta For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no respect
for anyone,

οὗτος houtos this

pronoun, demonstrative, accusative, plural, neuter
Louw-Nida this, this one
DBL Greek
LEH LXX Lexicon this; id.; this, the present; life; of these; curse; valley; and these; and not; to the
other; to (another) kind; these things; God

δὲ de For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no respect for
anyone,

δέ de now; and; but

conjunction, logical contrastive
Louw-Nida but, on the other hand
DBL Greek and; and then; but
LEH LXX Lexicon and; but; rather; on the one hand … on the other hand …; but also, but even; and
(even); and also, but also

εἶπεν eipen For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no respect
for anyone,

εἶπον eipon say; tell

verb, aorist, active, indicative, third person, singular
Sense: to think (verbally) – to formulate words and sentences in one’s mind.
Louw-Nida to say, to talk, to tell, to speak
LTW to tell, say, speak.
DBL Greek speak; name; call; give meaning; imply; so to speak

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

ἐν en For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no respect for
anyone,

ἐν en in

preposition

Sense: to think ⇔ say in oneself – to think a statement in one’s mind; conceived of as speaking inside

of oneself.
Louw-Nida with
DBL Greek in; among; on; at; into; in union with; with; with regard to; of; to; by; because; so that;
when; during
TDNT

ἑαυτῷ heautō For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no
respect for anyone,

ἑαυτοῦ heautou oneself

pronoun, reflexive, third person, dative, singular, masculine

Sense: to think ⇔ say in oneself – to think a statement in one’s mind; conceived of as speaking inside

of oneself.
Louw-Nida himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
DBL Greek himself, herself, itself
LEH LXX Lexicon (of, to, in) himself, herself, itself; each of his own

Εἰ Ei For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no respect for
anyone,

εἰ ei if

conjunction, adverbial concessive
Louw-Nida if
DBL Greek if; because; that
LEH LXX Lexicon if; id.; that; whether; not; certainly not; verily; whether … or …; if not, otherwise; if
perhaps, if somehow; surely; is it so …?; for if …; for do not …

καὶ kai

καί kai and

conjunction, adverbial concessive
Louw-Nida then, indeed, how is it then, yet
DBL Greek and; and then; also; yet
LEH LXX Lexicon and; id.; and especially; and then, and so; and yet, and in spite of that,
nevertheless; also, likewise; but; or; hope of life; as well … as …, both … and …

θεὸν theon For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no respect
for anyone,

θεός theos God

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

noun, accusative, singular, masculine
Louw-Nida God
LTW deity; god; goddess; God.
DBL Greek God; god; goddess

οὐ ou For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no respect for
anyone,

οὐ ou not

adverb, negative
Louw-Nida not
DBL Greek not; marker of a question
LEH LXX Lexicon not; you do not remember the words; they have provoked me to jealousy with that
which is not God; you shall not eat of any tree in the garden; not only … but also …; nobody, no; not
so; therefore; to him; how

φοβοῦμαι phoboumai For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and
no respect for anyone,

φοβέω phobeō fear; be afraid

verb, present, either middle or passive, indicative, first person, singular
Sense: to fear (reverence) – to regard with feelings of respect and reverence; consider hallowed or
exalted or be in awe of.
Louw-Nida to fear, to show great reverence for, to show great respect for
LTW to fear, be afraid.
DBL Greek be afraid; respect; worship

οὐδὲ oude For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and no respect
for anyone,

οὐδέ oude and not; nor; but not;
not even

conjunction, logical disjunctive
Louw-Nida and not, nor, neither
DBL Greek and not; not even
LEH LXX Lexicon and not, nor; not even

ἄνθρωπον anthrōpon For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God and
no respect for anyone,

ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos man

noun, accusative, singular, masculine {PAGE }
Sense: person – a human being; sometimes referred to collectively as people.
Louw-Nida person, human being, individual; people, persons, mankind
LTW man, human being, humanity.

BÁEZ, S.J.


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

DBL Greek human being; man; husband

ἐντρέπομαι entrepomai For a while he refused; but later he said to himself, ‘Though I have no fear of God
and no respect for anyone,

ἐντρέπω entrepō respect; have
regard for

verb, present, passive, indicative, first person, singular
Sense: to show deference – to respect (someone) by acknowledging greater status or honor than
oneself.
Louw-Nida to respect, to show respect
DBL Greek make ashamed; respect
IGEL

Luke 18:5

διά γε τὸ παρέχειν μοι κόπον τὴν χήραν yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I
ταύτην ἐκδικήσω αὐτήν, ἵνα μὴ εἰς τέλος will grant her justice, so that she may not
ἐρχομένη ὑπωπιάζῃ με. | NRSVCE NT RI wear me out by continually coming |

NRSVCE

διά dia yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not wear
me out by continually coming.’”

διά dia by; through; because of

preposition
Louw-Nida because of, on account of, for this reason
DBL Greek by; through; on behalf of; because of; on account of; along; during; throughout
TDNT

παρέχειν parechein yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not
wear me out by continually coming.’”

παρέχω parechō cause; present;
make happen

verb, present, active, infinitive
Sense: to bother – to cause inconvenience or discomfort to someone.
Louw-Nida to cause to happen
DBL Greek continue to be; cause to happen; cause to experience
LEH LXX Lexicon to provide; to afford, to cause, to bring (forth); to maintain, to render in a certain
position; to give as; to maintain; to render in a certain position; to grant sth to sth; is it a small thing
for you to content with people; they objected to those who helped them

μοι moi yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not wear me out
by continually coming.’”

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

ἐγώ egō I; we

pronoun, personal, first person, dative, singular
Sense: to bother – to cause inconvenience or discomfort to someone.
Louw-Nida I, I indeed
DBL Greek I; me; we; us; our
TDNT

κόπον kopon yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not wear me
out by continually coming.’”

κόπος kopos work; toil; trouble;
labor

noun, accusative, singular, masculine

Sense: trouble (source) – a source of difficulty.
Louw-Nida trouble, distress
DBL Greek labor; trouble
TDNT

χήραν chēran yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not wear me
out by continually coming.’”

χήρα chēra widow

noun, accusative, singular, feminine
Sense: widow – a woman whose husband is dead.
Louw-Nida widow
LTW
DBL Greek widow

ταύτην tautēn yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not wear me
out by continually coming.’”

οὗτος houtos this

pronoun, demonstrative, accusative, singular, feminine
Louw-Nida this, this one
DBL Greek
LEH LXX Lexicon this; id.; this, the present; life; of these; curse; valley; and these; and not; to the
other; to (another) kind; these things; God

ἐκδικήσω ekdikēsō yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not
wear me out by continually coming.’”

ἐκδικέω ekdikeō grant justice;
vindicate

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

verb, future, active, indicative, first person, singular
Sense: to exact justice – to punish (someone) according to what is due or just (in another’s behalf).
Louw-Nida to give someone justice
LTW
DBL Greek give justice; take revenge; punish

αὐτήν autēn yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not wear me
out by continually coming.’”

αὐτός autos he

pronoun, personal, third person, accusative, singular, feminine
Louw-Nida he, him, she, her, it, they, them
DBL Greek same; he, she, it; self
LEH LXX Lexicon self; id.; he, she, it; him, her, it; of him, of her, of it; even he; the same; at the same
place, together; together; in (just) the same way; at the same rate

ἵνα hina yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not wear me out
by continually coming.’”

ἵνα hina that; in order that; so that

conjunction, adverbial purpose
Louw-Nida in order to, for the purpose of, so that
DBL Greek in order to; as a result; that; namely
TDNT

μὴ mē yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not wear me out by
continually coming.’”

μή mē not

adverb, negative
Sense: endlessly – all the time; seemingly without stopping.
Louw-Nida not
DBL Greek not; marker of a question; so that not
LEH LXX Lexicon not; that you will not die; do not seek death in the error of your life; of the unclean
cattle; nothing, no; surely Job does not worship God for nothing?, does Job worship God for nothing?;
fearing that he would die; he that believes in him shall by no means be ashamed

εἰς eis yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not wear me out by
continually coming.’”

εἰς eis for; in; to; into

preposition
Sense: endlessly – all the time; seemingly without stopping.
Louw-Nida completely, totally, entirely, wholly

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

DBL Greek to; into; on; inside; among; in order to; so that; by means of; with reference to; to the
point of; from … to; on behalf of; by; for; at; until
TDNT

τέλος telos yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not wear me out
by continually coming.’”

τέλος telos end

noun, accusative, singular, neuter
Sense: end (point of time) – the point in time at which something ends.
Louw-Nida completely, totally, entirely, wholly
LTW
DBL Greek end; result; purpose; completely; tax

ἐρχομένη erchomenē yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not
wear me out by continually coming.’”

ἔρχομαι erchomai come; arrive

verb, present, either middle or passive, participle, singular, nominative, feminine
Sense: to come – to move toward, travel toward, or approach something or somebody; whether
physically or as an abstract location.
Louw-Nida to come, coming
DBL Greek go, come; come; become; happen to
TDNT

ὑπωπιάζῃ hypōpiazē yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not
wear me out by continually coming.’”

ὑπωπιάζω hypōpiazō beat;
discipline; wear down

verb, present, active, subjunctive, third person, singular

Sense: to tire ⇔ to give a black eye – to exhaust someone, conceived of as punching the person below

the eye.
Louw-Nida to annoy and wear out, to wear someone down by annoying
LTW to blacken the eye, beat, wear down.
DBL Greek annoy; exercise self-control

με me yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will grant her justice, so that she may not wear me out by
continually coming.’”

ἐγώ egō I; we

pronoun, personal, first person, accusative, singular {PAGE }
Louw-Nida I, I indeed
DBL Greek I; me; we; us; our
TDNT

BÁEZ, S.J.


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

Luke 18:6

εἶπεν δὲ ὁ κύριος·∙ Ἀκούσατε τί ὁ κριτὴς τῆς And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unjust

ἀδικίας λέγει·∙ | NRSVCE NT RI judge says. | NRSVCE

εἶπεν eipen And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unjust judge says.
εἶπον eipon say; tell

verb, aorist, active, indicative, third person, singular
Sense: to say (express) – to express in words.
Louw-Nida to say, to talk, to tell, to speak
LTW to tell, say, speak.
DBL Greek speak; name; call; give meaning; imply; so to speak

δὲ de And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unjust judge says.
δέ de now; and; but

conjunction, logical connective
Louw-Nida and, and then
DBL Greek and; and then; but
LEH LXX Lexicon and; but; rather; on the one hand … on the other hand …; but also, but even; and
(even); and also, but also

κύριος kyrios And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unjust judge says.

κύριος kyrios Lord

noun, nominative, singular, masculine
Louw-Nida Lord, Ruler, One who commands
LTW lord, master, Lord.
DBL Greek Lord; owner; ruler; sir

Ἀκούσατε Akousate And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unjust judge says.
ἀκούω akouō hear; listen to

verb, aorist, active, imperative, second person, plural
Sense: to listen – to hear with intention.
Louw-Nida to accept, to listen to, to listen and respond, to pay attention and respond, to heed
LTW
DBL Greek hear; be able to hear; receive news; pay attention to; obey; understand; hear legal case

τί ti And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unjust judge says.
τίς tis what; who; why

pronoun, interrogative, accusative, singular, neuter {PAGE }
Louw-Nida who? what?
DBL Greek who? what?

BÁEZ, S.J.


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

LEH LXX Lexicon who; id.; what; who, what sort of person; what, what sort of thing; how; why;
wherefore; would that

κριτὴς kritēs And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unjust judge says.
κριτής kritēs judge

noun, nominative, singular, masculine
Sense: judge – a public official authorized to decide questions brought before a court of justice.
Louw-Nida judge
LTW
DBL Greek a judge

ἀδικίας adikias And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unjust judge says.

ἀδικία adikia injustice;
unrighteousness

noun, genitive, singular, feminine
Sense: unrighteousness – failure to adhere to moral principles, commands, or laws.
Louw-Nida unjust deed, unrighteousness, doing what is unjust
LTW
DBL Greek unjust deed

λέγει legei And the Lord said, “Listen to what the unjust judge says.
λέγω legō say; tell

verb, present, active, indicative, third person, singular
Sense: to say (express) – to express in words.
Louw-Nida to say, to talk, to tell, to speak
LTW to say, tell; to order.
DBL Greek speak; name; call; give meaning; imply; so to speak

Luke 18:7

ὁ δὲ θεὸς οὐ μὴ ποιήσῃ τὴν ἐκδίκησιν τῶν And will not God grant justice to his chosen
ἐκλεκτῶν αὐτοῦ τῶν βοώντων αὐτῷ
ones who cry to him day and night? Will he

ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτός, καὶ μακροθυμεῖ ἐπʼ delay long in helping them? | NRSVCE

αὐτοῖς; | NRSVCE NT RI

δὲ de And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he delay
long in helping them?

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

δέ de now; and; but

conjunction, logical connective
Louw-Nida and, and then
DBL Greek and; and then; but
LEH LXX Lexicon and; but; rather; on the one hand … on the other hand …; but also, but even; and
(even); and also, but also

θεὸς theos And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he delay
long in helping them?

θεός theos God

noun, nominative, singular, masculine
Louw-Nida God
LTW deity; god; goddess; God.
DBL Greek God; god; goddess

ποιήσῃ poiēsē And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he delay
long in helping them?

ποιέω poieō make; do

verb, aorist, active, subjunctive, third person, singular
Sense: to do (act) – to carry out or perform an action or course of action.
Louw-Nida to do, to act, to carry out, to accomplish, to perform, doing, performance
LTW to make, do.
DBL Greek do; perform; cause to be; work; make; behave toward; assign to a task; make profit

ἐκδίκησιν ekdikēsin And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he
delay long in helping them?

ἐκδίκησις ekdikēsis punishment;
vengeance

noun, accusative, singular, feminine
Sense: to exact justice – to punish (someone) according to what is due or just (in another’s behalf).
Louw-Nida to give someone justice
LTW
DBL Greek the act of giving justice; revenge; punishment

ἐκλεκτῶν eklektōn And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he
delay long in helping them?

ἐκλεκτός eklektos chosen; elect

adjective, genitive, plural, masculine {PAGE }
Sense: chosen (group) – a group of people chosen by God for a particular purpose; usually for
salvation.
Louw-Nida chosen

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

LTW chosen.
DBL Greek chosen

αὐτοῦ autou And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he delay
long in helping them?

αὐτός autos he

pronoun, personal, third person, genitive, singular, masculine
Louw-Nida he, him, she, her, it, they, them
DBL Greek same; he, she, it; self
LEH LXX Lexicon self; id.; he, she, it; him, her, it; of him, of her, of it; even he; the same; at the same
place, together; together; in (just) the same way; at the same rate

βοώντων boōntōn And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he
delay long in helping them?

βοάω boaō shout; call; cry out

verb, present, active, participle, plural, genitive, masculine
Sense: to shout (cry) – to utter a sudden loud cry.
Louw-Nida to cry out, to scream, to shout
DBL Greek shout
TDNT

αὐτῷ autō And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he delay
long in helping them?

αὐτός autos he

pronoun, personal, third person, dative, singular, masculine
Louw-Nida he, him, she, her, it, they, them
DBL Greek same; he, she, it; self
LEH LXX Lexicon self; id.; he, she, it; him, her, it; of him, of her, of it; even he; the same; at the same
place, together; together; in (just) the same way; at the same rate

ἡμέρας hēmeras And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he
delay long in helping them?

ἡμέρα hēmera day

noun, genitive, singular, feminine {PAGE }
Sense: daylight (time) – the time after sunrise and before sunset while it is light outside.
Louw-Nida day
LTW day.

BÁEZ, S.J.


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

DBL Greek day; daylight period; period; daylight; court of justice

καὶ kai And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he delay long in
helping them?

καί kai and

conjunction, logical connective
Louw-Nida and
DBL Greek and; and then; also; yet
LEH LXX Lexicon and; id.; and especially; and then, and so; and yet, and in spite of that,
nevertheless; also, likewise; but; or; hope of life; as well … as …, both … and …

νυκτός nyktos And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he delay
long in helping them?

νύξ nyx night

noun, genitive, singular, feminine
Sense: night (sunset-sunrise) – the time after sunset and before sunrise while it is dark outside;
sometimes limited as sunset to the middle of the night before transition to early morning.
Louw-Nida night
LTW night.
DBL Greek time of the night; night; continually

καὶ kai
καί kai and

conjunction, logical connective
Louw-Nida and
DBL Greek and; and then; also; yet
LEH LXX Lexicon and; id.; and especially; and then, and so; and yet, and in spite of that,
nevertheless; also, likewise; but; or; hope of life; as well … as …, both … and …

μακροθυμεῖ makrothymei And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ?
Will he delay long in helping them?

μακροθυμέω makrothymeō be
patient

verb, present, active, indicative, third person, singular
Sense: to bear patiently – to defer one’s anger even-temperedly under provocation.
Louw-Nida to be slow to, to delay in
DBL Greek be patient; delay in
TDNT

ἐπʼ epʼ And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he delay long in
helping them?

BÁEZ, S.J. {PAGE }


JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

ἐπί epi upon; on

preposition
Louw-Nida for
DBL Greek upon; at; among; before; toward; onto; to; by; against; for; and; over; because of; in order
to; concerning; in view of; up to; when; during
LEH LXX Lexicon on, upon; above; at, near; by, on the basis of; about, concerning; in the time of,
under; in; at, on; during; over; against; at, near, by; to, in addition to; on the basis of; at, because of,
from, with; at, in, at the time of, during; upon; on, upon, to, over; to, toward; in, on, for, toward; for;
for, over a period of; at the last; and they said to the one that had charge of all his things; truly; grace
upon grace; affliction upon affliction; after the name of; further; longer, too long; together; to a great
extent, carefully; on the earth; the fruits of the earth; on, over; yoke

αὐτοῖς autois And will not God grant justice to his chosen ones who cry to him day and night ? Will he delay
long in helping them?

αὐτός autos he

pronoun, personal, third person, dative, plural, masculine
Louw-Nida he, him, she, her, it, they, them
DBL Greek same; he, she, it; self
LEH LXX Lexicon self; id.; he, she, it; him, her, it; of him, of her, of it; even he; the same; at the same
place, together; together; in (just) the same way; at the same rate
Luke 18:8

λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ποιήσει τὴν ἐκδίκησιν αὐτῶν I tell you, he will quickly grant justice to
ἐν τάχει. πλὴν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐλθὼν them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes,

ἆρα εὑρήσει τὴν πίστιν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς; | will he find faith on earth | NRSVCE

NRSVCE NT RI

λέγω legō I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will
he find faith on earth?”

λέγω legō say; tell

verb, present, active, indicative, first person, singular
Sense: to say (declare) – to state as one’s opinion or judgment; declare.
Louw-Nida to say, to talk, to tell, to speak
LTW to say, tell; to order.
DBL Greek speak; name; call; give meaning; imply; so to speak

ὑμῖν hymin I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he find
faith on earth?”

σύ sy you; you (singular)

pronoun, personal, second person, dative, plural
Louw-Nida you, your
DBL Greek you, your; God forbid; you

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

LEH LXX Lexicon you; of you

ὅτι hoti
ὅτι hoti because; that

conjunction, substantival content
Louw-Nida that, the fact that
DBL Greek that; because; namely
LEH LXX Lexicon that; with regard to the fact that, in consideration of the fact that; so that; because,
since; for; why

ποιήσει poiēsei I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he
find faith on earth?”

ποιέω poieō make; do

verb, future, active, indicative, third person, singular
Sense: to do (act) – to carry out or perform an action or course of action.
Louw-Nida to do, to act, to carry out, to accomplish, to perform, doing, performance
LTW to make, do.
DBL Greek do; perform; cause to be; work; make; behave toward; assign to a task; make profit

ἐκδίκησιν ekdikēsin I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes,
will he find faith on earth?”

ἐκδίκησις ekdikēsis punishment;
vengeance

noun, accusative, singular, feminine
Sense: to exact justice – to punish (someone) according to what is due or just (in another’s behalf).
Louw-Nida to give someone justice
LTW
DBL Greek the act of giving justice; revenge; punishment

αὐτῶν autōn I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he
find faith on earth?”

αὐτός autos he

pronoun, personal, third person, genitive, plural, masculine
Louw-Nida he, him, she, her, it, they, them
DBL Greek same; he, she, it; self
LEH LXX Lexicon self; id.; he, she, it; him, her, it; of him, of her, of it; even he; the same; at the same
place, together; together; in (just) the same way; at the same rate

ἐν en I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith
on earth?”

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

ἐν en in

preposition
Louw-Nida during, in the course of, within, for
DBL Greek in; among; on; at; into; in union with; with; with regard to; of; to; by; because; so that;
when; during
TDNT

τάχει tachei I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he
find faith on earth?”

τάχος tachos short time; speed;
soon

noun, dative, singular, neuter

Sense: quickness – a rate that is rapid.
Louw-Nida a very short while, quickly (in combination with the preposition ἐν)
DBL Greek quickly

LEH LXX Lexicon course; quickly; id.; in speed, speedily, swiftly; into the wilderness

πλὴν plēn I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he find
faith on earth?”

πλήν plēn but; only; nevertheless

conjunction, logical contrastive
Louw-Nida but, nevertheless, except
DBL Greek but, except
LEH LXX Lexicon but, anyway; only; surely, no doubt; but, nevertheless; however

υἱὸς huios I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he find
faith on earth?”

υἱός huios son; Son

noun, nominative, singular, masculine
Louw-Nida Son of Man
LTW son.
DBL Greek son; male descendant; male offspring; follower; citizen; kind of; Son of God; Son of Man

ἀνθρώπου anthrōpou I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes,
will he find faith on earth?”

ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos man

noun, genitive, singular, masculine {PAGE }
Louw-Nida Son of Man
LTW man, human being, humanity.
DBL Greek human being; man; husband

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

ἐλθὼν elthōn I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he
find faith on earth?”

ἔρχομαι erchomai come; arrive

verb, aorist, active, participle, singular, nominative, masculine
Sense: to come – to move toward, travel toward, or approach something or somebody; whether
physically or as an abstract location.
Louw-Nida to come, coming
DBL Greek go, come; come; become; happen to
TDNT

εὑρήσει heurēsei I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will
he find faith on earth?”

εὑρίσκω heuriskō find

verb, future, active, indicative, third person, singular
Sense: to find – to come upon, as if by accident; meet with.
Louw-Nida to learn the whereabouts of something, to find, to discover, to come upon, to happen to
find
LTW to find.
DBL Greek discover; learn; attain; begin to experience; be found to be

πίστιν pistin I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he
find faith on earth?”

πίστις pistis faith

noun, accusative, singular, feminine
Sense: trust (faith) – strong confidence in, and reliance upon, someone or something; often with the
object of trust understood.
Louw-Nida to believe in, to have confidence in, to have faith in, to trust, faith, trust
LTW faithfulness, assurance; faith, confidence; what is believed, teaching.
DBL Greek what can be believed; trust; trustworthiness; Christian faith; doctrine; promise

ἐπὶ epi I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith
on earth?”

ἐπί epi upon; on

preposition
Louw-Nida on, upon
DBL Greek upon; at; among; before; toward; onto; to; by; against; for; and; over; because of; in order
to; concerning; in view of; up to; when; during

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

LEH LXX Lexicon on, upon; above; at, near; by, on the basis of; about, concerning; in the time of,
under; in; at, on; during; over; against; at, near, by; to, in addition to; on the basis of; at, because of,
from, with; at, in, at the time of, during; upon; on, upon, to, over; to, toward; in, on, for, toward; for;
for, over a period of; at the last; and they said to the one that had charge of all his things; truly; grace
upon grace; affliction upon affliction; after the name of; further; longer, too long; together; to a great
extent, carefully; on the earth; the fruits of the earth; on, over; yoke

γῆς gēs I tell you , he will quickly grant justice to them. And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he find
faith on earth?”

γῆ gē earth; land

noun, genitive, singular, feminine
Sense: earth – the place where human beings and animals live; modernly understood as the third
planet from the sun.
Louw-Nida earth, world
LTW
DBL Greek earth; land; soil; region; people

Source:

WORD BY WORD
The English-Greek Reverse Interlinear New Testament New Revised Standard Version, Catholic Edition

PART IV. CROSS REFERENCES

Chapter 18 The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Lk 11:8 | I tell you, even though he will not get up and give him anything because he is his friend, at least
because of his persistence he will get up and give him whatever he needs.

Re 6:10 | they cried out with a loud voice, “Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long will it be before you judge
and avenge our blood on the inhabitants of the earth?”

Lk 11:5 | And he said to them, “Suppose one of you has a friend, and you go to him at midnight and say to
him, ‘Friend, lend me three loaves of bread;

Lk 11:6 | for a friend of mine has arrived, and I have nothing to set before him.’

Lk 11:7 | And he answers from within, ‘Do not bother me; the door has already been locked, and my children
are with me in bed; I cannot get up and give you anything.’

Ps 88:1; Is 63:4; Sir 18:11; Mt 21:37; 24:12, 22, 24, 31; Mk 13:20; Lk 7:13; 11:5–9; 16:8–9; 17:26–30; 18:1–8;
20:13; 21:22, 36; Ro 8:33; 12:12; 1 Co 9:27; 2 Co 4:1, 16; 8:21; Ga 6:9; Eph 3:13; 6:18; Col 3:12; 4:2; 1 Th
5:17; 2 Th 3:13; 2 Ti 2:10; Tt 1:1; Heb 10:37; 12:9; Jas 5:7; 1 Pe 1:2; 2:9; 2 Pe 3:8–9; Re 6:10; 17:14

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

A.  Topics | Themes

X   Afflictions and Adversities, Despondency in
X   Afflictions and Adversities, Prayer in
X   Answer to, Promised Prayer
X   Despondency, Comfort in
X   Faith
X   God, Preserver

PART V. CULTURAL CONCEPTS

Chosen people — A group of people who are chosen or set apart for a specific task or purpose, or because they
are highly favored by another person or deity.

Abstract › Group › Group of people › Chosen people

Judging — The act of giving a just result for a social or spiritual issue.
Abstract › Act › Execution of justice › Judging

Prayer — The practice of communicating with a deity.
Abstract › Act › Activity › Interpersonal activities › Communication › Prayer

PART VII. BIBLICAL PEOPLE

Judge serving a Widow • Lk 18:2–6
Widow receiving Justice • Lk 18:3, 5

A Judge • Lk 18:2–6, Ex 2:14; 21:22; Dt 16:18; 17:9–12; 19:17–18; 21:2; 25:1–3; 32:31; Jos 8:33; 23:2; 24:1;
Jdg 2:16–19; Ru 1:1; 1 Sa 8:1; 24:16; 2 Sa 7:11; 15:4; 2 Ki 23:22; 1 Ch 17:6, 10; 23:4; 26:29; 2 Ch 1:2; 19:5–7;
Ezr 4:9; 7:25; 10:14; Ne 9:27; Job 9:24; 12:17; 31:11, 28; Ps 68:6; 141:6; Pr 24:24–25, Wis 6:1, 3–5, 9, 11, 21–
22, 25; 7:16; 9:7; Sir 7:6; 8:14; 10:1–2, 24; 41:18; 46:11–12, Is 1:26; 3:2; 28:6; 33:22; Je 30:13, Bar 2:1; Let Jer
13, Joe 4:12; Am 2:3; Zep 3:3, Mt 5:25; 12:27; Lk 11:19; 12:14, 58; Ac 7:27, 35; 10:42; 13:20; 18:15; 19:38;
24:10; Ro 2:1, 3–5; Jas 2:4; 4:11, Esd A 8:23; 9:13

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

PART VII & VIII BIBLICAL EVENTS

Events occurring
Jesus tells two parables on prayer • Lk 18:1–14

MEDIA RESOURCES

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

PART IX. MUSIC REFERENCE

What a friend we have in Jesus

Ps 55:22; 119:151; 145:18; Pr 1; 18:24; Mt 6:11; 7:7; 21:22; Lk 18:1; Jn 11:1–46;
15:13–15; Php 4:6; 1 Th 5:17; 1 Ti 2:8; 2 Ti 2:19; 1 Pe 3:12

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

PART X. SERMONS

Sermon LXV. [CXV. Ben.] Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers 1.6: Saint Augustin: Sermon on the Mount,
Harmony of the Gospels, Homilies on the Gospels (Catholic Edition)

SERMON LXV

[CXV. BEN.]

ON THE WORDS OF THE GOSPEL, LUKE 18:1, “THEY OUGHT ALWAYS TO PRAY, AND NOT TO FAINT,” ETC. AND ON
THE TWO WHO WENT UP INTO THE TEMPLE TO PRAY: AND OF THE LITTLE CHILDREN WHO WERE PRESENTED
UNTO CHRIST.

1.   THE lesson of the Holy Gospel builds us up unto the duty of praying and believing, and of not putting
our trust in ourselves, but in the Lord. What greater encouragement to prayer than the parable which is
proposed to us of the unjust judge? For an unjust judge, who feared not God, nor regarded man, yet
gave ear to a widow who besought him, overcome by her importunity, not inclined thereto by
kindness.2 If he then heard her prayer, who hated to be asked, how must He hear who exhorts us to
ask? When therefore by this comparison from a contrary case the Lord had taught that “men ought

always to pray and not to faint,”3 He added and said, “Nevertheless, when the Son of Man shall come,
thinkest thou that He shall find faith on the earth?”4 If faith fail, prayer perishes. For who prays for
that which he does not believe? Whence also the blessed Apostle, when he exhorted to prayer, said,
“Whosoever shall call upon the Name of the Lord, shall be saved.”5 And in order to show that faith is
the fountain of prayer, he went on and said, “How then shall they call on Him in whom they have not
believed?”6 So then that we may pray, let us believe; and that this same faith whereby we pray fail not,
let us pray. Faith pours out prayer, and the pouring out of prayer obtains the strengthening of faith.
Faith, I say, pours out prayer, the pouring out of prayer obtains strengthening even for faith itself. For
that faith might not fail in temptations, therefore did the Lord say, “Watch and pray, lest ye enter into
temptation.”7 “Watch,” He saith, “and pray, lest ye enter into temptation.” What is to “enter into
temptation,” but to depart from faith? For so far temptation advances as faith gives way: and so far
temptation gives way, as faith advances. For that you may know, Beloved, more plainly, that the Lord
said, “Watch and pray, lest ye enter into temptation,” as touching faith lest it should fail and perish; He
said in the same place of the Gospel, “This night hath Satan desired to sift8 you as wheat, and I have
prayed for thee, Peter, that thy faith fail not.”9 He that defendeth prayeth, and shall not he pray who is
in peril? For in the words of the Lord, “when the Son of Man shall come, thinkest thou that He shall
find faith on the earth?” He spoke of that faith, which is perfect. For it is scarce found on the earth. Lo!
this Church of God is full: and who would come hither, if there were no faith? But who would not
remove mountains, if there were full faith? Look at the very Apostles: they would not have left all they
had, have trodden under foot this world’s hope, and followed the Lord, if they had not had great faith;

2 Pietate. {PAGE }

3 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk18.1" }.
4 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk18.8" }, Vulgate.
5 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Ro10.13" }.
6 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Ro10.14" }.
7 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk22.46" }.

8 Vexare.

9 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk22.31" }, { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk22.32" }.
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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

and yet if they had had full faith, they would not have said to the Lord, “Increase our faith.”10 See
again, that man confessing both of himself (behold faith, yet not full faith), who when he had
presented to the Lord his son to be cured of an evil spirit, and was asked whether he believed, answered
and said, “Lord, I believe, help Thou mine unbelief.”11 “Lord,” says he, “I believe,” I believe; therefore
there was faith. But “help Thou mine unbelief,” therefore there was not full faith.

2.   But inasmuch as faith belongs not to the proud, but to the humble, “He spake this parable unto certain
who seemed to themselves to be righteous, and despised others. Two men went up into the temple to
pray, the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican. The Pharisee said, God, I thank Thee that I am not
as the rest of men.”1 He might at least have said, “as many men.” What does, “as the rest of men,”
mean, but all except himself? “I,” he says, “am just, the rest are sinners.” “I am not as the rest of men,
unjust, extortioners, adulterers.” And, lo, from thy neighbour, the publican, thou takest occasion of
greater pride. “As,” he says, “this publican.” “I,” he says, “am alone, he is of the rest.” “I am not,” says
he, “such as he is, through my righteous deeds, whereby I have no unrighteousness.” “I fast twice in the
week, I give tithes of all that I possess.”2 In all his words seek out for any one thing that he asked of
God, and thou wilt find nothing. He went up to pray: he had no mind to pray to God, but to laud
himself. Nay, it is but a small part of it, that he prayed not to God, but lauded himself. More than this
he even mocked him that did pray. “But the Publican stood afar off;”3 and yet he was in deed near to
God. The consciousness of his heart kept him off, piety brought him close. “But the Publican stood
afar off:” yet the Lord regarded him near. “For the Lord is high, yet hath He respect unto the lowly.”4
But “those that are high” as was this Pharisee, “He knoweth afar off.” “The high” indeed “God
knoweth afar off,” but He doth not pardon them. Hear still more the humility of the Publican. It is but
a small matter that he stood afar off; “he did not even lift up his eyes unto heaven.” He looked not,
that he might be looked upon. He did not dare to look upwards, his conscience pressed him down: but
hope lifted him up. Hear again, “he smote his breast.” He punished himself: wherefore the Lord spared
him for his confession. “He smote his breast, saying, Lord, be merciful to me a sinner.” See who he is
that prays. Why dost thou marvel that God should pardon, when he acknowledges his own sin? Thus
thou hast heard the cases of the Pharisee and Publican; now hear the sentence; thou hast heard the
proud accuser, thou hast heard the humble criminal; hear now the Judge. “Verily I say unto you.” The
Truth saith, God saith, the Judge saith it. “Verily I say unto you, That Publican went down from the
temple justified rather than that Pharisee.”5 Tell us, Lord, the cause. Lo! I see that the publican goes
down from the temple justified rather than the Pharisee. I ask why? Dost thou ask why? Hear why.
“Because every one that exalteth himself shall be abased, and he that humbleth himself shall be
exalted.”6 Thou hast heard the sentence, beware of its evil cause. In other words, thou hast heard the
sentence, beware of pride.

3. Let now those ungodly babblers, whosoever they be, who presume on their own strength, let them hear
and see these things: let them hear who say, God made me a man, I make myself just. O thou who art worse

10 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk17.5" }.
11 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Mk9.24" }.
1 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk18.9-11" }.
2 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk18.12" }.
3 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk18.13" }.
4 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Ps138.6" }.

5 Controversiam.

6 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk18.14" }.

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

and more detestable than the Pharisee! The Pharisee in the Gospel did indeed call himself just, but yet he gave
thanks to God for it. He called himself just, but yet he gave God thanks. “I thank Thee, O God, that I am not
as the rest of men.” “I thank Thee, O God. He gives God thanks, that he is not as the rest of men: and yet he is
blamed as being proud and puffed up; not in that he gave God thanks, but in that he desired as it were no
more to be added unto him. “I thank thee that I am not as the rest of men, unjust.” So then thou art just; so
then thou askest for nothing; so then thou art full already; so then the life of man is not a trial upon earth;7 so
then thou art full already; so then thou aboundest already, so then thou hast no ground for saying, “Forgive us
our debts!” What must his case be then who impiously impugns grace, if he is blamed who give thanks
proudly?

4. And, lo, after the case had been stated, and the sentence pronounced, little children also came forth,
yea, rather, are carried and presented to be touched. To be touched by whom, but the Physician? Surely, it will
be said, they must be whole. To whom are the infants presented to be touched? To whom? To the Saviour. If
to the Saviour, they are brought to be saved. To whom, but to Him “who came to seek and to save what was
lost.”8 How were they lost? As far as concerns them personally, I see that they are without fault, I am seeking
for their guiltiness. Whence is it? I listen to the Apostle, “By one man sin entered into the world. By one man,”
he says, “sin entered into the world, and death by sin, and so death passed upon all men by him in whom all
sinned.”9 Let then the little children come, let them come: let the Lord be heard. “Suffer little children to
come unto Me.”10 Let the little ones come, let the sick come to the Physician, the lost to their Redeemer: let
them come, let no man hinder them. In the branch they have not yet committed any evil, but they are ruined
in their root. “Let the Lord bless the small with the great.”11 Let the Physician touch both small and great. The
cause of the little ones we commend to their eiders. Speak ye for them who are mute, pray for them who weep.
If ye are not their elders to no purpose, be ye their guardians: defend them who are not able yet to manage
their own cause. Common is the loss, let the finding be common: we were lost all together, together be we
found in Christ. Uneven is the desert, but common is the grace. They have no evil but what they have drawn
from the source: they have no evil but what they have derived from the first original. Let not them keep them
off from salvation, who to what they have so derived have added much more evil. The elder in age is the eider
in iniquity too. But the grace of God effaces what thou hast derived, effaces too what thou hast added. For,
“where sin abounded, grace hath superabounded.”1

Our Lady of Consistency: Twenty-Ninth Sunday in Ordinary Time Lift up Your Hearts: Homilies and
Reflections for the “C” Cycle

7 { HYPERLINK "logosref:BibleLXX.Job7.1" }, Sept. {PAGE }
8 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk19.10" }.
9 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Ro5.12" }.
10 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Lk18.16" }.
11 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Ps115.13" }.
1 { HYPERLINK "logosref:Bible.Ro5.20" }.

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

CLASS TEXTBOOKS

LEVINE * SNOWGRASS * HERZOG

LEVINE:
Our traditional view of the widow:

X   Exodus 22:22
X   Deuteronomy 10:18
X   Isaiah 1.17
X   Jeremiah 22.3
X   Zechariah 7.9
X   Malachi 3.5

Widow can inherit or bequeathing (property, land, business, material goods, etc).

Widow as most unconventional of conventional figures.
i.e. expected to be weak, they move mountains.
Poor, yet they prove savvy.
Expected to be exploited, they take advantage of what they find.

ë   Luke portray of conventional images of widows as poor, dependent, or powerless.
ë   Jesus’ parables gives women agency

a.   Woman with the lost coin
b.   Wise and foolish virgins
c.   Widow and the judge
•   According to Levine, the parables comes from Jesus and not Luke is already suggested by the
distinction drawn between Luke’s narrative placement of parables and the details of the parables
themselves” (Levine 241).

Widows like Ruth and Tamar – “who take bold steps for their own well-being and who advance God’s
plan…”(Levine 241).

Judge: “neither fear God nor had respect for people.”

Parables are designed to shape up one’s worldview, to question the conventional.

For the parable to do its work, for it to challenge all our views rather than reinforce normative gender and class
constructs, another look at the widow is necessary.” (Levine 241).

*** How we identify this parable already determines how we understand it?
Importunity that conveys a weakess through the sense of “begging”

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

The title that we give to the parable will “color” how we already approach it:
a.   “Persistent Widow”
b.   “Tenacisous Widow”
c.   “Nagging Widow”

Focal point is the weak widow and we assume that she has done a good thing and she needs justice and the
judge is bad. We are rooted and label to believe immediately on her. We want him to loose. She wins. The
only decent figure on the parable is her.

English word is not “justice” (dikaiosne) but she is looking for (edkikeo) avenged. This makes the parables
more interesting. The more accurate translation is to “set things right” to be vindicated” (243).

The Widow is not interesting in coming to terms or to set a just order, but to punish quickly his opponent.

Who say it then? Jesus or somebody else told this tales (243).

NRSV’ suggestion of “wear out” as possibility of the widow loosing her patience and hit attack the judge and
give him a black eye.

Scholar John Dominic Crossan- widow not as right or good but less polite than the adversary. She seems more
like someone taking a hostile takeover (243).

Syndical: “Soon to Be Punished Widow’s Opponent”

“Vengeful Widow and the Co-opted Judge”

Luke’s Additions & Subtractions:

Debates over how much of the parable the evangelist received from the tradition and how much has been
touched by editorial hands.

For Luke, the parable is about “ the necessity always to pray and not to become discouraged”(18:1)
(Levine,255).
The problem with interpretation is allegory- how can you think about the need to pray when it is normally
understood about the need to revenge or to set things straight.

NO Messianic expectations or worries.

HERZOG

X   Placement of the parables toward the close of small eschatological discourse (17:30-18:14)

X   Luke’s effort to relate this parable to two companion parables 11:5-8; 18:9-14 (215).

X   Collection of sayings that he has attached to this parable.

X   “Eta Linnemann- the parable and sayings assume a time when the fledging church was suffering

persecution, and the parable was composed to restore faith and reassure the wavering that the Lord

would justify the saints”(216).

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

X   Judge as figure of God; Luke appears to sue the parable from lesser to the greater. Judge response to the

widow, as much as God will respond to the cries and petitions of saints (216).
X   Luke’s hand in the introductory framing v.1 (217).
X   Theological themes and practical concerns do not fit together quite well (217), but the theme of prayer

and the continuance of faith does.
X   Emphasis on the corrupt Judge, not on the widow.
X   Widow and Judge – two characters intertwined with social system.
X   Widow- vulnerable situation and target of exploitation (225).
X   “What is clear is that the judge most likely share class interest in common with the adversaries” (Derret,

1971/72,181)(Hergoz226).
o   He is a member of the agrarian societies
o   Judge – implies either an urban or town setting (227).
o   Judge fails to perceive the consequences of this behavior on the widow- obtuseness is the
clearest indicator of his lack of shame (227).
o   Numerous scholars –explains the concern over corrupt judges is endemic in the literature of the
time(227).
o   Widow- matter between judge and herself.
o   Conclusion:
§   Desperate widow is caught in the usual power play with his husband’s death.
§   Complexities of a Torah court.
§   Court will favor of the party offering “appropriate emolument”- is bribe (231).
§   Oppressed must collude in their oppression for the system to work (231).
§   Widow refusal to accepted predestined role break social barriers and cross forbidden

social and gender boundaries (232).

X   LUKE INTEREST IN PRAYER IS CONSTANT
X   LUKE PROVIDE THE INTRODUCTION TO THE PARABLE
X   MANY SCHOLARS ARGUE THAT THIS PARABLE CAN BE TRACE DOWN TO THE HISTORICAL JESUS

(LINEMANN, PARABLES 121).

•   SNODGRASS

X   One for the most difficult parables (449).

X   Introduction of any parable seems misplaced, it is here.

X   Parable v. 2-5 is brief and without its explanation vv.6-8.

X   Issues:

o   Do it belong together as unit?
o   Are there later additions?
o   To what degree is the interpretation of this parable determined by 11:5-8 or other parables such

Sir 35:12-20.

o   Canonical Material –OT and God’s bias towards them (Ex. 22:22; Deut: 24:17; Je. 22:3).
o   This parable share the parable of the Pharisee and the Tax collector-same theme of prayer and

prominence given to dikaois (“righteous, just”).

X   Explanation:

o   If a wicked judge can be swayed by persistent entreaty, how much more may we be that God
hears our prayers (454).

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JSTB Parables of Jesus Alejandro Báez, S.J.

METHODS SOURCES
GINA HENS-PIAZZA’S CLASS LECTURES (FALL 2015)

GENERAL WORKS CITED AND CONSULTED
Achtemeier, Paul. Harper's Bible Dictionary. Harpercollins, 1985.

Boring, M. Eugene. An Introduction to the New Testament: History, Literature, Theology. Westminster John Knox
Press, 2012.

Buttrick, George A. The Interpreter's One-Volume Commentary on the Bible. Edited by Charles M. Laymon Vol.
One, New York, NY: Abingdon Press, 1971.

The Catholic Study Bible, 2nd Edition. Edited by Donald Senior and John J. Collins: Oxford University Press,
2006.

Fitzmyer, Joseph A. The Gospel According to Luke I-Ix (the Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries). Yale University Press,
1970.

Harrelson, Walter J. The New Interpreter's Study Bible: New Revised Standard Version with the Apocrypha. Nashville,
Tennesse: Abingdon Press, 2003.

Hobbs, T. R. Word Biblical Commentary Vol. 13, 2 Kings. Thomas Nelson, 1986.
The Interlinear Bible: Hebrew/Greek/English. Translated by Jay P. Green. Edited by Jay P. Green: Sovereign Grace

Publishers, 1997.

The Jerome Biblical Commentary [Volume I & Ii]. Translated by His Eminence Augustin Cardinal Bea. Edited by
Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Roland E. Murphy and Raymond E. Brown: Prentice-Hall: NJ, 1968.

Nelson, Thomas. The Kjv Parallel Bible Commentary. Nashville, Tennesse: Thomas Nelson, 1994.
The New Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible (5 Volumes). Edited by Katharine Doob Sakenfeld Vol. 2: Abingdon

Press, 2009.

The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha, Augmented Third Edition, College Edition, New Revised Standard
Version. Translated by Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press, 2007.

Perkins, Pheme. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with Apocrypha: New Revised Standard Version. Edited by Michael
D. Coogan, Marc Z. Brettler and Carol Newsom New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Press, Publisher Oxford University. The Complete Parallel Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: New
Revised Standard Version, Revised English Bible, New American Bible, New Jerusalem Bible. Oxford University
Press, 1993.

REUBEN, SWANSON. The Horizontal Line Synopsis of the Gospels. William Carey Library, 2013.
Schnelle, Udo. Apostle Paul: His Life and Theology. Translated by M. Boring. Baker Academic, 2012.
Senior, Donald, John Collins, and Mary Ann Getty. The Catholic Study Bible. Edited by Donald Senior, John

Collins and Mary Ann Getty New York: Oxford University Press, 2016. Study Bible.

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